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ooTHunmr raarnite •moa 1 X — 8626 


/ — f ry 9 , o- 

— o- 


McGraw Publishing Company, 
239 West 39th Street, 
New York. 




ff« — 


Acceleration of standajJ cars in New York, 

Tests, 1 501 
Accident claim department: 

Disposition of claim? [Nickel], 1035 

Index Bureau, Benefits of [Carpenter], 

' 704 

— — Index bureaus, Success of, 956 

Organization of, including school of in- 
struction [Ryan], 1038 

Records of Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 

Eastern Traction Co., 15 12 

—Relationship of, to the accounting depart- 
ment [Carpenter], 1206 

——Uniformity in records and accounts [Rey- 
nolds], 1032 

Accident claims: 

Arbitration proposed, Mass., 460 

Cleveland contract, 434 

Interviewing witnesses [Johnson], 631 

Introduction of rules in, 1485 

■ New York, 716, 914 

Philadelphia', 318 


Berlin elevated railway, '923 

Canadian railways, 1907, 26 

Chicago, 634 

Cost of, to Third Avenue R. R., New 
York, 146 1 

Indiana, 413, 1534 

Michigan, 1433 

Nashville, 1668 

New York City, 412, 1265, 1564, 1668 

Pennsylvania, 1228, 15S1 

Vienna, 589 

Accountant and engineer, Relation between 

[Simmons], 1208 
Accountants' Association : 

Committee reports, 1158, 1210 

Convention sessions, 1053, 1124, 1221 

Papers, iooi, 1151, 1 1 57, 1205, 1206, 

1208, 12 10 

President Wallis's address, 1073 

—Standad classification of accounts and 

form of report, 1158 

Accountants' Association, Standard classi- 
fication of accounts and form of re- 
port, 1 1 58 

Central Electric Traffic Association mile- 
age and interline freight and ticket 
accounts, 1454 

Chicago Railways, *695; Comment, 689 

Claim accounts, Classification of, 1207 

Depreciation : 

Discussion at hearing before New 
York Public Service Commission. 
43.9 . ■• „ 

Electric and street railways accounts, 

New York State, 1373 
Order of New York Public Service 

Commission, 1373 
Steam railway accounting, American 

Railway Association, 748 
Testing in Milwaukee case, 396 

Electrification of a steam railway. Effect 

of, on accounting methods [Bierck], 

Fire protection blanks. New York, 477 

Graphical records in railway work, Use 

of, 372 

— — Graphics as applied to car maintenance 
[Arthur], *3o 

Holding company methods [Young], 11 57 

Illinois Traction Co., Freight traffic, 28 

Improvements in New York subway con- 
sidered, 372 

Interline, of interurban railways [Forse], 

j 151; Discussion, 11 24 
Interstate Commerce classification: 

Accountants' Association, Action of, 


Attitude of State commission? 86 J 
[Yapp], C124; [Cranton], ci6o; 
[Calvert], ci6o; 1467, 1511 

Comparison of classifications for elec- 
tric and steam railway; and the 
Ohio Electric Railway [Glover], 

„ 1378 

Hearing or. depreciation of equipment 
account's, 236; Comment, 193 

Indiana Commission's reply to Circular 
No. 20, 319 

National Association of Railway Com- 
missioners, Action of, 951; Com 
merit, 946 

Steam roads, Changes in classifica- 
tion, 348 

Text of, for electric roads, 1222 1 ,' 
Comment, 1173 

Maintenance, Cleveland contract, 434 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., 


\\ —i HD 

Accountiue: (Continued.) 

New York Public Service Commission : 

Discussion of classification invited 

[Meyer ], C316 
Hearings on proposed uniform sys- 
tem, 383, 439; Comment, 369 
Informal conference, 552 
Standard classification, 1373, 1567 
Tentative classification. 349, 176 

Ohio Railroad Commission conference, 


Organization of accounting department 

[Patterson], 1065; Discussion, 1054 

Relationship of claim department to ac- 
counting department [Carpenter], 
1 206 

Repair shop, Boston Elevated Ry., "313 

Reserve, Testing in Milwaukee case, 396 

Seat factor and load factor tecognized aa 

units [Beugler], 280 
Uniformity in claim department accounts 

[Reynolds], 1032 
Accumulators. (See Storage batteries) 
Acetylene light [Milburn], '1114 

Boston & Northern Ry., "661, "749 

Excursion traffic, Aurora. Elgin & Chicago 

R. R., 1448 

Rates in cars, Minneapolis. 668 

Report of Committee, 1133 

(See also Publicity department) 

Aeroplanes at amusement parks, Possibilities, 
459 • . 

Agents, Purchasing, as members c r the Engi- 
neering Association, 1407 

(See also Station agents) 

Air brakes. (See Brakes, Air) 

Air compressors: 

Inspection of. Report on, 1024 

Study of. by New York Interborough 

Rapid Transit Ry., 272 
Akron, Ohio: 

Car of Northern Ohio Traction Co., '286 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 605 

Alabama Light & Traction Association, 1521 
Albany, N. Y. : 

Fares, United Traction Co., 1264 

Freight rates, 57 

■ — —Permits for musical instruments, 317 

Albia (la.) Interurban Ry , 410 

Allis-Chalmers Co.. Railway orders, 763 

Alternators. (See Generators) 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Atlantic City meeting, 209 

Catalog of Wheeler gift. 912 

Papers at convention, 209, 1598 

American Light & Traction Co.; 32=; 

American Railway Association, Memo r andum 
on depreciation, 748 

American _ Railway Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation. Committee report, 211 

American _ Street & Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation : 

Atlantic City selected for convention, *IS6 

Committee reports, 1076, 1127, 1135, 1 5 18 

Continuing benefits of the convention, 1309 

Convention arrangements of the future, 


Convention headquarters, instructions and 

program, 402, 674, 728, 917 

Convention sessions. 991, 1126 

Conventionalities, 947, 983, 1051, tiro. 

— — Education committee, 591 

Exhibit notes, 966. 1041, 1112, 1160 

Exhibitors. List of, 673 

Exhibits, List of, 973 

Exhibits, Prelim-nary notices concerning, 

„r t ? 77 - * 448 - * 6?2 > 72 ?< 73* 
Membership advantages, 1273 

Membership, Associate, 1425. 1589 

Officers elected, 11 27 

President Goodrich's address, 1498; Com- 
ment, 1482 

Report of Secretary and Treasurer, 991 

Sub-committee on exhibits, 1037 

Standard location for overhead conductors. 


American Street & Interuri an Railway Ac- 
countants' Association. (See Ac- 
countants' Association) 

American Street & Interurban Railway Claim 
Agents' Association. (See Claim 
Agents' Association) 

American Street & Interurban Railway Engi 
neering Association: 

Committee reports, tot3, 1088, 1090, 1097, 

1104, 1174, It86, 1189, 1197 

Convention sessions, 993, 1056, 1213 

Data sheets on power generation, 282 

Papers at convention, 1093, "90, 1194, 

1 196 

President Simmon;' address, 999 

Purchasing agents as possible members. 


Question box, List of questions. 352, *:i9f? 

American Street & Interurban Railway Engi- 
neering Association: (Continued.) 
— --Standardization committee meeting at Niag- 
ara Falls, 234 

Way committee meeting, 398 

Work for 1909, 14 15 

American Street & Interurban Railway Manu- 
facturer's Association (See Manu- 
facturers' Association) 

American Street & Interurban Railway Trans- 
portation & Traffic Association. (See 
Transportation & Traffic Association) 

Anderson, Ind.: 

Car houses, *5r>9, *?79 

Indiana Union Traction Co., Financial, 25c 

Locomotive, Electric freight, '637, 747 

Repair shops, '387 

Through traffic arrangement with steam 

road, *28i 

Annapolis Short Line, Main features [White- 
head], 209, *238 

Anthony, W. A., Obituary, 58 

Appraisals of electric railway property [jack- 
son], 1283 

New York surface systems, 111 

Apprentice system: 

Master Mechanics' Association, Report, 


New York Central system, 1078 

Railway Association, Discussion, 1052 

Rochester, N. Y., 1081 

Steam railroad shops, Report on, *2ii; 

Comment, -93 

Trustees' Gas Educational Fund, 1080 

(See also Education) 

Arkansas Association of Public Utility Oper- 

Convention, "750 

Organization, 388 

Armature repairs and tests, Report on, 1016 
Armature shafts, Screw press for straighten- 
ing, "1030 
Armature stand (A. G. E. Co.), *i57i 
Armature truck (Device), "1427 1 
Armature wagons, '1031 
Arnold, B. W,, 490 
Ash conveyor, Suction [Darley], '1525 
Ash handling by trolley in Philadelphia, *ii7 
Ashes, Burning, in New York school buildings, 

Asheville (N. C.) Rapid Transit Co., 1627 
Ashland (Wis.) Light, Power & Street Ry., 

Atlanta, Ga. : 

Car building, 181 

Power plant. Details of, '427 

Atlantic City & Suburban Traction Co., 935, 
1431, 1627 

Augusta, Ga., Water distribution by railway, 
*I244 , 

Aurora, DeKalb & Rockford Electric Traction 

Co., 293, 605, 1431, 1666 
Aurora. Elgin & Chicago Ry.: 

Earnings, 1665 

Gas burner for heating tires, *9i 

Novel excursion arrangements, 1447; 

Comment, 1441 

Repair shops, '883 

Autobusses : 

Cost of, Berlin, 1322 

Europe, Statistics, 694, 1322 

London conditions, 65 

Vienna traffic, 5 89 


Life of, 1203 

Life of, in Europe, 710 

Tests, Form for record of, New York, 



Babbitt formula, 1022 
Babbitt mixtures, 1203 

■ (See also Bearings) 

Babylon (N. Y.) R. R., 143 1 

Ballston Spa, N. Y., Eastern New York 

R. R. Co., 250 
Baltixnoie, Car houses, '732, *868 
Baltimore, Halethorpe & Elkridge Ry., 605 
Banding machine (Device), *I345 
Banghart, C. S., 930 

Bavarian State Rys., Electrification projects, 

Power estimates, 484, 1318 

Ball bearings. Report's in Europe, 1321 

Composition formulas, 426 

Compositions and costs of various anti- 
friction metals [Julius], 676 

Failure., in New York City; 209 

Lubrication [Julius]. 676 

Lubrication of, in Europe, 710 

Manufacture, Chicago City Ry., '264 

Bell signal system (Consolidated), N048 
Berlin, Germany: 

Accident on elevated railway, *933 

Cars, *5S5 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XXXII 

Berlin, Germany: (Continued.) 
— — Subway station portals, *742 
Bicknell. Warren, 1435 
Billing light meters, 1055 
Birmingham, Ala. : 

Benefit association, 811 

Freight train, "826 

—Overhead construction and maintenance, 


Tidewater Development Co., 52 

— —Track construction, '846 

Y. M. C. A. work, '803 

Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Co., 1666 
Birmingham (England) & Midland Ky., Finan- 
cial report, 159 
Blanks and forms: 

——Application, of various companies, 7S5 

Application, Report on, Transportation and 

Traffic Association, 1007 

Claim department. Terre Haute, Indianap- 
olis & Eastern Traction Co., 1512 

Freignt and express, S073 

Interline accounting, n<i 

— — Report of committee, Accountants' Asso- 
ciation, 1210 

Train order, Evansville, Ind. [Carson], 


Biock signal system: 

Boston & Worcester [O' Bryan], *93o 

Chicago West Side Elevated, *i6i4 

— ■ — Lebanon, Pa., *5 » 7 

Blue print frame, Boston, *593 

Boiler feed pumps, Centralizing, 29 

Bonds, Ohmic losses in, 707 


-Apprentice practice, 1052 

Benefit Association, 814 

Blue print frame, 593 

Car defect record system, "313 

East Boston tunnel service, 101 

Elevated, 644, 1431, 1475, 1618, 1627 

Flush transfer table, *<J07 

Forest Hills extension, '424 

Mail traffic, 1001 

Overhead construction and maintenance, 

, * 8 53 

Physical examination charts, 791 

-Rail sleel, Life of [Steward], *ng6; Dis- 
cussion, 1217 

Report of Elevated Ry., 143 1 

Signal, Audible, for acceleration, 1059 

Statistics of Elevated, 1618 

Steam railroad competition by urban com- 
panies, 421 

Stops, Reduction of, 1667 

Subway, Washington Street, "1444, 1519 

Ties, Steel, on surface tracks, 1286 

Track construction, *845 

Track on park streets, *gn 

West End Street Ry., 1532 

Soslon & Northern and Old Colony street rail- 
ways, 719, 1226, 1431 

Automatic time table, *76o 

Bond issue, 185 

High-tension cable experience, 1552 

Traffic promotion, *66o, *749 

Turbine tests at Quincy Point power sta- 
tion, 512 

Boston Suburban Electric Companies, 185, 605 

Fare increase. (See Massachusetts, Higher 


Boston & Worcester Electric Companies, 1666 
Boston & Worcester Street Ry., 250 

Block signals, Automatic, *93o, 1293 

Car house at Framingharn, *8?8 

Employment of trainmen, 785 

High-tension cables, Experience with, 1552 

Overhead construction, '863 

Roof entrance for high-ten'-ion wires, '924 

Brake rigging : 

Denver, "588 

Maximum traction brake, '504 

Brake shoe testing machine (A. 3. S. & F. 

Co.), '179 
Biake shoes: 

Buying on a mileage basis, Chicago West 

Side Elevated, 1516, 1544; [Davis], 

Costs, New York City, 503 

Leverage for, 1466 

Standardization and wear, in Brooklyn, 

•1251; Comment, 1235; [Prather], 

Studies and changes, New York Inter- 
borough Co.. *5oo 

Tests, M. C. B. report, 164 


Failures in New York City, 269 

Reports at! Munich Internationa! Associa- 
tion, 131 8 
— ■ — Slack adjuster (American), y70 

Statistics on types used in Europe, 931, 

Brakes, Air: 

(Allis-Chalmers), "1045, *n6s 

— — (G. E.). straight emergency, 1004 

Inspection of, 1028 

Brakes, Hand, Maintenance of, 1247 
Brakes, Track, Pringle emergency, *8 

■ N ew York subway [Stillwell], 6 
—Transfer of weight used in [McAloney], 

Bridge for circuit breakers, Single-phase, "391 
Bridge guard for high-tension trolley, "199 

Boyertown & Pottstowrt Ry., '1238 

— —Folding, Trenton, N. J., *i6i3 

Lift, Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., 

•19, *20 

Fares, 10a, 

and wear, 


Bridges: (Continued.) 

Reconstruction, Columbus & Lake Michi- 
gan Ry. [Luten], '746 
Bridges for catenary construction: 
Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern R. R., 


(See also Catenary construction) 

Brill, J. G., Co., Prizes for essays on car 

construction, 921, II 17 
Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry., 

187, 1666 
Brooklyn : 

. Benefit Association, 813 

Brake shoe standardization 

"1251 ; Comment, 123s; 


Car house, *875 

Club rooms of employees, '805 

Conductor, Dishonest, sentenced, 1397 

Earnings and operating costs for 1907, 120 

Emergency wagon, Gasoline, *gi 

Express service to beaches. 485 

Flushing fare hearing, 186, 1628 

Line and track department buildings, 

"1486, *IS92, "1640 

Newspapers, Accident news for, 1581 

Oil press, Pneumatic, "1377 

Rapid Transit Co., 358; Annual report, 


Repair shops, *88o 

Shop gardens of B. R. T., "628 

Transfer system, *84; Testimony of Mr. 

Winter, 1334 

Transfers, Plant for printing, ;i6 

Brooklyn & Coney Island R. R., Fares, 2, 186, 

4", 454 

Brush-holder lifter, Inspection of, Report on, 


Brush holders, Failures in New York City, 269 
Brushes, Carbon: 

Discussion on, 994 

Report on, 1013 

Buenos Ayres, 12,000-hp steam turbine, *86 
Buffalo, N. Y.: 

Ties, Reinforced concrete, *23s 

— —Track construction, '847 

Buffalo Si Lake Erie Traction Co., 935 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., Construc- 
tion and equipment, *i8 

Building and loan association composed of 
Philadelphia employees, 15s 

Buildings, Line and track department, Brook- 
lyn, "1486, '1640 


Anti-climber casting, Value of, illustrated 

by collision, "1523; 
New York subway, Discussion by Doyle, 


Standard height of, 11 07 

Butler, Pa., Combination cars, 133 
Butters, H. A., 1303 

Cable puller, Electric, New Orleans, *2S 
Cable railways. Passing of, 369 
Cable specifications, 1414 
Cables. (See Feeder cables) 
Cain, J. H., 414 

Camden & Trenton Ry., 605, 1263, 1431, 1475, 

Canada, Accidents for 1907, 26 
Car cleaning: 

Life of paint, 459 

Norwich & Westerly Ry., 541 

Car construction: 

Atlanta, Ga., Few cars, 181 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., *286 

Record time, Niles Car Works, "180 

Car design: 

Ash handling car, *n& 

Chico, Cal., *736 

Hints, 181 

New York City, Metropolitan Co., 1500; 

Comment, 1483 

Pay-as-you-enter cars: 

Chicago Rys., "1329 

Third Avenue, New York, '1413 

Pay-on-platform car, * 1623 

Prize offer cf J. G. Brill Co., 921, 11 17 

Rebuilding cars for pay-as-you-enfer ser- 
vice, Newark, N. J., "903 
Relation between weights and seating ca- 
pacity, Data concerning [Ayres], 393, 
•667; [Woeber Carriage Co.] [Clapp], 
eg 1 2 

Semi-convertible cars [Parker], 1504; 

[Heulings], 1543, 1567 
— ■ — Side entrance, Melbourne, *753 

Car floors: 

Abrasive (A. M. S. T. Co.), 970 

Karbolith, St. Louis, 600 

Car heating and ventilating experiments in 
Chicago, 1520 

Car house wiring, Report, Engineering Asso- 
ciation, 1197; Discussion, 1213 

Car houses: 

Baltimore, Reinforced concrete, "732 

Chicago, Cottage Grove Avenue, *ii2, 

*905; Comment, 110 

Chicago Railways, "537 

Design of, in various cities, *866 

Design of operating and storage, Report, 

Engineering Association, *IE74; Com- 
ment. 1170; Discussion, 1213 
—German reinforced concrete, Nuremberg 
[Herzog 1 "389 

Milton, Mass., Fire protection, '1314 

Organization of force, 1025 

v Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Car houses: (Continued^ 

Pit construction. (See Pit construction) 

Rochester, N. Y.. '23 

—1 — Rules for packing and lubricating, 1022 
Seattle, Wash., Concrete, '1274 

Tipton, lnd., '509 

Waterloo, la., 344 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R., '74, 77 

Car index board, St. Louis. '675 

Car inspection and maintaining records. (See 
Accounting, Repai. shop) 

Car interchange, Charges for. Report, Central 
Electric Railway Association, 1449; 
[Nicholl], C1621; 1638 

Car maintenance. (See Maintenance of roll- 
ing stock) 

Car mileage system and maximum wear of, 

equipment, 6si 
Car replacers [Sargent], '1344 
Cai -seat factor and car-load factor in trans- 

^* :iion [Beugler], 280 

Car specifications. New York, '504 

Car steps, Proper heigh*, Report on, 225, 

1056, 1 106, 1405 
Car weight, Influence on power consumption 
[Ayres], 393; Comment, 460, 667; 
[Clapp] Woeber], C912 
Car wiring, 1412 

Circuit, on surface cars, 343 [Shipper], 

Report on, Engineering Association, 1197; 

Discussion, 1213 
Cars, Ash-bandling, Philadelphia, '117 

Cars, Closed: 

— Berlin, Germany, *5S5 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., Three 

compartments, *2i, 22 

Lexington, Ky., "922 

Midland Ry., England, "204 

Milwaukee Northern Ry., *i8o 

New Orleans, Single truck, '1570 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., *286 

San Francisco, Cal., '580, *s8i 

Texas Traction Co., '381 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R., '77 

Cars, Combination: 

Annapolis Short Line, "239 

Butler, Pa., 133 

Chico, Cal., *735 

Joplin, Mo., *7i2 

New Canaan branch of N. Y., N. H. & 

H. R. R., *po 

San Francisco, 57s 

Cars, Decorated, Croydon, England, '593 

Cars, Double-deck, Trolley pole earthing de- 
vice, *4<> 

Cars, Express, *825 

Cars, Live stock, Fargo, N. D., *536 

Cars, Milk, Philadelphia, *I27 

Cars, Pay-as-you-enter: 

Chicago Rys., 1302, 1310, "1326 

Cleveland, "1259 

Columbus, 1227, *i$72 

Earnings possible with [Henshaw], C1522 

Efficiency of, Chicago, 194 

Extent of use, 41 

Montreal, with side entrance, '215 
New York City, Metropolitan Co., *I500; 

Comment, 1483 

New York City, Receivers' report, 913 

New York City, Third Avenue. *i4ti 

Newark, N. J., Rebuilt cars, *go3 

Observations by the mechanical man 

[Evans], 222 
Observations from an operative standpoint 

[Coons], 223 
— — Pittsburg, 1433 

St. Louis, Rebuilding single-end tar«, 

*5i5. *9« „ 

Stealing on. in Newark, 497 

Success of design, 690 

Year's growth of plan, 1521 

Car, Pay-on-platform, 1622 

Cars, Pay-within, Philadelphia, '698; Com- 
ment, 690; *iii6 

Cars, Semi-convertible: 

Costs, in operation, compared with open 

cars [Parker], 1504; [Heulings], 1543. 

Gary, 111., '89 

Cars, Side-door: 

Monterey, Mexico, "38 

Montreal, "215 

New Zealand, *7f>6 

Cars, Sprinkling. (See Sprinkling cars) 

Cars, Steel: 

European, 162 

-List of roads using, 162 

M. C. B. report, 101 

Cars, Storage battery, Prussia, 998, "1510 

Cars, Testing. (See Testing car) 

Cars, Work. (See Work cars) 

Cars and mileage of electric railways m the 
United States. 546 

Caracas (Venezuela), Electric Tramway, "1242 

Catenary construction: 

— — Annapolis Short Line, '238 

Bridges, Syracuse, Lake Shore & North- 
ern R. R., *666 

Denver & Interurban R. R., with chart of 

sag [Lyford], *595; Discussion, I Ml 

Germany, Stilt arrangement of insulator 

abandoned, *I7 

Line material [ Johns-Man ville], '926 

—Midland Railway, England, *i«/8 

N. y„ N. H. & H. R. R., 859; [Murray], 

1598 . . . o 

Report, Engineering Association, 1089, 


June— December, 1908.] 3 



Catenary construction: (Continued.) 

St. Clair tunnel electrification, '1367 

Suspension clip for New Haven catenary, 

*9 J 4 ^ 
Tests by Penn. R. R. on Long Island 

experimental line, "1546 
—Theory [Allen], 1090 
(See also (nsulators) 

Central Electric Accounting Conference, 919, 

'453 „ ., 
Central Electric Railway Association, 594 
Announcement, 711 

— — Charges for handling foreign equipment, 
1449; [Nicholl], C1621; 1638 

( Meetings, 749, 919, 1449 

Papers, 704, 705, 706, 708, 1419, 1421 

Central Electric Traffic Association: 

Announcement', 711 

Meetings, 919, 1453 

—Mileage accounting, 1454 

Mileage ticket, Interchangeable, 335, C437, 

'640. 651; [Whitacre], C912; 919 

Charleston. S. C, Summerville & Charleston 
Electric Icy., 294 

Chartered cars, f^ee Special cars) 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Car bouse, *87t> 

Chester, Pa., Strike, 97, 260, 281, 290, 421 


Accidents, 569, 634 

—Calumet Co. (See Chicago City Ry.) 

Car heating and ventilating experiments, 


Electrification of steam road terminals 

proposed, 68q, 896, 1290, 1312 

Elevated loop, Report by C. K. Mohler, 


Elevated railway situation, 58, 292, 321 

Fare controversy on elevar'ed roads, 261 

Harris Trust & Savings Bank, 137 

Fay-^s-you-entcr cars, 194, 1302 

Rates for power contracts, 109 

Report of Traction Board, 1285 

Through routes on elevated, 182, 183 

Track construction, "847 

< Transfer system, "17 

Transfer ticket, New, "436 

Chicago City Ry. : 

■ Air-sandcr valve, "1623 

Car house, Cottage Grove Avenue, *II2, 

"871, *90V, Comment, 110 

— —Earnings, 634 

Insurance methods, 516 

Locomotive, Electric switching, '1408 

Operating agreement with Calumet & 

South Chicago Ry., 214 

Power contract with Commonwealth Edi- 
son Co., 1291 

Reconstruction work, Report or. progress, 

634, 1258 

Right of way regulations, 775 

Sand drier plant, *i 561 

School of instruction, "310, 794 

Sprinkling cars. All-steel, *43i 

Substation, '462 

Tools at repair shops, '262 

Chicago Consolidated Traction Co., Financial, 
137. 250, 410, 1431, 147s 

Chicago, Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry., 

Brake shoe methods and costs, 1516, 1544 

Increasing traffic and efficiency, 1533 

Safety devices, "1614 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R., 324, 360, 

I39 6 . I53 2 , 1627 

Report of bondholders' committee, 1350 

Sprinkler systems, Prevention of freezing, 


Three-car trains, *745 

Chicago Northwestern Elevated R. R., 1432 

Air cylinders for raising car bodies, 159 

Annual report, 774 

Drag-pit method of assembling wheels, 

axles and gears, '213 ; Comment, 194; 
[Bacon], C317; [Osmer], c 398 

Terminal station, 356, *s 1 1 

Chicago, Oak Park Elevated, Inspection metn- 
ods, 322 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry., 774 
Chicago Railways Co., 453, 1532 
■^—Accounting system, *6g5; Comment, 689 

Cars, Pay-as-ycu-enter, 13:0, *I326 

Rehabilitation, 356, 1455 

Repair shops, *537 

Report for five months, 644 

Track_ construction, *42 

Warning printed 6n transfers, 922 

Chico, Cal.: 

Combination cars [Edwards], '735 

Concrete substation for Northern Electric 

Ry. [Edwards], "1249 

Repair shops, "892 

Chimney at Ampere, N. J., 1293 
Chubbuck, H. E., "1229 
Church, A. H., 1303 
Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Forms used in handling freight and ex- 
press business on interurban lines 
[Glover], '584 

Staff system, 1572 

Circuit breakers: 

Car equipment, Discussion, 1202 

New Haven R. R. [Murray], 1508 

Solenoid-operated (G. E.), # iO40 

Claim Agents' Association: 

Convention sessions, 990, 1 103 

Papers, '"32, 1035 

• President Goshorn's address, 955 

Question Box, 1389 

Clark, C. H., 608 


Car, Pay-as-you-enter, 184, '1259 

Crowded car at East Cleveland, *599 

Financial, 185 

Grab bucket [Brown], *449 

—^—Guarantee of Municipal Traction Co., 
Opinion on value of, 1341 

Municipal ownership, Tendency against, 

' ! 4°5 

Operation of system by the Municipal 

Traction Co., 340, 400, 433, 471. 506, 
547, 560 , . 

Receivers appointed for Municipal Trac- 
tion Company. Decision of the 
Court, 1340. 1343, I4'6, 1443 

Rejection of franchise, 1287; Comment, 

1 27 1 

Settlement of difficulties discussed by_E. 

W. Bemis in Journal of Economics, 


Situation, 52, 96, 134, 183, 24'!, 291, 322, 

356, 408, 451, 485, 602, 641, 678, 715, 
772, 932. 1225, 1260, 1393. 1471, 1517, 
1530, 1 577 t '624, 1662 

Cleveland, PainesviHe & Eastern R. R., 250, 


Analysis records at Minneapolis, 636 

Costs in individual power plants, 335 

Experiments at University of Illinois, 983 

Tests of, for gas producers, by Geological 

Survey, 446 
Coil winding machine (A. G. E. Co.), "1470 
Coin counter and selector [Johnson], *7&2 
Cole, W. W„ 103, V39 
Columbus, Ohio: 

Financial, 487, 719 

Girder rails, 357 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 1227, '157a 

Columbus & Lake Michigan Ry., Bridge recon- 
struction [Lu'.en], *746 
Columbus, Newark & Zanesville Electric Ry., 

293 _ ' , 

Commutator mica, Laws for grooving, "1029 
Commutator slotters, '432, "927 
Commutator truing device [Jordan], "972 

Care of, in substations [Woodbridge], 79 

Repairing [Greer], '235 

Concrete in construction work, Successful use 

of, 302 
Concrete mixers: 
Chicago, *42 

Motor-driven, for track construction, '849 

Conduit system: 

Cost of operation in New York City, 66 

Difficulties in operating, Testimony of 

Mr. Uebelacher, 1278 

New York City, *i(>49 

Conev Island & Brooklyn R. R. (See Brook- 
lyn & Coney Island R. R.) 
Conneaut & Erie Traction Co., 1396 
Connecticut Co., Chastisement of conductor, 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry., Fares, 54, 1668 

Chicago City Ry. and Calumet & South 

Chicago Ry., 214 
Cleveland Railway lease to Municipal 

Traction Co., 433 
Express company, 829 

Power contract, Chicago, with Edison Co., 


Control equipment, Report on, 1015 

[Cooper], 1109 

"Dead man's" handle, *i5io 

Dotible, Pittsburg Railways Co.. '37 

.GE 3-8, Removal of braking feature [Os- 

terman], *26 
Locarno, Switzerland, single-phase line, 


Sprague-General Electric automatic [Case], 

1003; Discussion, 1055 
Converters in substations [Woodbridge], 79 

Heights, Standard, for interurban and 

city lines, 234 
(McConway and Torley), for interurban 

railways, "178 

Radial, Chico, Cal. [Edwards], *737 

Standard, 1104 

(Washburn), *7ii 


Car-house, Kansas City, Mo., '738 

Electric traveling, car maintenance, Chi- 
cago City Ry., *905 

Crawford, N. McD., 1582 

Crocker- VVhceler Co.'s boiler stack, 1293 

Cross-arm preservation. 616 

Crossings. (See Grade crossings; Track con- 

Croydon, England, Decorated cars, '593 
Curtain fixtures, Ring (C. S. Co.), 970 
Curtains on front end of suburban cars. Dis- 
cussion, 231 
Curve for City track, A simple spiral, *342 

Danbury & Harlem Traction Co., 324, 1627 
Davenport, la., Tri-City Railway & Light Co., 

360. "467 
Dayton (Ohio) City Ry., 774 
Dayton, Ohio. People's Ry., 185 
Delaware & Hudson Co., 324, 360, 1660 


Financial notes, 410, 453, 605 

Oveiliead construction and maintenance, 


Track construction, "848 

Denver & Interurban Ry.: 

Catenary construction, '595 

Trucks, Motor and trailer, "759 

Depreciation. (See Accounting) 
Detroit, Mich.: 

Overhead construction and maintenance, 


Substation, Portable, Utility of, 727 

Switch stand, Safety, '447 

Technical library, 1406 

Track construction, 343, 851 

Detroit, Flint & Saginaw R. R., 250 
Dictionary of Electric Railway Material, 985, 

Dispatching systems: 

(Dispatching Signal Co.), '928 

Methods of various roads, 817 

Signal and dispatching system (Simmen), 


Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry., 


District of Columbia, Railroad Commission, 

325, 361 

Draft, Natural and mechanical [Booth], 36 

Drag-fit method of assembling wheels, axles 
and gears, Chicago, 213; Comment, 
194; [Bacon], C317; [Osmer], C398 

Drawbar swing on curves, Formulas for find- 
ing, 1440 

Drill, Track (Groff), "1528 

Drum. A. L., '49; 

Du Pont, A. B., Career of, 508 

Easton (Pa.) Consolidated Electric Co., 410 
Easton (Pa.) Transit Co., Register cards in 
cars, 48 

Education, Report on, Railway Association, 
1076; Comment, J 050; Discussion, 

(See also Apprentice system) 

Electric Railway Journal: 

A consolidation. 1 

Convention Daily, 1118 

— — Historical notes. *ia 

October publications, 1271 

Electric Railway Review, History of, '14 
Electric Trunk line Age, 943; [De Muralt], 

Elevated railways. Reduction of noise, in 

Chicago, *i377 
Elkhart, Ind., St. Joseph Valley Traction Co., 


Elyna. Ohio, Repair shops. *8g3 
Emergency repair wagons: 

Boston, *8.55 

Brooklyn, oasoline, *9i 

Los Angeles. Ca!.. Auto wagon, ^855 

Louisville, Ky., "857 

(See also Tower wagons). 

Emergency service, Brooklyn, "1597 

Application form for employment, Cincin- 
nati, 987 

Apprentices. (See Apprentice system) 

Benefit associations, 121, 799 

— —Bulletins: 

Courtesy, Minneapolis, 449 

Right living, Oakland, 466 
Club rooms: 

Chic^fo car bouse, no, *n2 

Portland, Ore., "583 

Typical, *799 

Brown system, 795 

Report on, 1135 
Educational work, Report on, Railway 

Association, 1076; Comment, 1050; 

Discussion, 1052 

Emergency crew building. Brooklyn. "1597 

Employment of trainmen, Comparison of 

practice, 784 
Engagement by contract, Remarks of Mr. 

Belmont, 1589 

Fidelity bonds, 795 

Instruction : 

Claim department's work, 950: 
[Ryan], 1038 

Discussion by Transportation and 
Traffic Association, 9S6 

Practice of various roads. 792 
Merit" system lor disciplining trainmen, 

Rochester, N. Y., 153 

Various systems. 79 s 
Motormen and conductor^, Address to 

[Davis], 675 

Pension schemes, 799 

Pensions in England. 098 

Rules as evidence in accident cases, 1485 

School for trainmen, Chicago City Ry., 


Substation. (See Substations, Instruc- 

Training transportation employees, Report 

on [Brown], 1006 

Wages, Cleveland. 506 

Warsaw, Russia, Wages in, 39 

Welfare of, Report on, Railway Associa- 
tion, 1 1 35: Discussion, 1126 

-(See also Rules) 

Engineer and accountant Relation between 
[Simmons], 1208 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vor.. XXXII 


Binary vapor [Booth], 582 

Diesel, in Caracas, 1244 

Economy tests of vertical high-speed 

[Treat], *i3<ji 
5000 kw at Redondo, Cal., power station, 


■ Steam regenerators [Battu], "1457 

(See also Gas engines) 

England, Single-phase electrification of Hey- 
sham-Morecambe-Lancaster line of 
Midland Ry., '198; Comment, 194 

Evansville, Ind., train order blanks, C1286 

Express. (See Freight and express) 

Facing machine, Portable truck side-frame 

[Underwood], "1526 
Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction Co., 560 
Fare boxes: 

(Brill), »n66 

du Pont-Johnson, in Cleveland, 1418 

(Macdonald), 55s 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, Cleveland, '483 

Pay-as-you-enter cars (Coleman), '405 

Fare collection: 

Cash fare cutter and receipt (Slromberg), 

. '244 

Estimates of fares not collected, 1339 

New York Fifth Avenue buses, 100 

Fare registration, General practice, 841 

Chicago elevated roads controversy, 261 

Cleveland, 400. (See also Cleveland) 

Coney Island service, 2, 186, 411, 454 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry., 54 

Excursion rates, 370 
Financial questions, in large cities [Calder- 

wood], C638; [Townley], C336 
■ Higher: 

Black River Traction Co., N. Y., 186 

Boston, 57 

Brockton, Mass., 102, 187 
Mass. (See Massachusetts) 

Low, Editorial on, in Cleveland papers, 


Natick, Mass., 57, too 

Memphis, Tenn., Statistics, 35 

■ Milwaukee reduction case, 395 ; Comment, 

New York. (See New York City) 

Pass situation in New York State, 260 

Philadelphia, 318 

Rochester interurban, Increase on holi- 
days, 85 

Rush hours, Fares in, 1637 

Two cent rate lav;, Pennsylvania decision, 


Various roads, Summary, 834 

Virginia, 412 

Zone system in America, 570 

Discussion by Mr. Ford, 

Mr. Wood, 1257 
Discussion by Mr. Milburn, 
Testimony of Mr. Uebelacher, 
N. D., Live stock car, '536 

1254; by 



Fassett, E. S., 
Feeder cables: 

Drawing cables, Nevv Orleans, '25 

High-tension, Massachusetts experience, 


Insulation, 1060 

Lead sheathed, 1061 

Numbering system, Minneapolis, 694 

Support for [Dossert], *i044 

Feeder systems, Proportioning and mainte- 
nance of direct-current, 67 
Fender (Hudson and Bowring), 761 
Fender tests: 

Los Angeles, Cal., '553 

Pittsburg, Pa., by New York Public Serv- 
ice Commission, 1221, 1348 

Schenectady, N. Y. r by New York Public 

Service Commission, 291, 399, 513, 
*669, *7ii; Comment, 691 

Field coil insulation and tests, Report on, 1017 

Field winding machine, Home-made, "1030 

Financial : 

A. C. and D. C. equipment, Comparison 

of costs, 1566 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R., Earnings, 


Auto buses. Operating exoenses, 1322 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., Earnings and 

operating costs for 1907, 120 

Car interchange. Charges for, 1449 

[Nichotl], C1621 

Cars, Cost of heavy and light, 1277, 1504 

Cleveland railway. 506 

Electrification cost, New Haven and New 

York Central. Discussion by Arm- 
strong, 1603 

Fare division in Chicago, 1285 

Freight and express business [Walsh], 228 

Havana, 32 

Interborough Rapid Transit, New York, 

Iowa earnings, 324 

Massachusetts street railways, 1463; [Rich- 
ards], 1616 

Material costs increased, 1564 

■ Metropolitan Street Ry., New York, dur- 
ing receivership, 913 

Operating expenses of American railways, 


Operation of railways. Cost of, Testimony 

of Mr. Uebelacher, 1277; of Mr. 
Winter, 1335 

Financial: (Continued.) 

Philadelphia report, 318 

Power contract, Chicago, 1291 

Power house, substations and feeders, 

Cost of, Testimony of Mr. Uebelacher, 


Railway service costs, Newton Mass., 1611 

Repair shop. Estimated cost, 221- 

Roiling stock maintenance, Cost of, 1 187 

Suburban systems, Cost of equipment and 

operation. Melbourne, 755 

T-rail construction and costs, 1384 

Fire extinguisher, Chemical f Johns-Manville). 

p- • 283 
rire insurance: 

Chicago City Ry., 516, 634 

— — Cleveland contract, 434 

Fire losses per capita in Europe and United 

States, 2to 
Fire protection: 

Brooklyn department buildings, 1493 

Car house, Rochester, *23 

Fou r th of July preparations, 147 

Rules in New York issued by Metropoli- 
tan Street Railway Co., 177, 915 

Sprinklers in Milton car house of Boston 

Elevated Ry., "1314 

— ; — Sprinklers. Prevention from freezing, 1650 

Firemen, Transportation of [Arkwright], C1570 

Fischer, L. E., 1266 

Fitzgerald & Ocilla Electric Ry., 324 

Flue gas analyzers. Data on experience with, 
1059, "01 

Folds, G. R., *I399 

Fort Wayne, Ind. : 

Benefit Association. 815 

Children's annual free ride, C437 

Overhead construction, 864 

Tie, Reinforced concrete, "1201 

Track construction, '846 

Wholesale dealers visit towns by trolley 

[Hardy], C513 

Fort Wayne & Springfield Ry., Freight busi- 
ness [Kelly], C280 

Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co.: 

Meeting of Maintenance of Way Depart- 
ment, 124 

Standard track signs, '315' 

Framingham, Mass., Middlesex & Boston 
Street Ry., Fares, 57 

France, Electrification of Quest Railway, 1612 


Cleveland, Rejection of, 1287 

Cleveland, Text of, 471 

Limited and perpetual, 302 

Short term, August Belmont on, 53 

Frankfort, Germany, municipal v ramways, An- 
nual report, 7519 
Freight and express: 

Blanks and forms used on various electric 

roads [Collins], 226 
Comparison of practice on various roads, 

Contracts with express companies, 829 

Cost of operation [Walsh], 228 

Express service at freight' rates, Sche- 
nectady Railway, 110 

Forms used on interurban lines, Cincin- 
nati [Glover], '584 

Fori Wayne & Springfield Ry., Damage 

claims [Kelly], C280 

— —Framingham, Mass., Rights asked for, 181 

Haulage on city lines at night, 302 

— — Illinois Traction Co., 27, 1362 

Management, Illinois Traction Co. [Ste- 
phens], ci6o 

New York State, Earnings of nine com- 
panies, 278 

Profitable operation of express service, 


— — Progress, mistakes and remedies [Wood], 

1069; Discussion, 1062 
Report of committee, Transportation and 

Traffic Association, 1095 
Ruling on express companies, New York, 


Springfield, Mass. [Page], 01522 

Freight rates: 

Albany, N. Y., 57 

Comparison of, in cents per ton-mile 

[Eastman], 226 

Illinois, 824 

New York, 824 

Seattle, 523 

Freight stations: 

Los Angeles, Cal., "827 

Toledo, Ohio, *8.i 

Fuel. (See Coal; Oil) 

Furnaces, Natural and mechanical draft 
[Booth], 36 

Furnaces, Oil burning, Redondo, Cal.. '623 

Furnaces, Portable, for track work (Rock- 
well), *5i7 

Fuse box, Magnetic (Westinghouse) , '1470 

Gairesville, Whitesboro & Sherman Ry., 325 
Gale.ia Signal Oil Co., Contracts, 95 
Gary, Ind. : 
Cars, •So 

E.ectrical equipment of Indiana Steel Co., 


Gas buners for heating tires: 

Christchurcli, New Zealand [Symington], 


Wheiton, 111., «9i 

Gas engines: 

Battleship, Engines on, 147 

(Buckeye), '763 

Manufacturers' problems, 334 

Midland Ry., '202 

Olean, N. Y., power plant, '304 

(Snow), '304 

— — Tests at Richmond, Va., 210 
Gasoline motor cars, Waterloo, la.. 
Gear cases: 


-All-steel (Columbia), *oz 
-Sheet-steel (E. S. S. " 




Forged-steel rim on cast-steel center (G. 

E.), '483 

Life of gears and pinions. Report on. 710 

Lubrication [Julius], 676* 1021 

New York subway, Report on, 269, 27a, 

_ . 1S57 . 

Philadelphia Statistics, 127 

Specifications, Report on, roi8 

Spur gearing on heavy motors [Litch- 
field], 1557 

General Electric Co., Sales of commutating 

pole motors, 320 
General Managers' Association of MacAfee 

properties, 388 


Maizeres, France, 2000-volt, 17, C437 

Manchester, England, 6000-kw turbo-al- 
ternator, '241 

Niagara Falls,, 210 

Single-phase, New Haven R. R. [Murray], 


Georgia, Municipal taxation, Interstate busi- 
ness, a defence against, 729 

Georgia Railway & Electric Co., Annual re- 
port, 99 

Transportation of policemen and firemen 

[Arkwright], C1570 


Catenary construction. Stilt arrangement 

of insulator abandoned, *i7 

Development of interurban railways, 1317 

Electrification plans of Prussian State 

Rys., 16, 998, *isio 

Locomotive, Single-phase, Prussia State 

Rys., 1 1 

Trackless trolleys, 996 

Girardville, Pa., Report of Schuylkill Ry., 


Glasgow, Scotland, Annual report of tram- 
ways, 277 

Gong, Pneumatic (E. S. S. Co.), ^1292 
Grab bucket (Brown), "449 

Grade crossings: 

Car equipment, 232 , 

Double signs in Indiana, '447 

— —Minneapolis signal, '665 

Signs, Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley 

Ry-. 315 

Grand Rapids club house, *8o8 

Grand Rapids Electric Ry., 487 

Grand Trunk Ry., Electrification, 1361, V364 

Graphical records in railway work. Use of, 

. . 372 

Graphics as applied to car maintenance [Ar- 
thur], *30 

Grease, Specifications for, 1204 

Great Britain, Third-rail accidents in 1907, 

Great Northern Ry., Three-puase locomotive,. 

Grid resistances, 1656 

Grinder. Four-disk (Diamond). *?6o 

Hammond, John Hays, Candidacy of [Still- 
well], 124; Comment 109 
Hampton Roads Traction Co., 412, 454 


Flat spring, for single catenary, '1548 

Minneapolis, '857 

Reinforced (Western Electric), *I525 

Sway hanger for secondary catenary, 


Hartford, Conn., Track construction, *666 
Hartford & Springfield Street Ry., 1396 
Havana, Earnings for 1907, 32 
Haverhill & Southern New Hampshire Street 

Ry-, IS33 

Arc and incandescent (Trolley Supply 

Co.), *49 

Incandescent (Crouse-Hinds), '1427 

Luminous arc, 1005 

Heat accumulation in steam engineering- 
[Battu], 1457 

Heavy electric traction: 
Bavarian plans, 13 18 

Heysham-Morecambe-Lancaster line of' 

Midland Ry., England, '198; Com- 
ment, 194 

Melbourne, 659, 697, '731 

Schedule speed on various electric lines, 


Three-phase or single-phase for [De Mu- 

ralt]j CI469 

Traffic increase with electrification of 

steam roads, 422 
Troubles on New Haven R. R. [Murray!|j. 


Hegarty, D. A., '776 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Junk — December, 1908.] 3 



Heyward, J. F.. 362 

Hickory (N. C.) Railway Co., 117 

High-tension construction, Buffalo, Lockport & 
Rochester Ry., *i8 t 

High-tension, direct-current, Maiizieies rail- 
way, 17, C437 . , , 

High-tension direct-current vs. single-pnase, 
Comparison [Mertz], 

Historii.'il matter in early r. umbers of Street 
Railway Journal and Electric Railway 
Review, 12 

Hoboken, N. J., Terminal, 291 

Hoosac tunnel, Proposed electrification 
[Shaad], '1245 

Houghton County (Mich.) Traction Co., 644, 

Hudson v'at'ley Ry., 1666 
Hungary, Statistics, 541 

Huntsville (Ala.), Chattanooga & Birmingham 
Interurban Railway, Light & Power 
Co., 681 

Illinois Central R. R., Electrification pros- 
pects. 689, 896, 1290, 1312 

Illinois Traction Co.: 

Express business, Management [Stephens], 


——Freight traffic and methods of account- 
ing, 27 

Overhead construction, 864 

Paying station agents, 1362 

Publicity department, 1083 

Purchases, 644 

Report for 1907, 520 


Accounting, Reply to Interstate Com- 
merce Commission's circular No. 20, 

Baggage law, 524 _ 

Baggage on interurbans. Opinion of 

Commission, 681 

Grade crossing signs, '447 

Interurban rules adopted, 123, 148; Text, 

t66; Criticism [Griffin], C351; 

[Nicholl], C398; C59J 
Taxes, 52 

Indiana Railroad Commission, Uniform bills 

of lading, 489 
Indiana Union Traction Co. (Se<; Anderson, 


Indianapolis, Ind. : 

■ Benefit Association, 812 

Overhead construction and maintenance, 

859, 864 

Track construction, "843 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 410 
Indianapolis & Louisville Ry., Pullman ser- 
vice between Louisville and Indianap- 
olis, '24 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co., 137, 

Inspection of electrical equipment. Mileage vs. 
time basis, 1024 

Inspection and maintenance of electrical ma- 
terial, Report on [Smith], Engineer- 
ing Association, 1013 > 

Instructions. (See Employees; Substations, 


Direct-current ammeter and voltmeter 

(Westinghouse), 40s 

Direct-current portable (G. E.), *45 

- Faultfinder, Electric (E. C. & M. Co.), 


Graphic recorders for A. C. and D. C. 

circuits (G. E.), "1527, 
Insulating materials, Specifications and tests, 


Insulation, Liquid, Causes of failure, 1343 

Flexible suspension (Electrose), "287 

Midland Ey. single-phase electrification, 


Roof entrance for high-tension wires, 


Strain, for catenary construction (Jouns- 

Manville), *I293 

Suspended disk (Johns-Manville), 971 

Testing of high-voltage, Proposed specifi- 
cations for, 211 

Tunnel insulator and rod collector, Lo- 
carno, Switzerland, '386 

Interlocking. (See Signals, Railway) 

Internationa! Street & Interurban Railway 

Convention at Munich, 615, 710, 13:7 

Investigation of rail corrugation, 1281 

Interstate Commerce Commission: 

Classification of accounts. (See Account- 

Examination for examiners of accounts, 


Interurban railways: 

Agents' lack of proper information, 476 

Baggage handling, Indiana opinion, 681 

Interchange of traffic with steam roads 

[Patterson], 639 
Operation of multiple-car trains [Carver], 


Through ticket's on short-run cars, 729 

Through service by branch line cars, 652 

(See also Rules) 

Investments, Reasonable return on [Smith], 

t5'3, S71, C590; [Caldcrwood], cfas, 
9755; [Weston], 164s; Comment, 1639 

Iowa Railroad Commission on Interstate Com- 
merce classification, 247 

Italy, Electrification plans, 909 

Tack box, Telephone (Stromberg-Carlson), '555 
Johnson, Mayor Tom L., Career of, 507 
Jopliii, Mo., Cars, "712 

Journal box, Kensington pressed steel (U. S. 

&■ M. Co.), p i76 
Journal lubricator (C. L. Co.), "320 


Failures in New York City, 269 

Lubrication [Julius], 676 

Lubrication, in Europe, 710 

Packings and brasses, 339 

(See also Babbitt; Bearings) 


Kansas City, Mo. : 

Benefit' Association, 814 

Car-handling crane, "738 

Pay-as-youenter cars, 357, 603 

Repair shops, "892 

Track construction, '844 

Kansas City Railway & Light Co.: 

Annual report, 1301, 1310 

Bond issue, 185, 250 

Kansas Southern Electric Ry , 522 
Knoxville, Tenn., Power plant, '534 
Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Co., 

Turbine power station, '32 
Kucera, J. A., 1303 

Laboratory of Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 

Lang, A. E., 490 

Lathe, Tire-t'urning, Chicago City Railway 

shops, '263 
Law. (See Legal decisions) 
Lead-sheathed cables, Discussion, Engineering 

Association, 1061 
Lebanon, Pa.. Block signal system, "517 
Ledger, Loose-leaf, Youngstown, Ohio, 1054 
Legal decisions: 

Accidents, and corporation rules, 1485 

Boycott decision by Supreme Court, 157 

Charters, franchises and ordinances, 288, 

713, 767, 1296, 1573 

Fares in Massachusetts, 1465 

Interstate business a defense against mu- 
nicipal taxation, 729 

Liability for negligence, 49, 92, 288, 450, 

55°. 713, 768, 1294, 1=74. 1660 

Miscellaneous. 1660 

Negligence in bridge disasters. Law of, 


Negligence and contributory negligence, 

570 _ . . 

Transfers, Louisiana, 371 

-Two-cent rate law, Pennsylvania, 701 

Legislation affecting railways, 54, 97, 135 
Lehigh Valle_y Traction Co., 1264, 1627 
Lexington, Ky., Cars, *922 
Libraries, Technical, of railway companies, 


Lighting of trains, Electric, English experi- 
ments, 985 

Lightning arresters [Creighton], 995; Com- 
ment, 131 1 

Developments of [Rushmore], '705 

Discussion, Engineering Association, 99s 

Ground plate for (F. E. Co.), "354 

Recommendations of N. E. L. A., 37 

Redondo, Cal., power station, '627 

Tests in Colorado [Creighton], 210 

Lightning protection, New Haven R. R. [Mur- 
ray], 1601 

Lima, Ohio, Excess fares on Western Ohio 

Ky-, 454 
Little Rock, Ark.: 

Employment of trainmen, 784 

— : — Overhead construction and maintenance, 


Line cars. (See Work cars) 

Liverpool & Southport Ry., Multiple unit sys- 
tem, *47 

Lockers, Steel (Darby), *I526 

Locomotives, Electric: 

Center cab, Tacoma, Wash , "920 

' Characteristics of New Haven and New 

York Central, Discussion, by Storer, 

Comparative speed and tractive effort 

curves of New Haven and New York 
Central locomotives, 1604 

Design, Tendencies in", 1406 

Freight, Indiana Union Traction Co., *537, 


Freight, Pacific Electric Ry., "826 

New York Central, Changes, *i62o 

N. Y., N. II . & H. R. R., Changes, '1424 

Prussian State Rys., Single-phase, 11 

Redondo, Cal., 16 

Rome single-phase railway, '151 

St. Clair tunnel, "1365 

(Abbreviations: "Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

Locomotives, Electric: (Continued.) 

Seebach-Wettingen single-phase line, *3J>» 

Switching, Chicago City Ky., "1408 

Three-phase, Great Northern Ry., '1276 

Windsor. Essex & Lake Sh«re Ry., Cana- 
da, Single-phase [De Witt], "340 

London : 

Autobuses, 65 

Traffic situation, 1484 

Underground Electric Railways: 

Financial, 35 

Third rail measurements, 209 
London, Brighton & South Coast Ry., Single- 
phase system, 922 
London letters, 51, 245, 406, 601, 771, 1346, 

Long Island R. R. : 

-Experimental track of Penn. R, R., 83, 

w * J S46 . 
Vote on train service, 489 

Los AiigeJcs, Cal.: 
■Fender tests, "553 

Freight and passenger station, '827 

Freight locomotive, "826 

Interlocking plants of Pacific Electric Ry., 


Overhead construction and maintenance, 


Pacific Electric Ry. Co., 411 

Signal and dispatching system for inter- 
urban railways fSimmen), "242 

Terminal facilities, "430 

Los Angeies & Rtdondo Ry., Impiovements, 16 
Louisville, Ky.: 

Benefit association, 810 

Overhead construction and maintenance, 

Pullman service with Indianapolis, 24 

Track construction, "848 

Truck-garden cars proposed, 43 

Louisville (Ky.) Ry 137, 5G0 
Louisville (Ky.) & Eastern R. R.. 93s 
Lowell, Acton & Maynard Street Ry., 410 
Lubrication : 

Armature bearings, Records and practice, 


-Bearings, in Europe. 710 

rhi- • 


-Car lubrication, 

ladelphia, Statistics, 

■ Changing motor lubrication from grease 

to oil, 382 

Gear and pinion, 1021 

Cranhite oil lubricant [Carpenter]; 599 

Grease, Specifications for, 1204 

Journal packings and brasses, 339 

Motor bearing?, journal bearings and gear- 

tag on cars [Julius] , 676, 1321, 1656 
Turbine lubrication, 446 


Machine tools, List in St. Louis repair shop, 

Mclver, Alexander, 1355 
Mail contracts, 830 
Mail traffic: 

Advantages and disadvantages. Compen- 
sation [Hile], 1001 

Discussion, .traffic and Transportation As- 
sociation, 1062 

Oneonta, N. Y., 1136 

Possibilities of and compensation [Pax- 

ton}, 1421; Discussion, 145 1 
Mailloux, C. O., 1355 
Maintenance of rolling stock: 
[Danforth], 1459 

Economical maintenance. Report on, En- 
gineering Association, 1186; Com- 
ment, 1 170; Discussion, 1217 

Economy in assembling heavy rolling 

stock, 499 

Graphics as applied to car maintenance 

[Arthur], "30 

Kelvin's law applied to, 1171 

Lite and maintenance of car equipment 

[Stahl], 710 
Maize, F. P., 455, 1582 

Manchester, England, Turbine contract. 208, 

Manchester (N. H.) Traction, Light & Po-.ver 

, Co., 933, 143 1 
Manchuria, Electric raiiwav for, 342, 403 
Manganese steel rail. Life of [Steward] *ti96; 

Discussion, 1217 
Manufacturers' Association: 

Badges for Atlantic City, 548 

— : — Convention, 1108 

Election of officers, 1621 

Executive committee meeting. 319 

Sub-committees on exhibits, 918 

Treasurer's report, 1621 

Manufacturers of raiiwav supplies organize irt 

New York City, 933 

. Maps : 

Atlantic City, 156 

Boyertovvn & Pottstown Ry., 1238 

Memphis, Tenn., 33 

Newton and vicinity, Mass., 1495 

Ohio Valley Scenic Route, 654 

OJean, N. Y., and vicinity, 336 

Texas Traction Co.. 375 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R., 68 


Fenders and signals, Conference on, 1669 

Financial condition of street railways- 

[Richards], 1616 



[Vol. XXXII 

Massachusetts: (Continued.) 

Higher fares: 

Branch line and main line, 65 
Evidence of M. C. Brush, 1497 
Reasons for increase, 1463, 1494, 1552, 

1607, 1652; Comment, 1482 
Statistics showing financial conditions 
and operating results o£ various 
railways, 1552 
Upheld by Railroad Commission, 444 
Legislation, 97 

Stock issue case, First ruling under new 

law, 774 

Western Massachusetts Street Ry., Fare 

case, 1534 

Massachusetts Electric Companies, Annua! re- 
port, 1579, 1666 

Massachusetts Railroad Commission: 

Accidents, 361 

Haverhill fare case, 1533 

Master Car Builders' Association: 

Atlantic City convention, 149. 161 

Committee reports, 161, 164 

Exhibits at convention, 130 

Mattoon (111.) Central Illinois Traction Co., 

Mattoon (111.) City Ry., 1396 
Mauch Chunk, Pa., Carbon Street Ry., 487 
Melbourne, Proposed electrification, 659, 697, 

Memphis, Tenn. : 

Instruction of trainmen, 792 

Traffic statistics, 33 

Menominee & Marinette Light & Traction Co., 

Mercury vapcr lamps tor railway use, 422 
Meters, Steam, Data on experience 01 users, 

Mexico : 

Consolidation plans, 639 

Monterey railway system, "38 

Mexico City Tramways Co., 294 


Financial notes, 293, 360, 453 

Interurban rules tinder consideration, 176 

Milk tickets, '1620 

Milk tickets, Michigan United Rys., '1620 
Milk traffic, 830 
Mills, J. S., 188 

Milton, Mass., Fire protection of car housa, 


Club rooms in Public Service Building, 


Extensions, 1463 

Fare reduction case, 395 ; Comment, 369 

Overhead construction and maintenance, 

859, *86i 

Steel tower transmission line, "692 

Track construction, "849 

Milwaukee Light Heat & Traction Co., 137 
Milwaukee Northern Ry.: 

Closed cars, *i8o 

Trucks, *354 


Advertising rates in cars, 668 

Car house, '877 

Coal analysis records, 636 

Concrete substations, *542 

Courtesy bulletin, 449 

Grade crossing signal, *66s 

Grounding transmission system through 

special transformer, '743 

Impregnating plant, *744 

Numbering feeder cables. 694 

Overhead construction, '857 

Repair shop practice, 744 

Repair shops, *888 

Scrap books, 63c 

Signs in cars, 1468 

Track construction, '851 

Mississippi Electric Association, 1664 
Missouri & Kansas Interurban Ry., 137 
Mobile, Ala., Repair shops, *40 
Mohawk Valley Co., 410, 453, 558, 617 
Monaco, Extensions, 743 
Montgomery (Ala.) Traction Co., 1475 
Montreal, Side entrance pay-as-you-enter car, 


Montreal Street Ry. : 

Annua! report, 1626 

Financial, 137, 325 

Motor cars in Europe [Ziffer], "318 
Motor control. (See Controllers) 
Motor lead connections, Avoiding trouble with, 

Motor rheostats. Inspection of, 1028 
Motors, Electric: 

— ■ — Commutating, Sale of (G. E.), 320 

Failures in New York City in 1906, 2C9 

Inspection of, 1027 

Interpole (Dick, Kerr), "761 

Prevention of breakdowns, 196 

Reversing, in emergencies, 1392 

Single-phase Oerlikon connections, Lo- 
carno, Switzerland, '384 

Spring-supported, N. V., N. H. & H. R, 

R., IS4S, *iS5« , 

Three-phase, in cascaue, 211 

Torqae with motors in multiple and in 

Multiple unit system, Dick-Kerr, Liverpool, 

England, *\j 
Munich, Germany, Growth of railway system, 
. . '3 2 4 

Municipal ownership, Tendency against, 1405 
Muscatine, la., "No seat, no fare" proposition, 


Musical instruments on cars: 

Permits for, Albany, N. Y., 317 

Schenectady, N. Y., '345 


Mahant & Lynn Street Ry., 1264 

Nashville, Tenn.: 
^Accidents, 1668 

Address to motormen and conductors 

[Davis], 675 

Car house, '877 

Track construction, '846 

Y. M. C. A. work, *8o2 

Nashville Railway & Light Co., Bonds, 137, 185 

Natchez, Miss., Southern Light & Traction 
Co., 185, 250, 1227 

Natick & Cochituate Street Ry., Fares, 57, 100 

National Association of Railway Commission- 
ers, Action on accounts for electric 
roads, 951; Comment, 946 

Neal, J. H., *i22f? 

Negligence. (See Legal decisions) 

New England Street Railway Club, 52, 95, 246, 
518, 603. 1283 

New Jersey, Public Service Ry. (See New- 
ark, N. J.) 

New Jersey & Hudson River Railway & Ferry 

Co., Merit and demerit system, 797 
New Jersey & Pennsylvania Traction Co.. 1666 

New Orleans: 

Feeder construction methods, '25 

Single truck cars, *i57o 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co., 522, 1628 
New publications, 771, 103, 140, 252, 525, 562, 

1229, 1267, 1302, 1536, 1582 
New South Wales, Statistics, S52 
New York Central R. R.: 

Electrification of Harlem Division, 1664 

Apprenticeship system, 1078 

Overhead transmission wires, 602 

Trolley interests combine, 98 

Trolley properties. Changes in, 617 

New York City: 

Accidents, 1265, 166R 

American Cities Railway & Light Co., 521 

Assessment on real estate to pay for rapid 

transit, suggested by City Club, 895 
Car rotors, 89? 

Cent. Pk. No. & E. Riv. R. R., Rates, 523, 

561, 606, 1227, 1265 

Congestion in downtown district, 459 

Damage claims, Rank of, 716 

Electric Properties Co., Report,_ 137 

Fare and transfer traffic statistics, 1563 


Limiting length of ride [Towniey], 

Reducing loss of fares on Third Ave- 
nue, 1462 

Testimony of Mr. Uebelacher, 1278 
Zone system of fares suggested, 570 
(See also below. Investigation) 

Franchises, Short-term, Belmont on, 53 

Freight subway proposed, 933 

Fulton Street R. R., 360, 644 

Hudson Companies, 1263 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R., Financing, 


Hudson & Manhattan Terminal Co., 137 

Interborough Railway, Change of name, 


— —Interborough Rapid Transit Co.: 

Brake shoe studies and changes, "'500 
Car equipment department, "269, "500 
Changes in se.vice orders. 57 
Earnings, 293, 644, 1474 


Cars with side doors, 321, 


series [George], 703 
s, Te 


-Two vs. four motors, Tests in New York, 

Westinghouse 132A, '240 

Mount Vernon (Ohio) Railway & Light Co., 
, 93S, 1432 

Multiple-car trains. Operation, on interurban 
roads [Carver], 1:38 

Collision showing value of anti- 
climber bumper casting, '1523 
Failures of apparatus in, 1906, 269 
Spur gearing on heavy motors 

[Litchfield], 1557 
Tests of power consumption [Still- 
well], *6; Comment^ 5 
Ventilation, Report by B. J. Ar- 
nold, 549; Comment, 531 
Ventilation partitions [Moore], 
V638, [Arnold], 697 

Appraisal of surface systems, 11 1 
Cent. Pk. No. & E Riv. R. R. un- 
profitable as segregated line, 651 
Cost of operation, 66 
Hearing by Public Service Commis- 
sion on Joint rates and through 
routes, 3, 148, 196, 461, 645, 
1227, 1252, 1277, 1332, 1460, 1559, 
1613, ■'396, J432, 1475, 1668 
Order of Commission for joint fare9 

and through routes 
Receivers deny jurisdiction of Com- 
mission in joint fare case, 936 

New York City: (Continued.) 

Investigation : (Continued. ) 

Segregation of lines, 454, 488 
Testimony of F. R. Ford, 1252 
Testimony of G. H. Harries, 1336 
Testimony of J. G. Milburn, 1332 
. Testimony of Oren Root, 739, 1337; 
Comment, 730 
Testimony of C. F. Uebelacher, 1277 
Testimony of F. W. Whitridge, 1460, 

Testimony of E. W. Winter, 1334 
Testimony of F. T. Wood, 1255 
Transfers and the increasing cost of 
operation, 1237 

Manhattan Ry., 136, 249, 294, 488 

Metropolitan Street Ry., 325, 359, 410, 

48S, 522, 719, 1432 
Advertising case, 1302 
Cars, New standard, "1500; Comment, 
„ "483 

Cars, Rehabilitation, '503 

Damage claims, 716 

Disintegration of system, 249 

Fire protection rules, 477 

Foreclosure suit of Guaranty Trust 
Co., 1474 

Passenger statistics, 678 

Pension scheme, 815 

Receivers' certificate, 1432 

Receiver and the orders of the Com- 
mission, 100 

Reorganization, 1626 

Report, 521 

Statement of operations during re- 
ceivership, 913 

Statistics of cars, 1502 

Track construction, '1648 

Transfers, 523, 561, 606 
Pennsylvania tunnel. Direct-current third- 
rail for operation of, 1543, 1546 
Public Service Commission: 

Accounting. (See New York State, 
Public Service Cotnmissi6n) 

Appropriation for, 1624 

Expenses, 1260 

Fender and wheelguard tests, 399, 513 

Hearings on rates. (See above, In- 

Letter by W. R. Willcox, 937 

Organization system, 591 

Power to modify order of Railroad 
Commission, 772 

Report on New York-Brooklyn travel, 

Work of, for year, 246 

Second Avenue R. R., 681, 719, 1263, 1395 

Statistics of railways, to June, 1907, 1563 

Third Avenue: 

Finances, 1302, 1461 

Injuries and damages. Cost of, 1461 

Loans, 185 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, *i4ii 
Pension plan, 452 

Provident Association for employees, 

485, 1300 

Report of bondholders' committee, 137 
Transfers, 1265 

• Transfer situation, 3, 148, 187, 196, 730, 

1265 1434 

Union Ry., Thermit weld of deep and 

shallow rail, * 1 57, '599 

Track construction, ^1648 

Transit facilities praised by Sir Clifton 
Robinson, 423 

Twenty-eighth & Twenty-ninth Streets 

Crosstown Ry., 681, 936 

Valuation of street railway properties, 136 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R., 250, 
294, 321, 1227 

Catenary changes, "859 

Electrification, Experience with [Murray], 

'1598; Comment, 1590, 1591; Discus- 
sion, 1602 

Electrification of New York suburban lines, 


Locomotives, Changes in, "1424 

Motors, Spring-supporter] quill for geared 

single-phase, 154s, "1558 

Street' railways of, Annual report, 935 

Subway plans for New York City, 518 

Suspension clip for catenary construction, 


Trucks for New Canaan branch, '90 

New York & Queens County Ry., 1432 
New York & Portchester R. R., 560 
New York State: 

Earnings from freight and express busi- 
ness of nine companies, 278 

Express companies ruling of Public Serv- 
ice Commission, 690 

Interchangeable tickets on 13 roads, 668 

Legislation, 97 

Pass situation, 260 

Public Service Commission: 

Campaign controversy, 1272 
Discussion of classification invited 

f Meyers], C316 
Hearings on proposed uniform system, 

383, 439: Comment, 369 
Informal conference, 55a 
Power to modify order of Railroad 

Commission, 772 
Recommendations on physical equip- 
ment of electric roads, 741 
Standard classification, 1373, 1567 
Tentative classification, 349, 476 

Statistics of electric railroads for year, 1650 

New York Street Railway Association: 

Committee reports, 216, 22s 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 

June — December, 1908.] 3 ~«~ 



N. Y. Street Railway Association: (Continued.) 
——Convention, '229, 232, 233 

November meeting 1384 

Papers, 222, 223, 224, 226, 228, 1381, 1382 

New Zealand: 

Gas burner for heating tires, '01426 

Side-door cars, "766 
Newark, N. J. : 

—Apprentice course, 1082 

Institution prints, 1521 

Pay-as-vouenter cars: 

Rebuilt, *oo3 
Signs on, 1581 
Zone fare line, 524 

Public Service Corporation, 250 

Shop Foremen's Association, 1459, 1656 

Newport News 1st Old Point Comfort Railway 

& Electric Co., 412, 454, 562 
Newspaper advertising, Aurora, E'gin & Chi- 
cago Rv., 1448 
Newspaper traffic, 830 
Newton, Mass., Transfers, 524 
Newton Street Ry., Financial condition, 444 
Niagara Falls, Generator of 12,000 volts, 210 
Norfolk (Mass.) & Bristol Street' Ry., 936, 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (See 

Akron, Ohio) 
Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Co., 294, 1432 
North Central Association of Railroad Com- 
missioners, 1550 
Norwich & Westerly Ry., Car cleaning, 541 
Nuremberg, Car house of reinforced concrete 
[Herzog], "389 

Oakland, Cal„ Yards and inspection shed, '509 
Ogden Rapid Transit Co., 560 
Ohio Electric Ry. (See Cincinnati) 
Ohio Railroad Commission, Conference on ac- 
counting system, 1568 
Ohio Valley Scenic Route, Construction de- 
tails, *654 

Oil, Tests of oils for railway air comp-essors. 

Oil and waste reclaimed with pneumatic press, 

Brooklyn, "1377 
Oil cups: 

■ Chicago, *ioi9 

West Penn Rys., '1203 

Oil fuel: 

-Redondo, Cal., power station, 618 

Texas Traction Co., '374 

Oklahoma mileage figures, 3 S3 
Old Colony Street Ry. (See Boston & North- 
ern Ry.) 
Olean, N. Y. : 

Gas engine power plant, '304 construction and extensions, *33<> 

Oneonta, N. Y., Mail service. 1136 

Oneonta & Mohawk Valley R. R., Financial, 

137, 1264 
Orange County Traction Co. 325 
Organization chart of New York Public Serv- 
ice Commission, 592 
Organization of small companies [Gonzenbach], 

Overhauling electrical equipment, Mileage vs. 

time basis, 1024 
Overhead conductors! Location of. Report, 

American Railway Association, 1518 
Overhead construction : 

Bridges, Midland Railway, England, '198 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., '20 

Folding, on bascule bii ige, Trenton, N. J., 

* l6 '3 ... 
Locarno, Switzerland, with device for lo- 
cating faults. '384 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R, R. [Murray], 1598 

- — —Practice of various loads, '853 

Safety relay device for single ohase, Rome, 

„ *iso . 

Seebach-Wettingen line, *39? 

Switch for block signals (U. S. E. S. Co.), 


Tests by Penn. R. R. on Long Island ex 

perimental line, "1546 
(See also Catenary construction) 


Car colors in New York, 895 

Extravagance in, 1545 

Life of paint on cars, 459 

Maintaining color standards, Ives colori- 
meter, 1522 

-System at Chicago, 1329 

Paris, Motor buses in, 1322 
Parks and pleasure resorts: 
Aeroplanes, 459 

O! io Valley Scenic Route, '658, 659 

Re.jort on, njt 

Rochester, N. Y., '128 

Wakefield & District Light Rys., England. 

*594 . 

Passenger stations. (See Waiting ftations) 

Asphalt, with concrete base. Hartford, 

Conn., *666 
Brick, Costs, 1199 

Notes on best paving for city street, 1200 

Paving: (Continued.) 

Track in paved streets, 497 [Hardin], 7£i 

Vitrified block, Utica, N. Y., 1384 

Wood, Results with, in New York and 

Chicago, 176 

Pennsylvania: . . 

Hearing before Railroad Conmission on 

operating problems, 756 
Two-cent rate law, Decision, 701 

Pennsylvania R. R.: 

Contract for terminal, 1309, 1343 

Experimental line on Long Island, 83 

Experimental overhead trolley construc- 
tion. Tests on Long Island, 1543, *.54<> 

Truck for steel passenger cars, '177 

Pennsylvania & Maryland Street Ry., 1264 
Pennsylvania Railroad Commission, Report, 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association: 

Committee on accidents. 1005 

Meeting, 1607 

Penney, Thomas, 721, "773 
Pensions. (See Employees) 
Pfeiffer, A. J. J., 103 

American Rys., Annual report, 718 

Ash handling by trolley. "117 

Car, Pay-within, "698, *in6; Comment, 


Car house, *866 

Elevated-subway line, Maintenance notes, 


Employees' association, Organization oi, 


Exchange tickets, Partial discontinuance, 


■ Exhaust steam turbine results [Burleigh], 

Fares. 318 

Franchise, Effect on operating conditions, 


Milk car, '127 

Overhead construction and maintenance, 


Storeroom economies, 1286 

Subway, Opening of new section, 438 

Tickets : 

New, 1397 

Return to olJ, 1630 

Track construction, "849 

Transit inquiry, 645 

Philadelphia Co., 360, 60s 

Philadelphia, Bristol & TrenU.n Street Ry., 
644, 681, 719. 774, 1264 

Philadelphia & Chester Ry., 1396 

Philadelphia, Coatesville & Lancaster Passen- 
ger Ry., 1628 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., t34. 185, 250, 
294, 325, 681. 719 

Annual report, 718 

Building & Loan Association. 155 

Pierce, H. J., 721 


Lubrication, 1021 

Specifications, Report on, 101S 

i. See also Gears) 


Redondc. Cal., power plant, '623 

Yeungstown & Ohio River R. R. plant, *J2 

Pit construction: 

Lighting bv mercury tubes, North Albany, 

N. Y., * 2 68 

Report, Engineering Association, '1183 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R., '74 


-Double controller, '37 

Fender and wheelguard tests by N. Y. P. 

S. C, 1221, 1348 

Pay-on-platform car. *i622 

Pittsburg & Allegheny Valley Ry., 68 1 

Pittsburg Rys., 1475 

Pittsburg & Westmoreland Ry., 1532 

Pittsfield, Mass., Berkshire Street Ry., 522 


Riding on, Investigation by Pennsylvania 

Railroad Commission, 756. 1353 

Standard recommended, tio6 

Pole hoister, Mechanical [Matthews], '244 

Chestnut pole preservation, 282 

Concrete, 1235 

Mounting, on viaduct, "1240 


Reinforcement with steel rods and 
concrete, '929 

Square (Diamond), '762 

Wooden. Future for, 1565 

— —(See also Timber preservation) 
Policemen, Transportation of, Georgia [Ark* 

wright], C1570 
Port Jervis Electric Light, Power, Gas & R. R. 

Co.. 295, 1475 
Po, tland. Me., Repair shops, '882 
Portland, Ore.: 

Cazadero plant wrecked, 309 

Club rooms, "583 

Induction from transmission line, Over- 
coming, 672 
T-rails, 603 

Portland Railway, Light & Power Co., 250 
Pottsville, Pa., Developments in Lykens Val- 
ley, 582 


Cost of, in European stations, 1317 

Hiied, Cost in Europe, 1317 

Purchased vs. generated, on small rail- 
ways, 197 

Power consumption: 

Cars in New York subway [Stillwell], *6; 

Comment, 5 

Influence of car weight [Ay res], 393; 

Comment. 460, "667; [Woeber Car- 
riage Co.], [Clapp], C912 

New York tests on surface cars, 1507 _ 

Power distribution, Report on, Engineering 
Association, *io8S; Discussion, 1060 

Power generation: 

Data sheets of A. S. & I. R- E. A., 282 

Report on, Engineering Association, 1097; 

Discussion, 1058 
Power rate in Chicago, 109 
Power station practice : 

Boiler feed pumps, Centralizing, 29 

Checking initial failures in equipment, 1363 

Economies in small stations, 3 

Power stations: 

Atlanta, Ga., ^427 

Caracas Electric Tramway, '1243 

— -Carville, England, 1005 

Davenport, fa., Reconstruction, '467 

——Economic importance of large stations 

[Petri], 13 17 

Ft. Wayne, Double-deck, Cost, 211 

——Gas engines, Midland Ry., '201 

Knoxviile, Tenn., '534 

- Kokomo, Ind., New turbine station, *32 

Melbourne, "752 

Redondo, Cal., 15.000-kw station with re- 
ciprocating engines, *6i8; Comment, 

St. Clajr tunnel. "1369 

Synchronous motor to raise powe- factor. 

Does it pay to install? 1198 

Texas Traction Co., Oil fuel, '374 

Youngsiown & Ohio River R. R., Double- 
deck, *68; Cost, 309 

Power transmission lines: 

Connecting transmission systems, 1638 

Ground through special transformer, Min- 
neapolis, 743 

High-tension cable operation, Massachu- 
setts experience, 1552 

Induction from, overcome, Portland, Ore., 


Steel towers, Milwaukee, '692 

Tower design, 211 

Printing plant of Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.; 

Providence, R. I.: 

Interlocking :ignal system, '129 

Pensions, 815 

Prussian State Railways. (See Germany) 
Public-service commissions. Review of articles 
in Annals of A. A. P. & S. S., 4 

(See also Railroad Commissions) 

Publicity department: 

Discussion, Transportation & Traffic Asso- 
ciation, 1 1 21 

Possibilities [Stephens], 1083: [Flagg], 

1085; Discusston, 1064; [Brush], 1129; 
[Lamb], 1130; [Gall], 1218 

Radcliffe, G. L., *3=" 

Rail-bending machine, Chicago City Railway 
shops, *267 

Rail bonds. Plastic, after years of service, '484 
Rail cleaner, Two-bladed, London (C. A. Co.), 

Rail corrugation in Europe. Investigation, 

1281, 1323 
Rail joints: 

Jonts, *8 4 8, "1346 _ 

Proposed, to reduce noise on Elevated 

loop, Chicago, "1376 

Rail welding, Thermit. (See Thermit) 

Railroad Commis=io-.s of Central States, Meet- 
ing of, in Chicago, 122; [Glasgow], 
ci6o; 1556 


Cost, Testimony of .Mr. Uebeiacher, 1278 

Life of manganese and other steei rails, 

Boston [Steward]. *iis6; Discussion, 


New York City, "1648 

Resistance of, 70- 

San Francisco, Cal., '578 

T-rails : 

Costs, Utica, N. 1 ., 1385 

Detroit, 292, '343 

Paved streets [Dyer], 13S2 

Portland, Ore., 603 

LTse of in tity streets, *ii99 

Raleigh, N. C, Carolina Power S. Lighting 
Co., 605 

Raleigh Electric Co., 411 

Reading. Pa., Boyertown & Pottstown Ry., 

Reasonable return on investments [Smith], 
C513, 57*1 C590; [Calderwood], C638; 
C75S; [ Weston 1, 1645; Comment, 1639 

Records. (See Accounting) 

Red Bank, N. J., Monmouth County Electric 
Co., 605 

Redondo, Cal., Power station with recipi ocatmg 

engines, *6i8, Comment, 615 
Register cards in cars, Easton, Pa., 48 
Repair shop practice: 

Air cylinders for raising car bodies, 159 

Chicago City Ry., '905. ■'262 



[Vol. XXXII 

Repair shop practice: (Continued.) 

Crape, Kansas City, *?38 

Minneapolis, "744 

Mobile Ala., 40 

R.*rairs made outside of shop, 805 

Storeroom economies, Philadelphia, 1.286 

Tools, Efficient use of large, in small shop, 

Repair shop records. (See Accounting). 
Repair shops : 

Beautifying shop properties, *62S, 902 

• Brooklyn. '1640 

Chicago Railways, *s,jo 

Design of. in Various cities, *88o 

Floor, Depressed, Rochester, *23 

Machine tool3, List of, 885 

Model plant, Report of Street Railway As- 
sociation, *zi6; Comment, 195; Dis- 
cussion, 230 

Mobile, Ala., %o 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R., *75 

Reraiiers [Sargent], '1344 

Resistance, grid. Importance of, 148 

Return circuits. Railway, Losses on [Hindenf]. 

Richmond. Va.: 

Richmond St Chesapeake Ry., 522 

Transfer system, 58 

Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) Tramway, Light & 

Power Co., 774 
Ripple, P. W., 1303 
Roanoke Railway & Electric Co., 522 
Roanoke Traction & Light Co., 605, 681 
Robinson, Sir Clifton, Address on tramways 

o£ the world, 394, 423 

Rochester, N. Y. : 

Apprentice work, 1081 

Car house, '23 

Interurban fares and interchange agree- 
ments, 85 

Merit and demerit system, 153, 796 

Parks, *i28 

Schedules based on weather conditions, 


Y. M. C. A. branches, *799 

Rochester, Charlotte & Manitou R. R., 360, 605 
Rochester & Eastern Rapia Ry., Train orders 

[Griffin], *35'i 
Rod collector, Locarno, Switzerland, "387 
Rome-Civ'tta Castellana single-phase railway, 

Construction details, *iso 
Rules in 'accident cases, 1485 
Rules for city railways, Report of committee, 

Transportation & Traffic Association, 

1 137 

Rules for interurban railways: 

Indiana, 123, 148; Text, 166; Criticism 

[Griffin], C351; [Nicholl], C398, C591 

Michigan, under consideration, 176 

Report of committee, Transportation & 

Traffic Association, 1141; Discussion, 

1 122 

Train orders [Griffin], *35i 

Russia. Electric railway at Warsaw, 39 
Rutland, Vt., Earnings, 137 

St. Clair tunnel, Electrification, "1364, 1410 
St. Louis, Mo.: 

Car index board, '675 

Club house, *8o7 

— — Karbolith car floor, 600 

Missouri Electric Ry., 488, 605 

Pay as-you-enter cars, 603, 720 

Rebuilt single-end cars. '515, '911 

Repair shops, "883 

Tower wagon, Motor, *zi9 

United Rys., 325 

St. Louis Transit Co., 1666 

St. Petersburg, Note on railway system, 49 

Salt Lake City, Utah: 

Transfer abuse [Hunt], C551 

Transfer order modified, 138 

San Bernardino Traction Co., 488 
San Diego Electric Ry., 324 
San Diego Southern Ry., 324 
San Francisco, Cal. : 

Employment records of United Railroads, 


Numbering car lines, 1 1 

Reconstruction of railway system [Lath- 

rop], *574 

Substation at San Anselmo, *702 

United Railways Investment Co., 1628 

San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Consoli- 
dated Ry., 644 
San Jose, Cal., Santa Clara Interurban R. R., 
560 _ 

Sand box, Air, Keystone, '1426 
Sand drier plant, Chicage City Ry., '1561 
Sander valve, Universal (O. B. Co.), "640 
Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power Co., 1666 
Saw, Motor-driven (L. E. Co.), *SS4 
Schedules. (See Timetables) 
Schenectady, N. Y.: 

Express service at freight rates, 110 

Fender and wheel guard tests by Public 

Service Commission, 399, 313, "669, 

*7iij 761; Comment, 691 

Musical instrument permit, "345 

Schenectady Ry., Change in fares, 1396 
School rooms of Chicago City Ry., 794 
Scioto Valley (Ohio) Traction Co., 681, 774 
Scranton, Pa., Exhaust steam turbine results 

[Burleigh], 909 

Scrap books at Minneapolis, 630 

Scrap pile. Study of, 728 

Scrap saving on the right-of-way, 333 

Seattle, Wash. : 

Car house, "877 

Changing grades, "906 

Concrete car house and substation, '1274 

Freight rates, 523 

Seattle Electric Co., 18s 
Seattle-Everett Electric Ry., 719 
Seattle-Tacoma Short Line, 1264 
Sheboygan, Wis., New form of timetable, 123 
Shreveport, La., Transfer decision, 361, 371 
Side bearings and center plates, M, C. B. re 

port, 164 
Signal 1x11 system, 



Boston & Worcester [O'Bryan], Block sys- 
tem, *93o 

Chicago West Side Elevated, Block sys- 
tem, "1614 

Counting signal system (U. S. E. S. Co.), 


Dispatching signals, Wash., Bait & Annap. 

Ry., *4<54 

Grade crossing, Minneapolis, '655 

Interurban and city lines [Harrington], 


Lamp signal for stopping cars, Utica, "406 

Lebanon, Pa., Block system, '517 

Pacific Electric Ry., interlocking, '125 

Providence, R. I., Interlocking (V. S. S.), 


Stopping signals at flag station, 232 


Advertising, Boston & Northern Ry., *66n 

Double, for highway crossings, Indiana, 

— —Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction 

Co., Track sign, '315 
Single-phase control: 

-Siemens car equipment, '205 

Westinghouse car equipment, *207 

Single-phase railways: 

Advantages and disadvantages [Sprout], 


America and Europe, Statistics, 14Z2, 1616 

Costs, 209 

New Haven R. R. troubles [Murray], 


Notes on various railways [Renshaw], 921 

——Single-phase vs. direct-current on British 
railways [Hobart], 597 

Single-phase vs. direct current, Compari- 
son [Mertz], 754 

Swedish government tests, 897 

Sleet wheel (U. C. F. Co.), "1427 

Smoking on cars, Rules in New York City, 259 

Southern Pacific R. R., 323 

Southern Railway and Supply Men, Annual 
dinner, 1103 

Spartansburg (S. C.) Railway, Gas & Electric 
Co., 522 

Special cars, Charges for, 1362, 1449 


Cable, 14 14 

Carbon brushes, 1013 

Gears and pinions, 1018 

-Grease, 1204 
Spokane & Inland Empire R. R. : 

Annual report, 9^5 

Overhead construction, 864 

— —Passenger stacions, '1372 

Power plant at Nine-Mile Bridge, '898 

Publicity department, 1085 

Springfield, 111.: 

Benefit Association, 812 

-Repair shops, "891 

Waiting station, '1284 

Springfield, Mass., Freight transportation 

[Page], C1522 
Springfield (Ohio) & Xenia Ry., 936 
Sprinkling cars, All-steel, Chicago City Ry., 

Sprinkling of streets by railway, 460 
Stables, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., '1596 
Staff system on Ohio Electric Ry., 1572 
Standardization, Report on, Engineering Asso- 
ciation, 1104; Discussion, 1056; Com- 
ment, 1049 
Staten Island. Ry., 524 
Station agents, Paying, 1362 

Statistics : 

Boston Elevated Railway, 1618 

Brake-shoe service, Chicago, 1516 

Brakes used in Europe, 931 

Brooklyn cash and transfer passengers, 85 

Capitalization, cars and mileage, in U. S., 


Car weights and seating capacity, 667; 

[Woeber], [Clapp], C912 

Chicago City Ry., Reconstruction, 635 

Chicago Railways, 1283 

Development of interurban railways in Eu- 
rope, 1317 

Freight and express of nine New York 

companies, 278 
— — Gross receipts for 1907, 273 
Hungary, 541 

Melbourne, Growth of suburban travel, 


——Memphis, Tcnn., 33 

Munich street railway, 1324 

New South Wales, 552 

New York City railways, 678, 1502, 1563 

Statistics: (Continued.) 

New York-Brooklyn travel, T433 

\ New York State electric railioads for year, 

\ 1650 

I Oil fuel guarantee, Redondo power sta- 

\ tion, 627 

+» — Passenger rates on steam roads, 1255 
J Passenger traffic, 1131 

Power consumption in New York subway 

[Stillwell], 910 

San Francisco railways, 576 

Single-phase railways in America and Eu- 
rope, 1422 

Steel cars, Roads using, 162 

Vienna, 589 

Water power stations of Europe, 1318 

Water powers of U. S., 66 

Steam turbines. (See Turbines, Steam) 

Steel, Rail, Wearing properties, 998 

Sterling (111.), Dixon & Eastern Electric Ry., 

7'9 . , ■ 

Steubenville, Ohio., Onio Valley Scenic Route, 


Stevens, Dana, 721 
Stokers, Mechanical: 

LReagan], for bituminous fires, *6oo 

[Roney], '284 

Stone & Webster, Apprentice system, 1053 
Storage batteries in alternating-current sys- 
tems [Woodbridge], 209 
Storage battery cars, Prussia, 998, "1510 

Street Railway Journal: 

Convention issues of the past, 950 

History of, *I2 

Street sprinkling law of Maine, 247 


Atlanta, Ga , "428 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Ry., *2i 

Chicago City Ry., "462 

Concrete, Northern Electric Ry. '[Ed- 
wards], "1249 

Instructions to operators [Woodbridge], 

* 7 8 

— —Maintenance expenses, Reducing, 533 
— —Minneapolis. Concrete, "542 

Portable, Utility of, Detroit, 727 

— —San Anselmo, Cal., '702 

San Francisco, Cal., 581 

Seattle, Wash., Concrete, "1275 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R^ *75, '76 

Subway. (See Boston; New York City. Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Ry.) 
Successful railway officials. Qualities of, 1442 
Sunday sen/ice, Action to enforce, on VVinono 
Interurban Ry., 138 _ 
Susquehanna Railway, Light & Power Co., 

I +75 . 
Sweden, Tests of single phase railway equip- 
ments, 897 
Swenson, B. V., Western trip, 280 
Switch stand, Detroit safety, '447 
Switchboard contacts, Regular inspection of, 

Switchboard equipment of 

power station, *62$ 
Switches, Electric changing from a. < 

d. c, "152 
Switches, Electric time, '1658 

Locarno single-phase line, '384 

Second single-phase railway, 235 

Seebach-Wettingen single-phase line, 

Syracuse, N. Y. : 

Interurban Electric Express Co., Opinion 

of Public Service Commission, 411, 690 

Track construction, '848 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern R. R. : 

Catenary bridges, *666 

Overhead construction, *862 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Co., 185 

Tacoma, Wash., Center cab electric locomotive, 

Tap, Solderless [Dossert], *320, '505 

Tarry town, White Plains & Mamaroneck Ry., 
360, 362, 644 

Taunton. Mass., Substation, *82 

Taxation, Municipal, Interstate business a de- 
fence against, 729 • 

Telegraph lines, Induction from transmission 
lines overcome, Portland, Ore., 672 

Telephone lines, Cost, 15 10 

Telephones for electric railway service, In- 
stallation and protection [Fowle], 

Telephones in dispatching trams, 819 
Terminal stations. Northern Elevated R. R., 

Chicago, *sii 
Terre Haute, Ind. : 

Benefit Association, 814 

Claim department records, 1512 

Testing cars: 

New York subway, *6 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 1422 

Testing laboratory, Worcester Polytechnic In- 
stitute *39 

Testing return circuits, Baltimore & Ohio Ry., 

707 , 
Tests of turbine, Quincy Point power station, 


Texas Traction Co. : 

Construction details, "374 

Overhead construction, 861 

Redondo, Cal., 


(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



[Vol. XXXII 



Allen, C. L., Address by, 954 

Allen, R. L. Application of the theory of the 

catenary to electric railway work, 


Arkwright, P. S Transporting policemen and 

firemen, crs7o 
Arnold, B. T. Ventilation partitions, C697 
Arthur, William. Graphiis as applied to car 

maintenance, 30 
Ayres, M. V. Meed for lighter cars, 393 


Bacon, C. G., Jr. Drag fit method of assem- 
bling wheels, axles and gears, 317 

Battu, L. A. Heat accumulation in steam en- 
gineering, 1457 

Beugler, H. M. Seat factor and load factor 
in transportation, 280 

Bierck, A. B. Effect of electrification on the 
accounting methods ot a steam rail- 
way, 1205 

Booth, W. H. Binary vapor engines, 1582 

Natural and mechanical draft, 36 

Brown, J. W., and others. Training of trans- 
portation employees, 1006 
Brush, G. S. Possibilities of a well-conducted 

publicity department, 1129 
Brush, M. C. uiid others. Report of commit- 
tee on passenger traffic, 1131 


Calderwood, J. F. Fares in large cities, C63S 
Calvert/ H. S. Interstate Commerce classifica- 
tion, 160 

Carpenter, E. C. Benefits of the index bureau, 

Relationship of_ the claim department to 

the accounting department, 1206 

Carson, W. A. Train order blanks, C1286 

Carver, D. F. Operation of multiple-car trains 
on interurban roads, 113S 

Case, F. E. Sprague-General Electric auto- 
matic control, 1093 

Clapp, H. \V. Car weights and seating capac- 
ity, eg 1 2 

Clark, C. H. _ Steel tie and concrete tie con- 
struction, 1381 

Clark, C. H., and others Report of committee 
on way matters 1189 

Collins, J. C, Jr. Blanks and forms used in 
freight and express business of elec- 
tric roads, 226 

Connette, E. G., and others. Report of com- 
mittee on welfare of employees, 113s 

Coombs, R. D. Power distribution, 1204 

Coons, C. A. Pay-as-you-enter car from an 
operative standpoint, 223 

Cooper, William. Railway motor control, 1109 

Cramton, Louis. Interstate Commerce classi- 
fication 160 

Creighton, E. E. F. Lightning protection for 
electric railways, 99G 


Davis, F. A. Buying brake shoes on a mileage 
basis, C1657 

Davis, H. A. Address to motormen and con- 
ductors, 67s 

De Muralt, C. L. Three-phase or single-phase 
for heavy electric traction, C1469 

DeWitt, S. C. Single-phase locomotive of 
Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rail- 
way of Canada, *34o 

Dyer, R. A., Jr. T rail in paved streets, 1382 


Eastman, Albert. Express rates, 226 
Edwards, J. P. Concrete substation for the 

Northern Electric Railway Company,' 


Construction details of combination cars of 

Northern E'ectiic Railway, "735 

Evans, W. H. Observations on pay-as-you- 
enter cars, 222 

Evans, W. H., and others. Report of commit- 
tee on standardization, '1104 


Flagg, C. E. Possibilities of a well-conducted 
department of publicity, 1085 

Forsc, W. H., Jr. Interline accounting of in- 
terurban railways, 1151 

Fowle, F. F. Installation and protection of 
telephones for electric railway service, 


Gall, G. H. Possibilities of a well-conducted 

publicity department, 1218 
Ccorge, C. Torque with motors in multiple and 

in series, /03 
Glasgow, C. L. Meeting of State commissions, 


Glover, M, W. Forms used in handling freight 
and expiess business on interurban 
lines, "584 

The Interstate classifications of operating 

expenses for electric and steam rail- 
ways. 1378 

Gorazenbach, Ernest. How can the small road 
best promote traffic and increase its 
revenue? 958 
Goodrich, C. G., Address by, 1498 
Goshorn, H. R., Address by, 955 
Greer, C. L. Repairing a commutator, "23s 
Griffin, W. R W. Issuing train orders, C351 


Ham, W. F., and others. Report of committee 
on standard classification of accounts 
and form of report, 11 58 

Hardv, F. Hunting business by trolle y 0513 

Harrington, F. B. Signals for interurban and 
local traffic, 224 

Harvie, W. J., and others. Report of com- 
mittee on power distribution *io88 

Hensiaw, F. V. Earnings possible with P. A. 
V. E. cars, ci 322 

Herzog, Reinhold. Reinforced concrete car 
house for municipal railways of Ni'rn- 
berg, "389 

Hile, C. H. Carrying United States mail on 
street railways, 1001 

Hindert, E. G. Suburban electric railway re- 
turn circuits, "706 

Hunt, R. E. Preventing abuse of transfers, 


Johnson, F. W. Interviewing witnesses, 631 
Julius, C. H. Lubrication of motor bearings, 
journal bearings and gearing on elec- 
tric cars, 676 


Kelly, A. G. Freight business. 280 
Kelsay. G. H., and others. Report of commit- 
tee on power generation, 1097 


Lamb, C. W. Possibilities of a well-conducted 

publicity department, 1139 
Lane, F. Van Z. Train announcing device, 


Lathi op, J. C. Street railway system of Sao 
Francisco, "574 

Lincoln, F. H., and others. Report of com- 
mittee on economical maintenance, 

Low, F. F., and others. Report of committee 
on operating storage car house design, 

Lnten, D. B. Bridge reconstruction on Co- 
lumbus & Lake Michigan Railway, '746 


McAIoney, W. H. Taking advantage of trans- 
fer of weight in braking on one-way 
cars, "387 

M'Donald, Duncan, and others. Report of 
committee on rules for city operation, 

Meyers, W. J. New York classification of ac 
counts, 3r6 

Millener, F. H. Mechanical application of 
wireless or radio-telegraphy to rail- 
roads, "708 

Moore, F. W. Cold air circulation in the sub- 
way, 0*638 


Nicholl, H. A. Charges for handling toreign 
equipment on C. E. R. A. lines, C1621 
— ■ — Operating rules in Indiana, 398 
Nickel, P. C. The claim and its disposition, 

Norris, H. H., and others. Report on educa- 
tion, 1076 


Osmer, J. E. Drag-fit method of assembling 
wheels, axles and gears, 398 

Osterman, A. H. Simplifying the B-S con- 
troller by eliminating the braking fea- 
ture, *26 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence. 1 


Page, H. C. Freight transportation in Spring- 
field. Mass., C1522 

Palmer, G. W., and others. Report of com- 
mittee on car and car house wiring, 
1 197 

Patterson, A. R. Organization of the account- 
ing department of a railway and light 
coinpany, 1065 

Patterson, G. M. Interchange of traffic with 
steam road, C639 

Paxton, C. M. Possibilities of handling United 
States mail and the compensation paid 
by the Government, 1421 

Polk, H. H., and others. Report of committee 
on express and freight tra'Tic, 1095 


Reynolds, J. J. Uniformity in claim depart- 
ment records, 1032 

Richards, J. L. Financial .condition of Massa- 
chusetts street railways, 1616 

Ricker. C. W. Youngstown it Ohio River 
Railroad *68 

P.ushmore, D. B. Recent developments of 
lightning arresters, "705 

Ryan, F. J. Organization of a claim depart- 
ment, 103'S 


Shaad. G. C. Practicability of electrifying the 
Hoosac tunnel, *i->i5 

Shannahan, J. N , and others. Report of com- 
mittee on interurban rules. 1141 

Shipper, J. D. Cirruit wiring on surfaci cars, 

Sibson H. E. Feed water purification, 1450 

Simmo. ^, F. G., Address by, 999 

Relation between accountant and engineer 

in construction, maintenance and op- 
eration, J208 

Smith, E. L., and others. Maintenance and 
inspection of electrical equipment, 

Smith, R. H. Question of "reasonable re- . 

turn," C513 
Sparks, W. C. Railroad crossings, 1419 
Sprout, Sidney. An operating engineer's view 

of single-phase railway work, 1565 
Stahl, M. Life and maintenance of car.e'iuip-, 710 

Stephens, B. R. Management of express busi- 
ness, 160 

Possibilities of a well-cjnducted depart- 
ment of publicity, 1083 

Steward, H. M. Life of manganese steel rail 
on curves, V196 

Still well, L. B. Candidacy of John Hays 
Hammond, T24 

Power consumption and speed in the New 

York subway, *6 

Symington, S. Gas burner for heating tire<>, 


Townley, Calvert. Question of fares, 316 


Voynow, C. B. Proposed new system of street 
railway construction, *ii9o 


Wallis, R. N., Address by, 1073 

Walsh, F. J. Cost of operation of freight and 
express departments, 228 

Weiss, H. F. Open tank method of preserv- 
ing timber, 1194 

Weston, C. V. Action necessary to assure a 
reasonable return on the investment, 

Whitacre, W. L. Central Electric interchange- 
able mileage ticket, C012 

White, E. M. Report of committee on collec- 
tion of blanks and forms, 1210 

Wood, C. V. Carrying express and ireigbi 
matter. 1069 

Wood, F. T. Testimony of. before New York 
Public Service Commission, 1255 

Woodbridge. J. E Instructions to operators 
in railway converter substations, *7<! 


Yapp, Thomas. Interstate Commerce classifi- 
cation, 124 

Young, P. S. Accounting methods of a hold- 
ing company, 1157 

June — December, 1908.] ~- 3 



Thermit "-ail welding : 

Compromise weld of deep and shallow rail, 

Union Railway of "New York City, 

——New York City. '157 

Accidents in Great Britain in 1907, 1082 

Composition, London, 209 

Report on, Engineering Association, 1089 

Wear of, Philadelphia, Statistics, 127 

Through routes denned by F. R. Ford, 1252 

Aluminum, in Cleveland, '971 

Forms, on various roads, '834 

Interchangeable, on 13 New York State 

interurban roads, 668 
Inters oangeahle mileage, of Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association, 335, C437, 
•640, 651, [Whitacre], C912, 919 

Interline. Indiana Union Traction Co., 


—Massachusetts fare increases, '149s 

Milk tickets, Michigan United Rys., *i620 

Strip with coupons, '1392 


Concrete tie construction [Clark], 1381; 

Comment, 1361; Discussion, .384 

Metal (Haslet and Haight), '355 

Reinforced concrete: 

(Corel!), '285 
Europe, *7oo 
Fort Wayne, Ind., *i20i 

Steel tie ••onstruction [Clarkl, 1331; Com- 
ment. 1361; Discussion, 1384 

Steel, Bos. on, 1286 

Wooden, Future for, 1565 

(See also Timber preservation) 

Timber preservation: 

Chestnut pole preservation, 282 

Committee of American Railway Engineer- 
ing & Maintenance of Way Associa- 
tion Report, 152 

Cross-arm preservation, 616 

Open-tank method [Weiss], 1194; Discus- 
sion, 1215 

Time tables: 

Automatic, Boston & Nori ; ern Ry., '760 

Method of preparing, M: .nphis, 35 

Train numbers indicate time and direc- 
tion, Sheboygan, Wis., 123 

Weather conditions a basis for schedules, 

Rochester, 1280 

Toledo, Ohio, Freight house, '83 

Toledo, Ann Arbor & Detroit R. R., 294, 605, 
644, 1475, 1666 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Traction 
Co., 294 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Ry., 293 

Traffic with steam road [Patterson], C039 

Toledo Railways & Light Co., 293, 360, 605, 

, , 774, 936 
Toledo Urban & Im'erurban Ry., 325 
Toledo & Western R. R., 1432 
Tools. (See Repair shop practice) 
Tower cars: 

Boston, *85=; 

St. Louis, *S:8 

Tower wagons: 

Brooklyn auto, *8s8 

Louisville, Ky., '"857 

Milwaukee, '862 

Philadelphia, '856 

St. Louis motor wagon, *ii9 

Track construction: 
Chicago, *42 

Concrete sub-base, Hartford, Conn., *666 

Cost of maintaining track with single and 

double-truck cars, 11 99 

Detroit, T-rail, ''343 

New York City, *i648 

Noise reduction on Chicago Elevated, 


Park streets, Boston, '911 

Proposed rail and double-tread wheel 

[Voynow], *ii9o; Discussion, 1214; 
[Nicholl], 0*1409 

Railroad crossings [Sparks], 1419; Discus- 
sion, 1452 

Roadbed and pavement [Hardin], 750 

San Francisco, Cal., '579 
Spiral curves, Table for, "342 

Standard practice in various cities, '843 

Texas Traction Co., *375 

Western New York & Pennsylvania Ry., 


Track department, Brooklyn buildings, *i642 
Trackless trolleys in Germany, 996 
Traffic promotion: 

Analysis of the traffic problem [Gonzen- 

bach], 958; Discussion, 963 

Boston & Northern Ry., *66o, "749 

Index to articles on. 1134 

-—Report of committee, Transportation & 
Traffic Association, 1131 

Train announcing device at Brooklyn Bridge 
[Lane], "908 

Train orders. (See Rules) 
, Train resistance: 

\ New York subway [Stillwell], 6; Corn- 

\ raent, 5 

V Recent investigations, 73 

Transfer table. Flush, Boston Elevated Ry., 

\ » * 9 ° 7 

\-Abuse of, Warning by Chicago Rys., 922 
\-Brooklyn, "84 
Chicago City Ry., '17 
yleveland system, 547 

Transfers: (Continued.) 
——Emergency, Brooklyn, "84 

Great Britain and Europe, 1325 

Indianapolis, 412 

Int rehange'with steam roads, Practice, 841 

Newton, Mass., Abolition, 1608 

Penalty clause, Staten Island Ry., 524 

Printing plant, Brooklyn, 116 

Richmond, Va., 58 

Sale of, in New York, 1338 

Salt Lake City, 138; [Hunt], 0551 

Shreveport, La., Legal decision, 371 

Statistics of transfer travel, 842 

Tickets, Chicago, '436 

(See also Tickets) 


Care of, in substations [Woodbridge], 79 

Oscillations in, Tests [Berg], 210 

Transmission towers. (See Power transmission 

Transportation & Traffic Association: 

Address by Mr. Ely, 989 

Committee reports, 1006, 1095, 1131, 1141 

Convention bulletin, 709 

Convention sessions, 963, 986. 1062, 1121 

Executive committee meeting, 600 

Fapers, 95S, 1001, 1069, 1083, 1085, 1129, 

1137, 1138, 1139. 1218 

President Allen's address, 954 

Rule committee meeting, 436 

Trenton, N. J., Folding overhead construction 

for bascule bridge, *i6i3 
Tri-City Railway. (See Davenport, la.) 
Trolley base, Roller-bearing: 

(G. E.), * 9 6o 

(T. S. Co.). *i 3 45. 

Trolley ears, Composition of, 1469 
Trolley frog, Minneapolis, *8.S7 
Trolley pole clarap, BlurTton, ind., "46 
Trolley pole earthing device for double-deck 

cars, *46 

Trolley pole turning trough, Los Angeles, *43o 
Trolley sleeves, Dead-end and splicing. *397 
Trolley wheel bushing, Graphite (U. C. F. Co.), 

Trolley wheels: 

Discussion on, 994 

General practice, Report on, 1023 

Inspection of, Report on, 1028 

Manufacture, Chicago City Ry., '264 

Sleet cutting (U. C. F. Co.), '1427 

Trolley wire: 

Height of, tofii 

New Haven R. R. [Murray], 1598 

Report on, 1088 

Troy & New England Ry., 1660 

Chicago Rys., '1330 

Curtis high-speed motor. *44, *ni5 

Denver & Interurban Ry., 759 

Maximum traction, center-bearing, 1116 

Maximum traction and double, Tests in 

New York, 1503 
Midland Ry. single-phase electrification, 


Milwaukee Northern Ry. (A. L. Co.), "354 

— —New Canaan branch of N. Y., N. H. & H. 
R. R., *9o 

Radial, iu Europe, Report on, 1320 

San Francisco, Cal., *s8i 

Standard, High-speed. 969 

Statistics of, European, 710 

Steel passenger car, Penn. R. R., '177 

Turbines, Steam: 

Comparing engine and turbine perform- 
ance, 532 

Data on experience of 32 companies, 1097 

Exhaust, Advantages of, 194 

Exhaust turbine re.-ults in Philadelphia and 
Scranton [Burleigh], 909 

Heat accumulators for [Battu], 1457 

Lubrication, 446 

Performance, Discussion, 1058 

Steel supports for second floor erection, 

Tests of Curtis turbines at' Quincy Point 

power station, 512 

i2,oco-hp, Buenos Ayres (Tosi), "86 

Turbines, Water. (See Water power plants) 


Union men, Attitude of some companies to- 
ward, 785 
Utica, N. Y.: 

Paving, Vitrified block, 1384 

T-rail, and costs, 1384 

Truck construction, "844 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry., Stopping signal, 

Valve, Air-sander [E. S. S. Co.], '1623 
Varnishes, Insulating. Report on, 1014 
Ventilation of New York subway, Arnold re- 
port, S49 : Comment, 531 
Ventilators for cars, 1441: [Evans], 1520 
Vestibules for city cars [Sjoberg], 980 
Vienna, Radial trucks in, 1320 
Vienna Municipal tramways, Annual report, 

Virginia, Fares, 412 

Virginia Passenger & Power Co., 294, 411, 453, 

487, 681, 1263, 1628, 1666 
Visalia, Cal., single-phase railway, "1566 

(Abbreviations: 'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 


Wager, S. D., + M 

Wagon storage, Brooklyn Rapid Transit Cm., 

Wagons. (See Emergency repair wagons; 

Tower wagons) 
Waiting stations: 

Berlin subway portals, '742 

Elevated railway, Boston, '425 

Inland Empire System, Palouse, Wash., 


Los Angeles, Cal.. Concrete, *827 

Springfield, 111., "1284 

Texas Traction Co., '379 

Washington, D. C. : 

Capitol Traction Co., 290 

Car house, '872 

Operating rules, 1629 

Washington, Arlington & Falls Church Ry., 
324, 1264 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric 
Ry., 60s, 774 

Dispatching signals, *40.J 

— —Overhead construction, 861 
Repair shops, *887 

Washington, Frederick & Gettysburg Ry., 360 
Washington Water Power Co., 1432, 1628 
Waste paper, Saving, 1236 
Water power plants: 

Economic importance of large stations 

[Petri], 1317 
— — European stations, Statistics, 13 18 
Portland, Ore., Cazadoro plant wrecked, 


Preservation of water powers of United 

States, 66 

Spokane, Wash,, '898 

Water purification for boilers ISibson], 1450 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry., Gaso- 
line motor car, *353 

Waterloo, la., Car house, "344 

Watertown, N. Y., Black River Traction Co., 
Fare increase disapproved, 186 

Wattmeters on cars. Discussion at .Munich, 1323 

Way matters, Report on, Engineering Associa- 
tion, 1189, 1190, 1194, 1196; Comment, 
1 171; Discussion, 1214 

Weber, H. L., * 1 355 

Wells, G. L., 1536 

West Jersey & Seashore R. R., Statistics of 
track, 422 

Westchester & Wilmington Street Ry., 294 
Western electric railway conditions as seen by 

B. V. Swenson, 280 
Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction 

Co. (See Olean, N. Y.) 
Westfield, Mass., Transfers, 490 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 

Readjustment, 250, 291, 322, 969, 1472, 

'SiO, '577, 1625 
Wheatley, W. W, 143S 
Wheel guards: 

(C. C. F. Co.), * P 8o » 

(Hudson & Bowrmg), '1657 

Wheel guard tests, New York Public Service 

Pittsburg, 1 22 1 

Schenectady, N. Y., 399, 513, '669, *7lt, 

761, Comment, 691 


Burner for heating tires, New Zealand, 


Cast iron, M. C. B. report, 161 

Chicago Kys., "1330 

Double-tread, Proposed [Voynow.l, '1190; 

[Nicholl], 0*1469 
Drag-fit method of assembling, Chicago, 

*2i3; Comment, 194; [Bacon], C317; 

[Osmer], C398 
Flat, Energy of blow delivered on rail, 

Hancock's formula, 1483 

Life of, in Europe, 710 

Steel-tired, and cast-steel in New York 

subway, '269 
White, J. H., 455 
Wilgus, W. ]., 775 
Wilson, H. L., 1229 

Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Ry., Single- 
phase locomotive [DeWitt], *340 

Winnebago Traction Co., 250, 411, 522 

Winona Interurban Ry. : 

Action to enforce Sunday service, 138 

Interchange of freight traffic, 1667 

Wire specifications, Importance of, 259 

Wireless telegraphy, Mechanical application of, 
to railroads [Millener], "708 

Wiring, Car. (See Car wiring) 

Witnesses of accidents, Interviewing [John- 
son], 631 

Wood. (See Timber) 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute: 

Electrical laboratory, *39 

T est car, 142a 

Work cars: 

Boston, *854 

Milwaukee, "692 

Train, Denver. "596 

Train, Texas Traction Co., *38o 

Western New York & Pennsylvania Trac- 
tion Co., *339 

Yonkers Ry., 325, 455, 489, 719 
Y. M. C. A. street railway branches, Work of, 

Youngstown 8c Ohio River R. R., Construction 
details [Ricker], *68 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 


Published Every Saturday by the 

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copies are printed. 

The Electric Railway Journal 

With this issue the Street Railway Journal and the 
Electric Railway Review are merged into one paper entitled 
the Electric Railway Journal. It is thought that the 
new name recognizes better ,than the old the existing and 
the future condition of the industry we represent. When 
the Street Railway Journal was established 24 years ago 
the only cars that existed for local transportation were 
properly called street cars. The evolution which has fol- 
lowed the application of electricity, the rapid development 

of interurban systems, the increasing use of private rights- 
of-way and finally the adoption of electric power for trunk 
line service, are responsible for the electric railway of to- 
day, destined to be the foremost factor in the solution of 
the world-wide problem of transportation. The history of 
this evolution has been told in the pages of this journal, and 
in the future as in the past it will chronicle and interpret 
through editorial comment the broad questions of electric 
railway engineering and management, whether applied to 
street railways, interurban roads or heavy transportation. 

The Electric Railway Journal, a national technical 
paper, will describe fully the progress of electric railways. 
Its interests are necessarily bound with those of all the com- 
panies. What this journal relates that is done by railways 
in the East or West, North or South, is of interest to offi- 
cials of all lines, without respect to location. The problem 
of one company always bears some resemblance to the 
problem which another road has settled or with which it 
will be confronted at some later time. The interurban offi- 
cials in the West, the Eastern officials whose great problem 
is that of serious congestion and the representatives of 
small roads may be the means of furnishing information 
through the columns of the Electric Railway Journal 
that will be of vital importance to others whose lives are to 
be passed in this industry. 

Activity and progress in any industry can be gaged very 
closely by the character of its technical papers. If the field 
is developing or stagnant, if it possesses or lacks individual 
initiative and effort, this condition is sure to be reflected in 
its representative periodicals. On the other hand, if a 
technical paper fulfils its duties and lives up to its oppor- 
tunities, it can and should exercise an important influence 
on the future of those in whose interests it is published. 
Under the stress of modern business conditions the technical 
journal has become a necessity. In no other practicable 
way and with such a minimum of trouble can the active 
workers in any field acquire the information which they 

These conditions apply with special force in the electric 
railway field. The subjects to be discussed are daily be- 
coming more intricate, and each new subdivision makes the 
problems more difficult. The business which but a few 
years ago concerned isolated communities only is now in 
many cases interstate. Motor capacity, which was reckoned 
in tens of horse-power, now requires expression in three 
figures. A proper knowledge of electric railway engineer- 
ing at present includes acquaintance with formula undis- 
covered 10 years ago. We are dealing constantly with 
power stations whose auxiliaries alone easily surpass in 
output and efficiency the generating units of a decade since. 
Questions of legal, accounting, financial and operating na- 



[Vol. XXXII, No. i. 

ture, as well as those of the relations of corporations to the 
public, to the state and national governments and to their 
employees, are also crowding on apace. 

To keep abreast of the development, one cannot rely 
upon his own ability or experience, nor can he afford long 
to sit back in a state of complacency over the virtues of his 
"standard" system or apparatus, else he will soon be left 
far in the rear of the procession which is continually on the 
move. Neither can he rely entirely upon the knowledge 
acquired from attendance at occasional meetings of engi- 
neering or other professional societies. He must know how 
others in all parts of the world are solving the same prob- 
lems which he is facing, what new avenues are opening up 
for his progress, what short cuts if any are available, what 
difficulties are lying in his path. 

A technical journal is valuable, not because it is om- 
niscient, but because it is the business of its editors to col- 
late and present this information in readable form. And 
the more thoroughly the paper performs this task the 
more necessary it is to its readers. It is because the Street 
Railway Journal and the Electric Railway Revieiv have sup- 
plied this service with at least some degree'of success that 
they have received the support which they have from the 
electric railway field. The traditions, resources and 
energies of the separate papers have now been united, and 
it is believed that the Electric Railway Journal will be 
of even greater efficiency and usefulness than either of its 
predecessors. The publishers appreciate and are grateful 
for the assistance which they have received in the past, and 
with the same kind cooperation hope to make the Electric 
Railway Journal the ideal of what a technical paper 
should be. 

The Central Electric Traffic Association 

If the Central Electric Traffic Association is properly 
supported by the railways, its work should be of value in 
conserving and developing existing and new sources of 
revenue. Announcement that seven companies have agreed 
to meet the expense of establishing the association means 
that the next few months will determine whether the im- 
portant movement which has been undertaken through this 
association is to succeed or fail. While the question of 
membership must be decided by each company from knowl- 
edge of its own business and possibilities, it seems to us 
that a traffic association, well organized and administered, 
can be made to produce results that will yield an attractive 
return on the small expense involved, and that such an 
association deserves the most cordial cooperation that can 
be given by the companies for whose benefit it is to be 

Coney Island Service 

Further evidence to show the injustice of a 5-cent fare 
to Coney Island has been presented before the Public Serv- 
ice Commission by Howard Abel, comptroller of the Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit Company. After the arguments of the 
attorneys are concluded the issues involved will be taken 
under advisement by the commission. No testimony has 
been introduced to controvert that which has been offered 
by representatives of the companies concerned to demon- 
strate the unprofitableness of a 5-cent fare. It would not 

be just to hold that in the construction of the Coney Island 
lines the companies made investments that were so unwise 
that the public cannot fairly be expected to support them. 
The plain fact is that there is a public demand for the 
service on pleasant days during a period lasting from three 
to four months only. A 10-cent fare does not and would 
not restrain people from going to Coney Island, but poor 
service would. Under present conditions speedy transpor- 
tation is given between the two terminal points for 10 cents. 
The companies cannot afford to give for a 5-cent fare the 
same service that can be provided for a 10-cent fare. If 
the density of traffic that prevails on the Coney Island lines 
during the summer months could be extended throughout 
the year conditions would be changed radically. But with 
conditions as they are a large investment is required for 
equipment used only a small part of the year. 

Statements of Earnings 

Electric railways will feel immediately the effect of the 
improvement in general business which is more plainly in 
evidence as each day passes. Public service corporations 
of this character do not experience abnormally large gains 
in periods of great prosperity, and in times of reaction in 
business the decline in earnings of such properties is not 
so severe as that suffered by other transportation com- 
panies. Industrial expansion and activity produce in- 
creases in passenger traffic on electric lines, but the travel 
does not ordinarily decrease sharply with recession in busi- 
ness. Electric railways have an advantage over steam 
roads in the fact that, taking the companies in the aggre- 
gate, their gross earnings are derived almost wholly from 
short-haul passenger business, which, unlike the freight 
business, is not usually subject to abrupt change. Earnings 
of the steam railways have been seriously affected by the 
reduction in freight shipments, but the volume of freight 
traffic handled by interurban electric lines has not reached 
such proportions that decreases in receipts from this source 
change materially the total gross earnings. 

In our issue of this week, we publish the usual monthly 
table of earnings. The revenues of individual companies, 
taken at random, show some indication of the results which 
have been brought about by the changes in the business 
situation. Thus the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Com- 
pany, of Akron, Ohio, showed gross earnings of $129,804 
in April, 1908, a decrease of 2.3 per cent from the corre- 
sponding period of the previous year. Gross earnings of 
the United Railways of St. Louis in the four months ended 
April 30, 1908, decreased 1.6 per cent as compared with the 
corresponding period of 1907. The Detroit United Rail- 
way Company showed a decline of 1.4 per cent in gross 
earnings in the three months ended March 31, 1908, as 
compared with the quarter ended March 31, 1907. On the 
other hand, the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Com- 
pany gained 2.1 per cent in gross earnings during the four 
months ended April 30, 1908, as compared with the corre- 
sponding period of 1907. 

Some lines show larger percentages of change than those 
quoted, but it is significant of the reasonably stable charac- 
ter of the business that a change of 5 per cent to 10 per 
cent, if no alteration in mileage occurs, is regarded usually, 
in a monthly statement, as one of great importance. 

June 6, 1908.] 



Transfers for "Continuous" Trips 

The man who introduced transfers on street railway 
properties probably had little realization of the extent to 
which this privilege would later be abused. From a "neces- 
sary evil" the transfer has grown to be a loophole for the 
barest kind of fraud and a stretch of the principle beyond 
all reasonable limits. The number issued has grown in pro- 
portion, so that while only 1. 1 per cent of all the riding in 
New York was on transfers 20 years ago the ratio 
last year has increased to 55.13 per cent. The railway 
companies have not been lax in opposing the enforcement 
of this condition of universal transfers. They have been 
obliged by statute to extend their systems of transfers, but 
have vigorously fought damage suits resulting from the 
ejectment of passengers found violating the terms of its 
issue. New York City railways have been especial sufferers 
in this respect, owing partly to their extent and configura- 
tion and partly to the wording of the State law, so that 
though different colored transfers of various designs have 
been adopted, the courts have so ruled against the railways 
in ejectment cases that a practically universal transfer sys- 
tem has been forced upon them. 

In the light of the preceding state of affairs an announce- 
ment is welcomed that the New York Court of Appeals 
has decided that a "continuous" trip is not necessarily an 
all-day excursion. In the recent case of Kelly vs. New 
York City Railway Company, (New York Law Journal, 
May 1, 1908), the court held that the New York statute 
requiring consolidated street railway lines to carry over 
their various routes and for a single fare any passenger 
who should desire to make a continuous trip does not con- 
vey the meaning that this passenger may, even though by 
the abuse of the transfer privilege, reverse his course of 
travel and thus make a round trip. 

Popular prejudice against public-service corporations has 
had much to do with the regulation, or rather the non- 
restriction of the transfer privilege. The Court of Appeals 
did what generally would be recognized as just, were it not 
for this feeling, when it determined that the railway 
should, within limits, have the power to regulate the time 
and manner in which its passengers are transported. To 
emphasize more fully this exemplary judicial policy, we 
quote the concluding language of an opinion by Judge 
Gray : 

A railroad corporation, however artificial a person in 
contemplation of law, and however subject its charter to 
the reserved power of the Legislature to alter, has a right 
to exist under conditions as favorable as a sound State 
policy, a due regard for the public interest and a just and 
reasonable interoretation of the law will permit. It should 
not be burdened by unnecessary implication of a legislative 
meaning beyond what those considerations demand. When 
the Legislature, in unmistakable terms and within consti- 
tutional limits, has exercised its power to regulate cor- 
porate operations, it should be given full effect by the 
courts ; but no inferences unfavorable to a reasonable oper- 
ation of its franchises should be allowed from words sus- 
ceptible of use in more than one sense. 

The Supreme Court of the United States has recently 
decided that conspiracies to boycott interstate commerce 
are offenses against the Sherman Act and that service cor- 
porations upon which confiscatory rates are imposed by 

State statutes are entitled to relief by injunction against 
State administrative officers attempting to enforce the op- 
pressive laws. The highest Federal tribunal has of late 
made other determinations in the same general line — that 
is, to the end of upholding equality before the law, whether 
the interested parties be corporations or individuals. The 
decision of the New York Court of Appeals in the Kelly 
case is an example of the same enlightened judicial firm- 

Economies in Small Power Stations 

The low costs of producing electric current in large 
power stations, which are frequently quoted in papers and 
discussions at meetings of technical societies and elsewhere, 
are the envy and despair of the man in charge of the small 
station, whose own costs are double or treble the figures set 
before him. Without carefully studying his own condi- 
tions of operation and upkeep he is likely to ascribe the 
difference, for the most part, to the modern auxiliary equip- 
ment of the large station, coal handling machinery, auto- 
matic stokers, superheaters, efficient condensers and other 
devices for saving labor and conserving every unit of 
energy in the coal fired, which are refinements he cannot 
afford. It is true that these complicated and expensive 
auxiliaries contribute in no small part to the efficiency and 
economy of the generating station as a whole, but without 
constant careful supervision over every detail of operation, 
the large plant would burn almost as much coal per kilowatt 
delivered to the busbars as the smaller one. The secret of 
the efficiency of large power stations lies as much in their 
management and operation as in their equipment. Every 
ounce of coal and every drop of water and oil is made to do 
its full duty; every employee and every machine is worked 
at the most efficient load. Waste is reduced to a minimum. 

There is, of course, more energy unavoidably wasted in 
the small plant through lack of auxiliary apparatus than 
in the large plant, but it is also true that there is frequently 
an unnecessarily large percentage of lost energy. The 
problem before the manager of the small plant is to cut 
down this avoidable waste. He must begin by learning 
first, what each piece of apparatus is actually doing; sec- 
ond, what each piece of apparatus is capable of doing under 
different conditions. Few power station engineers are 
thoroughly familiar with the first of these requisites and 
fewer still with the second. They do not know, for ex- 
ample, the number of heat units in each pound of coal fired 
in their boilers. The coal is usually bought from a local 
dealer by specifying the size and district from which it is 
shipped. Soft coal, in particular, varies widely in its com- 
position and combustible qualities. One pound of coal may 
contain several thousand less heat units than another 
pound of coal taken from the same district or even from 
the same mine. Most large power stations buy coal under 
specifications requiring a given number of heat units per 
pound, as shown by analyses of samples taken as delivered 
Many such contracts, as has been explained in this paper, 
contain a sliding scale of prices, depending upon the com- 
bustion tests of samples. Payment is made for a given 
quantity of heat units and not for a given number of tons 
of a mixture of combustible and non-combustible, varying 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

widely in its composition. Paying for ashes, sulphur and 
moisture in coal is the first and one of the largest wastes 
which can usually be found in the operation of a small 
power plant. 

Automatic stokers, forced draft fans, coal conveyors and 
other auxiliary apparatus in the boiler room are not neces- 
sary or essential for economical burning of coal on the 
grates. A skillful fireman who will anticipate to some ex- 
tent the demands on the boilers for steam and who knows 
how to handle the draft dampers and feed water pumps, can 
make a record in the average small boiler room which will 
compare favorably with the records of the largest steam 
generating stations. Perhaps the greatest difficulty is ex- 
perienced in having the boiler room force anticipate the 
demand for steam from the engine room without blowing 
off or wasting coal. The usual practice in stations which 
have a peak load is to keep the fires under one boiler 
banked and to start this boiler when the peak comes on. 
Very often the boilers under steam could carry the peak 
without starting up the extra boiler if they were forced 
beyond their maximum rating. It is true that they might 
not steam as economically under a heavy overload as under 
normal conditions ; but the loss due to lower efficiency 
should be compared with the total consumption of coal 
under the extra boiler during the time its fires are banked 
and the time it is working. The maximum capacity of sta- 
tionary boilers is seldom reached in practice. Compared to 
a locomotive boiler, they are worked at a very low rate of 

Another common source of waste in the boiler room is 
cold air leaking through the boiler settings and lowering 
the temperature of the furnace gases as well as reducing the 
effective draft over the grates. A draft gage and one or 
two high reading thermometers are convenient instruments 
for locating leaks of this kind. 

In the engine room, the measure of efficiency is the con- 
sumption of steam generated in the boiler room. The steam 
passing through the main steam pipes contains a certain 
amount of energy and the engines have a certain maximum 
capacity for converting the latent heat energy of the steam 
into mechanical energy which is in turn converted by the 
generators into electrical energy. Every pound of steam 
which leaks from the pipes or passes into the exhaust with- 
out having given up the maximum possible amount of 
energy is lost. Condensation in the pipes due to defective 
or insufficient lagging, inefficient adjustment of valve gears, 
creation of excessive back pressure in the exhaust are all 
sources of avoidable waste. These are some of the operat- 
ing features of a power plant which are often neglected in 
the small station and are always carefully watched in the 
large station*. The operation of multiple units in the engine 
room presents the same chances for waste as in the boiler 
room. If by a slight change in the valve gear an engine 
can be operated at 50 per cent overload on less steam than 
two such units operating at three-quarters load, then it is 
economy to run the single unit. 

Maintenance in the large plant is usually more thorough 
and constant than in small stations. The chief engineer of 
the small power station ought to spend from four to six 
hours a day on maintenance wbrk, which he can do by over- 
lapping the engine room shifts. Adjusting valve gears. 

cleaning boilers, packing pumps, tightening steam fittings 
and many other details of general maintenance work can be 
attended to with the occasional assistance of one of the 
working shift and at no extra cost for labor or material. 
Simple records of this work are valuable in determining 
when any part of the equipment has outlived its usefulness 
or is being forced too hard. 

Control of Municipal Public Service Corporations 

There has been no noticeable decrease in the agitation 
over the regulation of public-service corporations compared 
with that of a year ago, but less bitterness is being ex- 
pressed by public officials and in the daily press than dur- 
ing 1907. Whether this condition is due primarily to the 
public alarm over the effect of the campaign conducted with 
so much display of hysteria against all corporations in con- 
trol of public utilities or to a better knowledge of the con- 
ditions, is another question. Probably both reasons have 
had their influence. Looking back upon the path which 
has been already made a variety of conditions is found. 
The problem of each municipal public-service corporation 
is essentially local and many individual electric railways 
have escaped the burden of drastic legislation, with which 
other less fortunate, but not necessarily poorly managed, 
companies are contending. Few railways have passed 
through periods of readjustment of relations with munic- 
ipalities unscathed. Some have been overwhelmed by their 
troubles, and in Detroit, Toledo and Cleveland they have 
borne more than their full share of the violence with which 
the problems of regulation and franchise relations have 
been attacked. 

With the public in a calmer frame of mind, the question 
of regulation may be approached with proper appreciation 
of the needs and rights of the railways. Consideration of 
the extent to which regulation is advisable, is necessary, 
because of the general insistence upon some form of super- 
visory State or municipal control. It is just as proper that 
the demands of the public should be tempered as that the 
service of the corporation should be regulated. The attitude 
of a public-service commission should be founded upon the 
desire to do justice to each interest. If the corporations 
have committed misdeeds in the past, so have the people 
and their representatives in public office. If corporations 
have rendered inadequate service, they have done so fre- 
quently because of the fact that their rates of fare have 
not enabled them to furnish good service. When a cor- 
poration is driven to the last extremity by demagogic pub- 
lic officials and makes the best bargain it can for its life 
by accepting an ordinance based on improperly low rates 
of fare, it saves its corporate existence, but at the expense 
of distress to security-holders, for which the public through 
its representatives is partly responsible. Before there can 
be judicious regulation of public utilities the public must 
recognize that the rate of fare should leave sufficient mar- 
gin above expenses and taxes to permit a fair return on the 
investment. The facts concerned can be taught only by 
intelligent discussion, in which the representatives of the 
public and the corporations must participate, with the iden- 
tical object of solving problems in the best and most equi- 
table manner. 

An interesting contribution to this subject is contained in 

June 6, 1908.] 



the Annals of the American Academy of Political and 
Social Science for May, 1908, which is a monograph on the 
"Control of Municipal Public-Service Corporations." The 
articles are not confined to a consideration of the transpor- 
tation situation only, but embrace gas, electric lighting, 
telephone, sewerage and water supply as well. The prin- 
ciples involved in all are so largely the same that they can 
well be considered together. All are based, or should be 
based, upon the theorem well expressed in the communi- 
cation of William A. Bancroft, president, Boston Elevated 
Railway, on moderation in the control of public-service 
corporations. He says : 

That the public should be assured of getting the best 
attainable facilities at the lowest fare charge for which 
they can be given, every intelligent street railway man 
agrees. That no quasi-public service of any character can 
be rendered for a price less than one which will provide an 
income sufficient to pay operating expenses and give an 
adequate return on the capital invested, every fair-minded 
citizen admits. 

The broader-minded members of several State commis- 
sions have approached the question with this intent, but in 
other cases no great concern has been shown over the cost 
of furnishing the service. To demand 3-cent fares with 
franchises limited to a short term of years and to disre- 
gard entirely the cost of car operation or the question of 
amortization is virtually to preach confiscation. While the 
latter doctrine may win the votes of the unthinking, it is 
not one of which this country is proud, nor will it long 
find acceptance in a land where respect for property rights 
is a fundamental principle. If the companies do not find 
in new legislation the protection they require they must 
seek refuge in the courts. 

Tests of Power Consumption in the New York Subway 

In the preliminary calculations of motor capacity for the 
trains in the New York subway, the electrical engineers of 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company had to face a 
problem for which there was no precedent as a guide. It 
is true that the traffic and length of trains on the Manhattan 
Elevated Railway approximated to a certain degree those 
which were expected in the subway. It is also true that 
the Metropolitan Railway in Paris and several of the under- 
ground railways in London had been in operation for some 
time and their figures as to the resistance of trains in tun- 
nels were available, but neither of these cases was so close 
to the conditions presented in the New York subway as to 
offer any exact criteria. The New York conditions were 
more similar to those in Paris than to those of the tube lines 
in London, because in the latter the cars fit very closely the 
cross section of the tunnel, and as each track is in a sepa- 
rate tube the movement of a train resembles somewhat 
that of a piston in a cylinder. But in all of the foreign 
examples, the trains are very much lighter and shorter than 
those which were proposed for the New York subway, and 
the traffic was much less than that which it was known 
would have to be carried by the trains of the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company. In like manner the experience 
secured with the Manhattan Elevated Railway did not 
offer very much assistance in estimating the power required 
because of the very great difference when operating in a 
subway and in the open. Nevertheless, the scheme for 
electrical operation had to be determined long in advance 

of the completion of the subway and, as everyone knows, 
it was decided by L. B. Stillwell, then electrical director 
of the company, to use five motor cars and three trail cars 
in an eight-car train and three motor cars and two trailers 
in a five-car train. The question of motor capacity had 
then to be worked up with the meager data at hand, with 
the result that two motors of 200 hp were adopted for each 
motor car. The results attained are described in a very 
interesting article this week by Mr. Stillwell, entitled 
"Power Consumption and Speed in the New York Subway." 
They are the first authentic data on the subject. 

Three points stand out prominently in this summary of 
statistics. The first is the closeness with which the re- 
quired electric motor performance was predetermined. 
Engineering estimates sometimes have the reputation of 
being wide of the mark secured in the completed work. 
However this may be in other branches of engineering, 
the characteristics of electrical machinery are so well 
understood that preliminary calculations, if carefully made, 
can be relied upon as coming close to actual performance. 
In this instance the undertaking was the largest in the 
world, and the conditions were without precedent. Never- 
theless, the actual performance of the motors was slightly 
better than that required by the specifications, in spite of 
the fact that the margin of safety allowed had been re- 
duced by the later adoption of heavier cars. The curves 
of best performance show that with ideal acceleration and 
braking the results in practice would have shown an even 
greater margin between actual and theoretical motor per- 
formance. It has been in the additional length of station 
stops over that contained in the specifications that delay 
has come. 

The second point worthy of note is the actual amount 
of the train resistance found in subway operation. The 
difference in power between rush hours and the slack 
hours is singularly little, being for express trains, per mile, 
2.26 kw-hours in the rush hours and 2.02 kw-hours in the 
slack hours. The same figures for the local trains are 
respectively 2.89 and 2.74, with smaller loads of passengers 
and with the same length of train, but with more frequent 
stops. Reduced to a ton-mile basis the four figures re- 
spectively are 58.2, 56.8, 78.6 and 78.1 watt-hours. These 
figures might be found to vary considerably in the case of 
other subways, as they are necessarily dependent upon the 
shape of the tunnel and other factors. They would even 
vary in different parts of the New York subway. Never- 
theless, as the first published statistics of power consump- 
tion under the conditions given, they are extremely instruc- 
tive and will afford a good basis for future calculations. 

The third point mentioned above relates to the possible 
means of reducing the effect of these long station stops or 
shortening the stops themselves in subway operation, espe- 
cially during rush-hour service. This is a point which Mr. 
Stillwell does not discuss, but it is fair to assume from his 
article that no great relief would be afforded by an increase 
in the number or the capacity of the motors. Final help can 
come only from shorter stops, but how these can best be 
obtained yet remains to be determined. Whatever is done, 
it is clear that the present tests will furnish data which will 
be of value in any future work. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 



"The difference between theory and practice" is a phrase 
often upon the lips of the man who loves to speak of him- 
self as "a practical man." That from "theory" results in- 
evitably realized in practice can be predetermined with pre- 
cision is a fact which the man educated by experience only 
is slow to believe, and even engineers who should know 
that results attained can never involve contradiction of 
correct theory are but too apt to contribute to popular 
ignorance by careless use of these terms. 

It has been suggested that publication of the results of 
certain speed and power tests carried out in the New York 
subway about two and one-half years ago will be interest- 
ing to the engineer as showing how accurately results 
planned for in the operation of electric trains can be at- 
tained in practice. 

I may be permitted to express the hope, also, that pub- 
lication of these and similar facts relative to the work of 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company in equipping and 
operating the New York subway may tend in some degree 
to convince hostile critics of that company that its work 
has been well done ; that it has spared no expense in its 
efforts to comply with and even surpass the requirements 
of the Rapid Transit Commission, under whose specifica- 
tions the subway was built and equipped, and that the men 
who equipped and are now operating this property deserve 
the thanks of the New York public and not its censure. 

With a view to determining accurately the results at- 
tained in practical operation of the subway in respect 
especially of speed and power consumption, the directors 
of the company authorized the purchase and equipment 
of an expensive and elaborate outfit of testing instruments 
to be assembled in a test car and used for such purposes 
as the company's engineers might deem advisable. This 
action was taken before the subway was operated, and fol- 
lowing the inauguration of its service a series of tests was 
undertaken under the immediate direction of my associate, 
H. S. Putnam. 

Two main objects were sought in these tests. One was 
to determine the actual speed of both local and express 
trains between stations and between terminals during rush 
and non-rush hours ; the other was to determine the power 
consumption under different conditions of speed, load and 
station stops. 

The tests were exhaustive, the results were worked out 
in great detail, and those relating to power consumption 
constitute valuable data on the resistance of trains in sub- 
way or tunnel service. The figures show also the fact 
that while during rush hours the schedule speed of express 
trains sometimes falls below 25 m.p.h., it is in no way due 
to defect in the electric equipment or error in the calcula- 
tions of the company's engineers, the falling off in speed 
being due to the increase in length of station stops beyond 
the anticipated average of 25 seconds per stop in express 
service, to interchange of traffic at express stations, and to 
delays between stations. The tests show that with the 
equipment used, it would be easily possible with 25-second 
stops to maintain a schedule of 2-5 m.p.h. during rush 
hours in the direction of maximum traffic. They also show 
that no material improvement in the speed of express trains 
in the operation of maximum traffic during rush hours 
could be effected by any practicable increase in the power 
equipment of the trains. In other words, they show that 

the factors which limit the schedule between terminals in 
express service are the length of station stop and the limit- 
ing safe speed on curves. 

Tests were conducted upon the Subway Division on April 
17 and 19, 1905, and upon the Manhattan Elevated Divi- 
sion on May 15 and June 9 of the same year. The data 
sought were : 

(1) Speeds. 

(2) Stops and delays. 

(3) Passenger loads. 

(4) Interchange of passengers. 

(5) Train weights. 

(6) Train resistance. 

(7) Power consumption. 

(8) Rates of acceleration. 

(9) Rates of braking. 

(10) Voltage drops. 

(11) Manipulation of trains. 


The test car was one of the motor cars of the regular 

New York Subway — Interior of Test Car 

type, which was equipped by the engineers with all neces- 
sary apparatus and instruments, and was then substituted 
for one of the motor cars of the train. Passengers were 
allowed to board the train as usual, but were excluded from 
the test car, which was loaded with rails to give it a weight 
approximately that of the average load of passengers car- 
ried by the other cars of the train. This test train was 
operated during rush hours and during periods of light 
traffic, so as to obtain information from all conditions of 

A general view of the interior of the test car with its 
equipment of instruments is shown on this page. The equip- 
ment consisted of the following: 

A General Electric recording ammeter with time attach- 
ment and a Weston ammeter for check. 

June 6, 1908.] 



A General Electric record- 
ing voltmeter with time at- 
tachment and Weston volt- 
meter for check. 

A revolution counter, de- 
signed by Mr. Putnam for de- 
termining the speed and dis- 
tance values, the revolutions 
being recorded on the volt- 
meter time record. 

A stop watch was used to 
check the records of elapsed 
time as shown directly in five- 
second marks on the voltmeter 
and ammeter records. 

A gage for showing the 
pressure in the brake cylinder. 

A Bristol voltmeter was 
provided for recording the line 

Provision was also made for 
counting all passengers re- 
ceived and discharged by each 
car at each and every station. 

The voltage at substations 
was read every 5 seconds dur- 
ing runs Nos. 1 and 9. 

The voltage at the power 
house was also read at the 
same intervals during the same 

All ampere and .voltage 
measurements were made on 
motor No. 2 on the test car 
and represent the energy con- 
sumed by but one motor on 
the train. Previous to mak- 
ing the test, however, the train 
was calibrated by placing am- 
meters in circuit with each 
motor on the train. The cur- 
rent readings on each motor 
were compared with simul- 
taneous readings on motor No. 
2, at various current values, 
during series and multiple op- 
eration. From these readings 
a ratio was obtained between 
the energy consumption of the 
motor under observation and 
the total for the train. This 
method eliminated variations 
introduced by differences in 
wheel diameters and motor 

Each motor car of the sub- 
way type was equipped with 
two GE 69-B motors with a 
gear ratio of 20:63 an d a 
wheel diameter, when new, of 
33-25 in. 

On cars of the subway type 
the automatic accelerating re- 
lay in use was adjusted, as in 
practice, to obtain an accelera- 
tion of 1.5 miles per hour per 

Distance in Feet 
from will Street 

5 Kilowatts 

Miles per Hour 


second with an empty train composed of three motor and 
two trail cars, corresponding to the train used in the regu- 
lar local service on the subway division. 
Test trains were run in regular service as follows : 


Express service, 145th Street and Lenox Avenue to Fulton 
Street and return. 

Run No. 1, April 17, 8 cars, 8:19 to 9:29 a. m. (10 motors) 
Run No. 2, April 17, 8 cars, 9:58 to 11:00 a. m. (10 motors) 
Run No. 3, April 17, 8 cars, 4:37 to 5:46 p. m. (10 motors) 
Run No. 4, April 17, 5 cars, 9:15 to 10:13 p. m. ( 6 motors) 

Local service, 145th Street and Lenox Avenue to City Hall 
and return. 

Run No. 5, April 19, 5 cars, 8:18 to 9:47 a. m. (6 motors) 

Run No. 6, April 19, 5 cars, 10:45 to 12:03 P- m. (6 motors) 

Run No. 7, April 19, 5 cars, 4:22 to 5:45 p. m. (6 motors) 

Run No. 8, April 19, 3 cars, 9:04 to 10:20 p. m. (4 motors) 

Position in train. Car No. Type of car. Weight empty. 

3 3582 steel motor 77,225 lb. 

4 3545 steel motor 76,295 lb. 

5 2138 wood trailer 50,851 lb. 

6 3615 steel motor 76,4361b. 

7 3159 wood trailer 5*flP ft- 

8 (north) 3492 steel motor 76,780 lb. 

Total, 268.15 tons 
In addition to passengers the train also carried: 

Excess weight of iron and instruments on test car 8367 lb. 

29 men in test crew, at 152.5 lb 44221b. 

8 men in regular crew, at 150 lb 1200 lb. 

Total 14,000 lb. 

This is equivalent to 100 passengers at 140 lb. each. 

The flywheel effect on the motor cars was estimated at 






ScheJule Speed-M.P.H. 




15.. 2 

Time of Bun - Sees. 





Time of Stop » 





Av. Brakius-M.P. H. P.S. 





Max. 11 11 





Av;Initi.'il Accel. .1 





Av.KW. P.TralD 





Av.KW. P.Car 





KW. Hrs.P.Car Mile 





Watt Hrs. P. Ton Mile 





c a 




1500 750 30 

1000 500 20 

500 250 10 

5 CAR LOCAL- U6th ST. TO 125 ™ ST. 
5:38:09"P.M. TO 5:39:43"P31. 
Curve I - Full tine - Results observed in. 

Test made April 19, 19U5- Local Run No.7 
Curve II- Broken Line-Theoretical Curves for Maximum 
Running Speeds with Average Bra'king of IH Miles P.H.P. S. 

Curve III - Broken Line - Theoretical Curves to give 

Scheduled Speed of 16.2 M.P. Hr. with 15 Sees. Stop 
Curve IV Broken Line-Theoretical Cu-rve Illustrating 

Proper Method of Running to give same Schedule Speed 
forJEntire Run as in Test (13.8 M.E H'r.)with same Stops 

No. of Cars per Train — <5 
No. of Motor Cars 3 
No. of Trail Cars 2 
Motors pecTrain 6 
G.E.^M B Motors 
(iear Ratio - 20/6S 
Diam. of Wheel - 82.S4" 
No, of Passengers Incl . Crew P, Car - 5l" 
Weight of Loaded Train 138.6 Tons 
Weight of Empty Train 165.7 Tons 
Distance 116th St. to 126th St. -2850 Ft. 
Fly-Wheel JEffect-2.89 Tons P.Motor- 
M.otor and^Gear Friction-Eiiuiv. T.E.-50 Lbs.F. Mot, 
Correction Constants for Motor Character 
and Wheel Diam. (Power Curves)-3.D2 for 
Series and ft.ll.for Multiple 

| Av. Voltage in Series = 521 
J Av. Voltage-Accelerating in Multiple 

2350 .-Tl25th St. 


72.4 Seconds is the 
time necessary to 
give schedule speed 
of 16.2 with 
stops as made in 

40 50 


Between Prospect and Simpson Streets on the Westches- 
ter branch coasting tests at low speeds were made of the 
eight, five and three-car trains of the subway type which 
were operated on the elevated structure, and of the seven, 
six and three-car trains of the Manhattan type. 


Run No. I was made April 17, 1905, with an eight-car 
express train starting from 145th Street and Lenox Avenue 
at 8:19 a. m., reaching Fulton Street and returning to the 
starting point, which it reached at 9:29 a. m. The train 
ran express between Ninety-Sixth Street and Brooklyn 
Bridge and local for the balance of the run. It was made 
up as follows : 

Position in train. Car No. Type of car. Weight empty. 

1 (south) 3282 wood motor 76,6851b. 

2 3124 wood trailer 51,133 lb. 

9650 lb. and of the trail cars at 3175 lb., making a total 
for the train of 28.89 tons. 

It is not proposed to give here all of the figures secured 
during this test, but the principal data are given in Table I. 
The summaries are given in Tables II and III. 

Tables IV to VI give the corresponding figures for the 
round trip run made between the same points in slack 
hours. The train was the same as in the preceding case 
and ran over the same route. It left the station at 145th 
Street and Lenox Avenue at 9:57 a. m. and on the return 
trip reached the station at 10:59 a - m - 

In addition to the two runs mentioned, two additional 
round trip runs were made, one during the afternoon rush 
hours of April 17, 1905, and one about 16 p. m. of the same 
day. The results will not be given in detail here because, 
so, far as power consumption is concerned, they did not 
show variations of any extent over those already quoted. 


TABLE I — Express Run in Rush Hours 


Distance in 




M. P. H R. 






§ g 
3 O. 














Average Speed 

Rate Accel. 
M. P. H. P. S. 

Rate Braking 
M. P. H. P. S. 

av'g. kw. 





Pass. Exch'd 
Per Sec. Per Car 



Equiv't. Test 



























66 . 7 






1 .49 

1 .214 
1 .01 
1 .27 
1 .34 

326 5 
411 !8 
405 .2 

40 81 
5 1 *47 

14 22 

3 56 



79 . 8 







68 . 9 

287 .5 
299 .4 
337 . 

441 . 

72— Gr'd C't. 
Gr'd. Ct.— 14 
14— B.B. 







57 . 

20. 1 



1 .04 
1 14 
1 .02 




2 .09 
2 .72 

67 .8 



. 16 






342 .6 

562 . 


B.B. — Fulton 

Fulton— B. B 










28 .65 
82 .94 

3 . 58 

4 42 

1 895 











B. B.— 14 
14 — Gr'd. Ct. 
Grd. Ct— 72 


243 . 2 


44 . 3 




40 . 


1 .73 




22 .29 

2 . 15 






1 1 7 




283 .3 
282 .7 

405 . 
342 . 


96 — 110 












21 .8 







21 . 


1 .67 
1 .65 

1 .53 
1 .38 
1 .305 
1 .68 



52 .36 

12 .06 

1 .278 
3 .24 













— 5* 




7 . 

275 .6 


125 .9 
137 .4 

Total Local 













153 .4 











1955 . 

Tot. Express 




327 . 



427 .2 



1 .033 



232 .4 




808 .414 




42 .42 

310 .871 3992 . 

* Net error in passenger count. Note: Passengers "Received" and "Discharged" apply to the station first named under "Station." 

TABLE II — Summary op Express Run in Rush Hours 
















Kw. H. 


Kw. H. 


Kw. H. 


Total Round Trip 







232 .4 


153 .4 





Series Acceleration 














Series Running 






7 .08 








Multiple Acceleration 


1 .52 




1 .78 



15 . 1 





Multiple Running 














Rheostat Losses 


5 .04 





Current Applied 






43 . 14 











321 .3 




















To determine the exact effect of length of station stops 
on speed of train in miles per hour, Tables VII, VIII and 
IX were then compiled. They show respectively the speed 
in miles per hour between Brooklyn Bridge and Ninety- 
Sixth Street with the stops actually made, with the stops 
deducted and with 25-second stops as originally specified. 
In these tables the stops at Brooklyn Bridge and Ninety- 
sixth Street are deducted from the time measurements, but 
the intermediate stops are included. 

Considerable attention was given to obtaining the length 
of station stops under varying conditions, but this subject 
will not be considered here, as the figures depend entirely 
upon the design of the car, which has lately been modified, 
and the time permitted for stops, on which a limit has now 
been set, with the consent of the Public Service Commis- 

Of greater interest, however, is the investigation which 
was made to determine the best possible speed time between 
different express stations. The results of the study of the 
run between Ninety-sixth Street and Seventy-second Street 
is shown on page 7. In this diagram the full line in 

TABLE III — Summary of Express Run in Rush Hours 



Entire Run 

Average Speed M. P. H 

Average Speed Exc. Stop 

Average Length of Stop 

Average Accel. M. P. H. P. S 

Average Braking M. P. H. P. S 

1 .43 
1 .03 

1 .47 

21 .85 
1 .46 
1 . 101 

Average Weight of Train T 

Total Ton Miles 

Passenger Ton Miles 

% Passenger to Car T. Ms 

3992 . 
545 . 1 

1955 . 


Total Passengers Carried 

Average Passengers Pr. Car 

Average Ride Pr. Passenger. Miles . 
Av.Pass.Exch'd Pr.CarPr.Sec. Stp. 



1 .85 

5 .07 

Kw.H. Per Train M 

Kw.H. Per Car Mile 

Watt H. Pr. Ton Mile 

W.H. Pr. Pass. Ton M 

Av.Kw. Pr. Train 

Av.Kw. Pr. Car. 

Av.Kw. Pr. Ton 

Av.Kw. Pr. T. Pass 

1 .178 




41 . 1 
1 .076 
. 8.92 

Curve I gives the curve of actual results obtained from test 
run No. I, mentioned above, and Curve II the theoretical 



TABLE IV — Express Run in Slack Hours 

[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 


Distance in 




M. P. HR. 






C u 

















Average Speed 

Rate Accel. 
M. P. H. P. S. 

Rate Braking 
M. P. H. P. S. 

av'g. kilow. 


Watt Hours 
Per Ton Mile 



Passengers Ex. 
P. Sec. P. Car 




Equiv't. Test 













H v 
n V 






P- Car 

South — Local 

145 — 135 







144 . 7 


7 . 

98 . 4 






1 .24 
1 .79 


45 1 . 

56 .4 
55 ^3 

12 66 

3 17 
3 .20 
3 .86 

2 .72 

107 .5 









1 8 . 83 

281 .24 
286 . 98 

137. S 
378 .2 

96 — 72 
72— Gr'd.Ct. 
Gr'd. Ct.— 14 
14— B.B. 


254 . 



31 .8 
42 . 





1 .07 





1 .86 
1 .63 
1 .95 

61 .3 
51 .6 








1 5 . 89 

284 . 04 

498 . 


B B. — Fulton 

Fulton— B B. 









1 .29 


73 8 

9 2 
27 .3 

7 . 46 
6 16 

2 66 

91 .7 





.43| 56 
*— 5 
.13' 63 





81 .4 
81 .4 

B. B.— 14 
14 — Gr'd. Ct. 
Gr'd. Ct. — 72 


203 . 5 

171 .3 



19 5 
41 .7 


1.16 1.66 
1.53 1.10 
1.36 1.12 
1 . 41 j .90 


47 . 

37 .42 

2 .28 
2 . 12 









1 J . ' J 


282 .29 

407 . 



91 . 












1.42 1.38 
1 .25-! 1.30 
1.55 1.54 

1.43 2.03 
1 .45 

532 . 
495 . 

42 .3 
42 .6 
61 .8 

7 .04 

1 .80 
3 .05 
1 .76 



















Tot. Local 




353 .2 




1.35 1.37 




2 .74 




.21 83 






Tot. Express 


1891 .5 

1060.3'332 .7 


184.6 24.47 

1.30 1.10 




2 .02 




.38 145 






* Net Error in Passenger Count. Note: Passengers "Received" and "Discharged" apply to the station first named under "Station." 

TABLE V — Summary op Express Run in Slack Hours 
















Kw. H. 


Kw. H. 


Kw. H. 


Total Round Trip 


































3 .39 






Multiple Acceleration 


2 . 14 












Multiple Running 

861 .3 

45 .80 












Rheostat Losses . 

Current Applied 









17 .61 



685 .9 





17 .46 

632 .8 

17 .02 

Intermediate Stops 







j 617 










Avg. Speed M.P.H 

Avg. Speed Exc. Stop 

Avg: Length of Stop 

Avg. Accel. M. P. H. P. S. 
Avg Brak'gM. P. H.P. S. 


Avg..Wt. of Train T 

Total Ton Miles 

Pass. Ton Miles 

%Pass. To Car T. Ms 


Total Passengers Carried 

Avg. Pass. Pr. Car 

Av. Ride Pr. Pass. Miles 

Av.Pass.Exch'd Pr.Car Pr.Sec. Stop 

Kw. H. Pr. Train Mile. 

Kw. H. Pr. Car Mile 

Watt Hr. Pr. Ton Mile. . 
W. H. Pr. Pass .Ton Mile 

Avg. Kw. Pr. Train 

Avg. Kw. Pr. Car 

Avg. Kw. Pr. Ton 

A-vg. Kw. Pr. T. Pass. . . 


1 .30 

285 .3 

4. 18 

16 .20 
2 .02 

1 .'390 


13 .07 
1 .37 


22 .9 
1 .45 

21 .90 
78. 1 


Entire Run 



675 . 


63 .9 
42 .8 

1 .207 
21 .87 




Speed — Actual, Including Stops 



Average Both Directions 

Theoretical calculations 




Run No. 1 




Run No. 2 




Run No. 3 




Run No. 4 







Speed — Excluding Stops 



Average Both Directions 




Run No. 1 




Run No. 2 

28. 1 

27 .2 


Run No. 3 







June 6, 1908.] 



curve for minimum power consumption between the two 
points. A comparison of the two curves shows that the 
actual application of current was theoretically very nearly 
correct, but was continued 20 seconds too long; that the 
coasting period was too short and that the brakes were 
applied too soon, requiring a subsequent release. The 
average rate of braking or deceleration in Curve I is but 
0.87 mile per hour per second, whereas the braking portion 
of Curve II is based upon an assumed average of 1.5 and a 
maximum of 2 m.p.h.p.s. The kilowatt curves for the two 
runs are also given on the diagram, the current consump- 
tion for Curve II ending at 1 min. 24 sec, while that for 
Curve I ends at 1 min. 44 sec. The result was a difference 
of 0.31 kw-hour per car mile between the two curves. 

TABLE IX — Express Speed Between 96th Street and Brooklyn 
Bridge, M. P. H. 


Speed — With 25 Sec. Stops Only 



Average Both Directions 

Theoretical calculations 




Run No. 1 




Run No. 2 




Run No. 3 




Run No. 4 




Curves I and II are based on the same running time, 
2 min. 45 sec, between stops. To determine the minimum 
running time possible with the equipment available, Curve 
III was drawn. In this run the average kilowatts per train 
are increased from 382 in Curve I to 455, with, the same rate 
of acceleration (1.25 m.p.h.p.s.) as in Curve II. The cur- 
rent is kept on, however, up to 2 min. n*/> sec, when the 
brakes are applied with the same rate of braking, or 1.5 
m.p.h.p.s. average and 2 m.p.h.p.s. maximum. The result is 
a saving of nine seconds over Curves I and II, or a total of 
2 min. 36 sec. This figure, it might be stated, is five seconds 
less than that required to make a schedule speed of 25 
miles per hour with 25-second station stops, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that the train weighed 340 tons, as against 
an average weight of 296 tons used in the preliminary cal- 
culations. The data on power consumption per car and 
per train in the table in the diagram for Curve III are 
based upon a station stop of 53 seconds. Curve IV is iden- 
tical with Curve III, so far as the run between stations is 
concerned, but the power consumption as given in the table 
is estimated on a basis of 25-second station stops. 

A similar set of curves for the run of a five-car local 
train between 116th Street and 125th Street is shown on 
page 8. 

The results of the tests on the Manhattan Elevated Rail- 
way will be given in a subsequent article. 

A new method of showing the destination of the street 
cars in San Francisco, by a system of numbering the dif- 
ferent car lines, is being considered by the United Rail- 
roads, and will be introduced providing it meets with the 
approval of the supervisors. The usual printed names of 
the streets on which the cars run will be kept on the car, 
as has been the rule, but in conjunction with this will be the 
number that has been assigned to each particular line. 
The number will be well lighted at night and placed in a 
conspicuous place. For the benefit of those who may not 
become familiar with the significance of the numbers and 
for the use of strangers, printed schedules of the lines and 
their numbers will be posted in places where they can be 
readily consulted. 


At the request of the Prussian State Railways the Allge- 
meine Elektricitats Gesellschaft has furnished a single- 
phase locomotive for heavy work, to be used on the experi- 
mental line at Oranienburg, mentioned on page 728 in the 
Street Railway Journal of May 2. The locomotive con- 
sists of two four-wheel sections with Winter-Eichberg 
motors on three of the axles, but provision is made for a 
motor on the fourth axle. Each motor has an hourly rating 
of 350 hp at 450 r.p.m. and a continuous rating of 250 hp 
at 500 r.p.m. The gear ratio is 1 :4.2i and the driving 
wheels have a diameter of 1400 mm (55 in.). This gives 
a speed of 28.2 km (17.5 miles) per hour at the hourly 
rating and a tractive effort of 3350 kg (7383 lb.) on the 
circumference of each axle. At the continuous rating the 
speed is 31.3 km (19.4 miles) per hour and the tractive 
effort per axle 2160 kg (4761 lb.). Thus the locomotive is 
capable of giving continuously 750 hp with a tractive effort 
of 6480 kg (14,283 lb.) at a speed of 31.3 km (19.4 miles) 
per hour. 

The maximum speed of the locomotive has been fixed at 
50 km (31 miles) per hour, but the motors may speed up to 
attain 60 km (37.2 miles), in which case the armature speed 
is 955 r.p.m. The weights in metric tons on each axle are 
as follows: No. 1 driving axle, 14.110 tons; No. 2 running 
axle, 14,160; No. 3 driving axle, 15,900, and No. 4 driving 
axle, 15,300 tons. This makes a total locomotive weight of 
59,470 tons. 

The two pantograph collectors are mounted on one sec- 
tion of the locomotive and take current at 6000 volts, 25 
cycles. The pressure on the trolley wire is about 4 kg 
(2.5 lb.). The collectors reverse automatically with the 
change in running and are raised and lowered either by 
compressed air or by hand. They can come into contact 
with the trolley wire only when the high-tension chamber 
is closed. This high-tension compartment mentioned con- 
tains all the high-tension protective apparatus, a current 
changer for the instruments and an air-cooled main trans- 
former which steps down the trolley voltage to 1000 volts. 
This transformer has two low-tension terminals, each hav- 
ing seven steps through which the different potentials are 
allowed to reach the motors. The control regulating trans- 
formers and the other low-tension apparatus are mounted 
in another part of the locomotive, which also contains the 
ventilating fans driven by a 30-hp Winter-Eichberg motor. 
The louvres in the sides of this compartment are filled with 
granulated cork serving as air filters. The windows and 
doors of this compartment are always kept closed. This sec- 
tion also contains an air compressor driven by a 7-hp motor 
to supply air to the brakes, current collectors, sanders and 
signal pipes. Each end of the locomotive contains a com- 
partment for the motorman, with two seats, the one on the 
left being for the locomotive engineer and the other, which 
is furnished with a desk, for the conductor. The master 
controller used has four starting and four running points 
as well as a reversing cylinder. An interesting feature is 
the auxiliary equipment employed for switching, this being 
a controller operative only for the first running position of 
the motors. 

The three motors are arranged for operation in two inde- 
pendent groups, but it is also possible to cut out any single 
motor when desired. Choke coils are used for starting. 
The controller current is taken from the main transformer 
at 300 volts. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

William It. Lewis. 

Street railway interests have sustained a 
severe-loss in the subject of our illustration, 
whose sudden death occurred Oct. 15. 
William D. Lewis was a fitting type of the 

leful and 
. Brooklyn 
in 1874, his 

i Sheppard 

street railway manager and 
respected public man. Born 
tn 1618, he there resided until 
wife's ill health caused him t 
Plaiufield, N J His father w 
Lewis, an old Brooklyn res- 
ident, but born in Hemp- 
stead, L, 1. 

At the age of seven, Wil- 
liam B, was placed in Kings- 
ley's private school, where 
he remained six years, with 
such good effect as the result 
of his studiousness, that the 
principal said that he could 
teach him no more. Against 
the lad's judgment, his fath- 
er apprenticed him to the 
mason's trade, to which, as 
a dutiful son, he applied him- 
self mind and body, learning 
practically every detail of 
the business acquirable by 
the apprentice; serving, 
meantime, after regular 
work-hours, as accountant 
to his father, an extensive 
and prosperous builder. 

Following his trade for a 
short time, he started on his 
own account as builder and 
contractor; thus continuing 
a few years until drawn into 
public affairs. As Tax De- 
partment Clerk he proved 
himself an expert account- 
ant, and was instrumental in 
systematizing the business 
details of that branch of city 
government ; meantime 
studying the principles of 
city and State government, State and naticn- 
al law, history and parliamentary usage. 

His activity and intelligence, and his 
information and interest in politics, attract- 
ing the attenting of his party, he was 
elected Comptroller of Brooklyn; serving 
when that city and Williamsburg were con- 
solidated.' His term was a busy one; but his 
early training with his father, his attention, 
study, and practice of accounts and finance, 
together with a stern decision of character 

The time when the Street Railway Journal and the 
Electric Railway Review are to disappear except as history, 
and the Electric Railway Journal will take their places, 
seems an appropriate one for a glance over the records of 
each. Both papers number many of their subscribers from 
their first issues, and to such a brief review of the develop- 
ment of each of the publications may not be without inter- 
est. To those who have entered the electric railway field 
later, an account of some of the problems and vicissitudes 
of the early days when the industry was very much smaller 
than it is now may prove instructive. 

Progress in the street 
railway industry seems to 
be marked by decades. 
That from 1854 to 1864 
was characterized by the 
organization of the early 
street railway companies 
in the larger cities, with 
the exception, of course, 
of the pioneer line from 
City Hall to Harlem, in 
New York, which had no 
counterpart for many 
years. From 1864 to 1874 
was the period of inflation 
following the Civil War, 
when profitable invest- 
ments were sought every- 
where. The early street 
railways in New York, 
Philadelphia, Chicago and 
St. Louis and other cities 
had proved financially 
successful, and it was only 
natural that the 10 years 
following 1864 should see 
a tremendous extension of 
the industry. The char- 
ters of many of the com- 
panies in the cities of me- 
dium size date from this 
time. From 1874 to 1884 
might be called the cable 
period. The first cable 
line in San Francisco, that 
on Clay Street, was put in 
operation in August, 1873, 
and its inauguration was 
followed by the adoption of the system in other cities. 
From 1884 to 1894 may be considered the period of the 
electric tramway, the modern power, just as the first year 
in this decade was marked by the establishment of the 
Street Railway Journal. Continuing the series briefly, 
1894 to 1904 can properly be called the interurban period, 
while about 1904 the serious work in trunk-line operation 
commenced. Although not absolutely accurate in every re- 
spect, there has been a remarkable correspondence between 
the development of the industry and the periods of years 
in multiples of 10 which have been cited. The coincidence 
is introduced here to explain the condition of affairs at the 
beginning of what has been termed the electric era. 

The circle of workers in the street railway field was 
much smaller in 1884 than in these days of electric power, 

Vol. I. 1 

^ NEW YOKK: | 

November, 1884. 

1 CHICAGO : 1 , 
1 8 Lakeside BulidlDg. f IN O. 1 . 

fitted him to fulfill all the 
position, in which he made an enviable 
record, not yet forgotten. 

He was an earnest advocate, in face of 
much opposition, of the introduction of a 
public water supply in Brooklyn, and was 
one of the original Water Commissioners; 
being at this time Secretary of the Sewer 

Municipal interests called him to Albany, 
where he was thrown into contact with the 


State officials, who recognized his worth; 
and during his Comptrollership je was 
elected Treasurer of the State of New York. 
DuriDg his tenure of this important office 
he became the intimate friend of Gov. 
Horatio Seymour, who cnfided many 
things to him; the two advising mutually 
on many matters of State. 

His office of State Treasurer made him 
a member of the Canal and School boards; 
and also gave him much to do with the 

The First Page of the First Issue of the Street Railway Journal 

and the attendants at the early street railway conventions 
consisted almost entirely of the managerial heads. Engi- 
neering, except so far as the few cable roads were con- 
cerned, held small place either in the programs of the asso- 
ciation or in the columns of the few steam railroad and 
general engineering papers then published. Neither ac- 
counting nor car equipment had been reduced to standards. 
There were no interurban roads nor any interchange of roll- 
ing stock. The corporate conditions of the companies were 
also radically different from those at the present day. In 
the absence of power stations and repair shops there was 
little advantage in centralization. As a result there were 
several street railway companies in most of the larger 

cities. New York pos- 
sessed 18, not including 
the elevated railway ; 
Philadelphia had a dozen 
and Brooklyn, Pittsburg, 
St. Louis and Baltimore 
about the same number. 
Holding companies, like 
the tremendous power of 
electricity, lay in the fu- 
ture. Nevertheless, the 
managers of that day had 
their problems as they 
have at present, and they 
seemed and were as in- 
tense as those which are 
discussed at present. Upon 
their wise solution has 
rested in large part the 
success of those companies 
which have come after. 

It was amid the sur- 
roundings which have just 
been depicted that the 
Street Railway Journal 
was born. For some 18 
months previous to No- 
vember, 1884, the publish- 
ers of the Street Railway 
Journal had been endeav- 
oring to cover' the street 
railway field by printing a 
department of street rail- 
way news in a monthly 
steam railroad paper is- 
sued by them and entitled 
the Journal of Railway 
Appliances. Experience 
soon showed them, however, as it has shown others since 
that time, that the problems in the two classes of transpor- 
tation had many points of divergence, and that the street 
railway industry could not be made an adjunct to steam 
railroad operation. 

It was evident that the field was ripe for a paper 
which would chronicle the news of the industry and the 
improvements made in construction and operating practice. 
The art had reached that stage in its development when an 
interchange of ideas was to prove helpful. Managers were 
seeking to advance the interests of and improve their prop- 
erties, but had slight opportunity of learning what others 
were doing except by occasional visits and at the annual 
meetings of the American Street Railway Association, 
which had been established only two years previously. 

Bank Department, in those years of much 
greater importance than at present, hence 
his life at that time -was one of great 
activity, labor and responsibility. 

In acknowledgment of his satisfactory 
discharge of the Treasurer's duties, he was 
re-nominated ; but was defeated through 
lack of party organization Declining the 
Police Commia-sionership of New York and 
Brooklyn, lie retired from political life. 
Having during some time previously 
studied law by himself, he 
complied with his friends' 
urgings to be admitted to 
the bar, but he had only 
practiced a few months 
wheo Hon Henry R. Pier- 
son, President Brooklyn 
City R. R. Co., called on him 
to accept the office of secre- 
tary and cashier of that 
company. In this arduous 
position he continued until 
the hour of his death. His 
son, of the firm of Lewis & 
Fowler, is his successor as 
Secretary and Treasurer, 
and is also prominently 
identified with tramway in- 

We print below the action 
of the Directors in reference 
to the loss which his death 
occasioned to bis family, the 
company and the com- 

A special mocllDg of the Board 
Railroad Company, held <?rtobtr 

■Ui.irn' jilt.' 

31a entire energies la ad 
>oiver the Intoreal of ihv 
^Wblle ^dlscborpliiK wj 

inme ilmn moH careful a 

>e Rood. alio, be 

family ot William B. Lewis, we would ex- 
rtneere sympathy la their gnat »,n ow 
W B. HtW| PtetldtPt. 

June 6, 1908.] 



Street Railway 


American Railway Publishing Co. 

a L. K. Uonboi. StC'j I I ...... 



Puci. Bosl<>n,Ma»f 
W.LMTT St, I'MIu- 
i Sr., Atlanta, Qa 

Third An 

Even then the need existed, which every industry feels in 
proportion to its size and complexity, of a medium through 
which accounts of improved methods and progress in any 
direction could become available. 

The first issue of the Street Railway Journal was pub- 
lished in November, 1884, and comprised 24 pages. In- 
cluded in its contents were a report of the New York con- 
vention of the American Street Railway Association, a 
biographical sketch of William B. Lewis, who had been 
secretary of the Brooklyn City Railroad; The Cracking of 
Varnish; The Power Required to Operate Cable Railways; 
and The Derivation of the Word "Tramway." The edi- 
torial page announced that 
the policy of the new pub- 
lication would be "to make 
the paper not only inter- 
esting and instructive, but 
essential to street railway 
men; to avoid puffing and 
the publication of stale 
matter and copied items" ; 
this policy has ever since 
been followed. Of the 
other editorials, that on 
"Convention Proceedings," 
which appears on the 
accompanying page, indi- 
cates that the editors in 
those days, as later, had 
their troubles even when 
they had taken every pre- 
caution to avoid mishap, 
while that on "Crowding 
Cars" shows the readiness 
to criticize faults as well 
as to award praise. The 
advertisements in the first 
issue of the Street Rail- 
way Journal were 23 in 
number. Many of them 
were devoted naturally to 
horse-car operation, but 
they included the follow- 
ing: J. G. Brill Company, 
John Stephenson Com- 
pany, V alentine & Com- 
pany's Varnishes, F. W. 
DeVoe & Company, Tom 
L. Johnson's improved 
fare box. 

The second issue con- 
tains an article on cable 
Francisco, the report at 




Publishers' Snlntatory. 

Every important industry needs a rep- 
resentative Journal. Moat such industries 
have them. In the case of Street Railways 
this want became manifest, and has been 
expressed by tramway companies and those 
who wish to suvp'y them. 

A single department of the already 
crowded Journal of Railicay Appliances 
having been proved, after 18 months' trial, 
to be insufficient to the requirements of the 
Street Railway interests, we have, in view 
of the fact that encouragement to do so 
has been plentifully held out, and that we 
had, probably, the best facilities in the 
country for doing so, resolved to issue this 
special trade and technical monthly. 

The Street Railway Journal. 

At the recent street railway convention, 
a number of leading men expressed the wish 
that there should be a journal devoted ex- 
clusively to street railway interests. Rep- 
resent stives of the American Railway 
Publishing Co. became aware that this 
need was felt not only by the street railway 
managers and employees, as a source of in- 
formation, and a meana of exchange of 
ideas, but by those selling to them, as a 
medium of direct communication with their 

Seeing this, a careful canvass was made 
as to the probability of a special street rail- 
way journal being supported bv readersand 

The promptness and enterprise of those 
m the supply trade, in this matter, as shown 
by our advertising pages, certainly proves 
a willingness on their part to do their full 
share towards making a first-class paper. 
With a similar response on the part of street 
railways, in the way of subscriptions, the 
encouragement will be all that we could 
ask, to make a journal in overyway credit- 
able to the street railways of America. 

Our Editorial Policy. 

The editorial policy of the new 
Railway Journal will be to make the 
paper not only Interesting and Instructive, 
but essential, to street railway men; to 
avoid puffing and the publication of stale 
matter and copied Items. The phenomenal 
success of T?ie American Journal of Rail- 
way Appliances is in a large measure due 
to thj unswerving adherence to such a 
policy, as announced it its initial number 
By making the paper A No. 1 Tor the Sub- 
scriber, the advertiser will be benefitted in 
the long run and even in the short nin, 
more than by running a write up sheet, 
with neither news, nor opinions, nor self- 

W« call upon all interested to help 
us make the new paper a rucccbs; and can 
promise good-will in return. 

nl Convention. 

of the An: 

The recent Conventi 
Street Railway Association was emj>hati- 
cally a success. There were able and ex- 
haustive reports of committees on the 
various subjects assigned, and intelligent 
discussions on the reports. There was a 
remarkable increase in membership. The 
interest manifested was certainly gratify- 
ing to those who have the well-being of the 
association at heart, and who have labored 
for its success. 

Coming Articles. 

i type or on hand articles as 

proceedings of the convention are not 
ready for publication, and the only 
matter which we have been able to get 
from the secretary the test of the 
reports and the discussion on the "salt" re- 
port. This annoyance to the secretary and 
the members is by reason of a misunder- 
standing in ihe matter ol an official steno- 
grapher. The managers of this journal bad 
provided an expert stenographer in the ex- 
pectation of his being permitted to take 
notes. The association having decided thai 
ail reports should be made by the official 
stenographer, we relied on the tatter. 

Owing to the failure of the official steno- 
grapher to hand in his manuscript to the 
secretary, from whom we expected to re- 
ceive them, we prefer publishing in this our 
initial number little else than some of the 
reports, as it is our intention to make the 
Street Railway Journal, in iti oublica- 
tion of matter coming from, or relating 
only to, the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation, practically, official, while preserving 
its complete independence of that body 

that Mr. Jas K. Lake, Supt. Western Div 
R. R.. Chicago, will give us "points" 
enough to make some very interesting 

The lack of variety of matter in this 
ssue of the Street Railway Journal ib 
i the large amount of space gi 

the Convention 

We regret that u] 
going to press, t 
of papers and the i 

Editorial Page of the First Issue of the Street Railway Journal 

railways in Chicago and San 
the New York convention on 
"Electricity as a Motor," a letter from Walter H. Knight 
descriptive of the conduit electric railway in East Cleve- 
land, the convention report on A Uniform System of Ac- 
counts, and articles on the following subjects: Car Deco- 
ration, Which Side of a Tie Should Do Up? Colors vs. 
Oils, Dryers and Varnishes, Railroad Joints, and Rights of 
Street Car Passengers. 

No attempt will be made to analyze the contents, of the 
first few volumes of the Street Railway Journal except 
to say that the paper continued to grow in size and value. 
It soon gained the confidence and support of its readers, 
the most important asset which a paper can possess, and 
became the recognized medium through which every im- 

portant invention and improvement was described as soon 
as the news of it became public. It should also be stated 
that within six months from November, 1884, the Street 
Railway Journal commenced the publication of a direc- 
tory of all the street railways in the United States and 
Canada. It was bound with each copy of the paper and was 
the predecessor of the annual "Red Book," the first number 
of which was issued by the publishers of the Street Railway 
Journal in 1894. 

The opening of the Bentley-Knight electric road in 
Cleveland in 1884, chronicled in the first issue of the 
Street Railway Journal, was an event whose importance 

was not realized at the 
time. The apparatus was 
crude and faulty, but the 
idea was there, and with 
such inventors at work as 
Van Depoele, Sprague, 
Daft and Henry, it is not 
surprising that electricity 
began soon to be consid- 
ered as a formidable rival 
to the cable. By 1888 the 
battle royal between mo- 
tive powers was on. The 
electrical companies then 
in active competition for 
street railway contracts 
includedthe Sprague Elec- 
tric Railway&Motor Com- 
pany, the Thomson-Hous- 
ton Electric Company, the 
Daft Electric Light Com- 
pany, the Brush Electric 
Company, S. H. Short & 
Company, the Bentley- 
Knight Electric Railway 
Company and the Detroit 
Electrical Works, all of 
which advocated the sys- 
tem of direct supply, and 
the Julien Electric Trac- 
tion Company and the 
Electric Accumulator 
Company, both of which 
manufactured storage bat- 
tery cars. The cable rail- 
way contractors at first 
treated the upstart, elec- 
tricity, with scorn and the 
city authorities looked ask- 
ance at the trolley wire, which was considered a disfigure- 
ment to the streets and charged with a death-dealing po- 
tentiality. Missionary work had to be done to remove this 
popular prejudice, and the Street Railway Journal, which 
by this time had grown to a paper publishing 350 reading 
pages annually, took no small part in this pioneer work. All 
through this controversy it strongly advocated electricity in 
place of the cable. The contract in Boston, which was fol- 
lowed not long after by others equally as large in many im- 
portant cities, marked the period of decline of the cable 
railway and left the field clear for the development of elec- 
tric transportation. 

The '90's marked a continuous progress of the electric 
idea and a corresponding development in the Street Rail- 
way Journal. The first separate Souvenir Issue was pub- 

We have 

The National Cable Railway System.* 
Demorest's Duplex Register.* 
Accidents on Cable Railways. 
Resistance to Traction on Tramways. 
Record of a Remarkable Horse, by Aug 
W. Wright. C. E. 

Street Railway Joints, by Aug W 
Wright, C. E. 

Mr. I. Watson, President of the Buffalo | weather. 
St. R, R. Co., has kindly promised articles various ] 
on Salt or no Salt. 
Heating Cars (negative >. 
Interchangeability of Tickets (t. e., all 
Street Rw. tickets good in any town). 

Mr. Wm. J Richardson, Sec'y A. S. Rw. 
Association, is good enough to promise a 
communication on Fare Collecting. 

Mr. W. W. Hanscom of San Francisco, 
will have some practical things to say about 
have good hopes 

Crowding Cars. 

There are some managements which have 
the good sen so and keen business perception 
to see that it pays better to afford passen- 
gers at le;ist plenty of room to stand, than 
to nave them packed like herrings in a box ; 
and that to give each passenger a seat pays 
better yet. Of course, there are times and 
unforseen occasions when it is impossible 
to have a sufficient supply of can on hand, 
and this is particularly the case on long 
lines. But we know of instances of rival 
parallel lines, running about the same dis- 
tance and to about the same terminals, one 
of which lines generally manages to seat 
all its passengers, and the oilier does not, 
although the first line carries nearly double 
the passengers on extra occasions, and has 
about the same number of cars. The super- 
tendent of the first line " watches the 
nd inspects the returns for the 
various hours of the day. He knows about 
how many people are out: when they will 
be likely to return in fair weather; and 
how fast they will crowd in if there 
is bad weather. His conductors have plenty 
of time and room to collect all the fares, 
and the road is made popular. 


of Stock. 

We would suggest, as a good subject to 
discuss, the character of stock to be pur- 
chased ; whether it pays best to buy heavy 
or light animals; young or old; compact 
or otherwise, etc.; there is certainly some- 
thing worth thinking about when we con- 
sider the contrast between the magnificent 
Percheron stallions run by the Tramway 
and omnibus lines of Paris, or the fine 
stock between the shafts of the hansoms in 
London, and the "scrubs " which veterinary 

the very interesting reports presented of ' ar ?«>nfl -ire expected to keep in perfect 
1 health and conditio - ' 


It either pays 

ny An 

whether it do< 

, not pay. to run good slot 

I or not is worth finding out by inspection of 
of the records and comparison of notes and 
,ns j opinions through our columns, and if there 
of I -are no records the notes and opinions will 



[Vol.. XXXII. No. i. 

lished in October, 1891, and was followed by another in 
the fall of 1892, issued immediately preceding the Cleve- 
land convention of that year. Up to that time the electric 
systems were confined almost entirely to city limits, with 


[Mat, 18 


Graded Stable Gutter with Straight or Curved Cover 

BOWLER & CO., Cleveland, Ohio. 

furnished to tail 

Pryor's Novel Horseshoe. 

Sho* can be replaced rosily by any "ne 6t th» riitr of 300 S day. 
layer can bo placed bulwepn the [».. t-.u-i Lill.i n J up ted far H 

send for circular. DAVID J. I'RVOR. RoxbnrT, Mm 

Jos-iCU Hoht, Cbalrc 



Catasauijua, Lehigh County, Penn., 

Are making a plain, narrow- webbed shoe, with beveled Surfaces 
for Horse Railroad work. It is "FORGED" from the very best 
Iron, and is tougher and harSer than any e hoe heretofore made, 
and will be sold to consumers at a small advance on the prices 
charged for ordinary mill shoes. They also make a Calked Shoe 
with a Square Toe,' justlhe same as hand made, and the company 
warrants them to wear as long as the very best hand work. 

gthlH Shoe, ore tho 

Also folly prepared to furnish any klad, wclchl or shape of shoe 
Eatlmetes on cOBl of pr odudnR such special pnLi*riiH will furnished o 
of model, with eitlmst* of Lbs probable Dumber uf kegs required. 

The Rates ot Freight are as Low from their Factory West and East 

i and Tug k Steel s 


country, some of which we Append. 

Dec* Tim, III., Oct. 2, 188J. 
Husas. Jotiss & RoAca, Chicago, DJ, 



Ornci of Noara Htrostifi Cor 
R*iLwir Co 
Bonuv, N. J., Oct.*.; 

tote beneficial Y*-. '» .-i i mill 

Foreman and Vrt rinary SurgBoi 
forme North Hudson County By Co. 

Sample Bottles furnished Street Railway Compdmes Gratis. 
Eor further lofarmatloD, prices, etc., address 

JONES & ROACH, 259 Fremont Street, Chicago. 

Pennington's Grooming Machine 


ivenled Motion supplied by ban 
louulacture. For full particulars 


204 Walnut Place. ■ . . Philadelphia. Pa. 

Typical Advertisements Published in the Street Railway 
Journal During 1885 

Akron, Bedford & Cleveland were among the earliest of 
the interurban lines and the example set by their pro- 
moters was rapidly followed and has resulted in the interur- 
ban lines which link together city and village throughout 
the Eastern and Central States. 

Commencing with 1901, the Street Railway Journal was 
changed from a monthly to a weekly paper. For some 
time previous it had published a weekly news bulletin which 
had chronicled the important street railway happenings 
week by week, but matters of technical interest were crowd- 
ing on apace and the times demanded a regular weekly 
paper. During all of these later years no attempt has been 
made to confine the articles to matters relating purely to 
"street" railways. The publishers did not change the name 
of the paper, but it was a well recognized fact that nothing 
of importance in electric railroading, whether it referred 
to a city line or the electrified division of a trunk line rail- 
road, was beyond its chosen scope. The result has been 
that ever since the opening of the Baltimore & Ohio Belt 
Line tunnel with electric power the paper has been the 
recognized medium through which the scientific and operat- 
ing data in connection with this class of road were made 
public and put in permanent form. 


In January, 1891, when the Street Railway Journal 
was six years old, the first number of the Street Railway 
Review appeared. Like its predecessor, it was a monthly, 
but was issued on the fifteenth of the month, while the 
Street Railzvay Journal was published on the first of 
the month. At that time the number of street railways 
was constantly growing and the rapidly increasing interest 
in electric transportation led to the belief that the industry 
should receive its news more often than once every 30 
days. The Street Railway Review began its career in the 
middle of the period that earlier in this article has been 
called "The Electric Tramway Decade" and soon was 
actively assisting in solving the problems which were con- 
fronting the street railway companies of the country. 

At that time many of the smaller, cities had been 
equipped with electric systems, but the larger centers were 
for the most part holding aloof from the new power. How 
crude these first electric roads were is well known to the 
men older in the field, the men whose greatest task was 

1884 — 


Full Line - Reading Pages 

1894 «~ ™~~™ — Broken Line - Advertising Pages 

Scale, 1000 Pages-1 Inch. 

1899 — — — _— , 


1901 ■ 

1902 . 

1903 . 

Diagram Showing the Number of Reading Pages Published Annually in the Street Railway Journal 

occasional suburban extensions. The development of 
high-voltage transmission by three-phase systems in the 
early part of this decade made the interurban railway a 
possibility. The Toledo, Fremont & Norwalk and the 

to "keep the cars running." The publishers of the Review 
in the early days, however, did not confine their attention 
to electrical problems only. Other motive powers besides 
the cable were then candidates for popular favor, and 

June, 6, 1908.] 



questions of track and car construction were as acute 
almost as whether electricity should be used. It is not 
surprising, then, to find in the early issues of the Street 
Railway Review articles, on such subjects as the value of 
compressed-air motors, storage-battery cars, new cable ap- 
pliances, bent posts for open cars, fare registers, parcel 
express, pivoted trucks, the right of eminent domain and 
"Palace Vestibule Cars." The latter was considered of ex- 
traordinary length for those times, being "25 ft. over all." 

A very interesting feature of the early numbers of the 
Street Railway Review was the presentation in each issue 
of a full-page portrait of some important member of the 
street railway fraternity. Among those identified with the 
early development of the electric railway industry whose 
portraits were thus presented were John Stephenson, in- 
ventor and builder of the first street car; G. Hilton Scrib- 
ner, president Central Park, North & East River Railroad 
Company, New York City ; Elihu Thomson, one of the 
founders of the Thomson-Houston Company; Charles J. 
Van Depoele ; John D. Crimmins ; John B. Parsons, now 
president of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company and 


Vol. I. UiS;a°.i-Ll JANUARY, 1891. r'r.-S?SK"l No. I. 


The Illinois Steal Co , of Chicago, ha.e a fall page, advertising their 
PORTRAIT, C. B. HOLMES. Girders sod other types of rails for atreel railway work 

. The United States Electric Railway Co , of Now York, toll of their 

Attooooeetoetrl aystem lor building and eo,olpp,og rallwaya 

Editorial Notes — ' Tho Electrc Merchandise Oo advertise supplies for electric railways. 

A Company with Sand « •»»- »W« «"« W °'" »" "" 1 ■■ " "*'° 8 

their patent rail. 

A Noiseless Motor. - ■ Th „ international Okonlto Co use kpage In showing electric railway 

Wenatrom Electric Works 3 men thelrjatent wires. 

Unr. Elect* C«. • Smith. .1 No- York. hAs.r^y a. tr^tl.. page,. howlog man; goods 

that they manufacture. 

Railroading a Bill 8 Tbs tttaodatrd lndoi & KegliKr Co., of Mew York, speak of the 

An Important Change for Bridgeport * many advantage- in their patent register. 

. The Hallway Register Manufacturing Oo Use a page describing their 

Uniform,* ... * many dlBereirt rtyle. of itrcet CM «gl«M^ 

Stowtrtn. Bint Avenue Co. * Russell Street Carette Co. ihow their trackless street car. and apeak 

— . ..... ._ ■ ~_ n,,,,.. 4 of Its advantage* to be used on streets without rails. 

Electricity In the Snow Storm. ^ ^ ^ o( ADMtbwyi „ M) , ta „ s ver? .ttwrtiw page 

A Franchise * showing tbelr new type of open car. 

U Doepert London..." " Th« 8t Louis Car Co show aCU* of «ielr factory and speak of their 

■ " . . facllltlea of torolng oat car*. 

The Largest Cable Road to the World The EloctJ . lc Supply Co. of Chicago Uk* a half page to show some 

A Practical Letter : , ' of the muy Uoeathey handle fox tbe use of eletctrlc roads. 

O »* , \» «w***~»~Tm*; ' h X'"JZ\l.^'J^ ^-■«- u »» 1 - > »»' ta « 

A Model Cable Plant -- B-> 3 ' The Heaker Mfg Co. ahow on a fun page many designs of stationary 

Stedman Foundry and Machine Works-Notes IS- and portable ™« Ut "*- .. , _ , , . . . ... __„»„ 

TbeTultoo Iron Works of St. Lonli ahow a view of the new power 

Fleglea" Pipe Corerlng , »» p i M t built by (hem, for the Broadway cable line of lhatclty. 

A Remarkable Railway Record... H-18 Vogel Cable Construction Co. have a page la this number showing 

Construction an/1 Equipment Note. 18-91 ' fto^poSeSou Co advertise their wheel./or cabfe wort 

Echoes from the Trade -.82-8 llemmUCer Boi Co.. of Springfield, Mass., tako a half page 

PeraonaU '/ ** Geo. W. Wella t^ Worcester, Mw, tell of lh« ad*»Ltages of their 

new rail chair, 

Chicago City Railway Election i ** Jno.Btaphenson Co, Limited, advertise in this number. 

The Outlook. ■ 8* Cfaaa.' £ Schleren * Co , New York speak of Ihalr beltings. 

_ a. Keffler Bros., SL Lonla, use a quarter of a page. 

Oongrttulatlou » Hathaway Alfred, Cleveland, use a half page. 

Railway Note*... i a *^ a Hot pet, Booth * Hardens, New York, advertise their wires. 

Our' Policy W McOulre Ktg Co, Chicago, use a page showing their electric 

Obituary...' ................ M Darner A Dutton.of Clevetanu, speak of their line forstreet raUwayi. 

Caught Up by the Sweeper 84 the Baltimore Car Wheel Work, take a page. 

Walker Wfg Co, Cleveland, speak of their cable work* 

Directory of Street Railway* » mi ^ Griffin's, of Chicago and Buffalo, advertise their wheels. 

Electric Railway* of North America ■ — ■ Beacher, Schenck A Benedict, the Insurance Agents, have a page. 

„ ii «• nU Tfc* Electric Co, of Cleveland. Ull of the muy Hoes they hare 

Cable tlallwaya — -- - equipped, and of the advantages of their system- 

Street, Railway Supply Directory ixlll to >xl» Lewi, * Fowler Mrg. Co. Brooklyn, use two pages Id speaking of 

Indea to Advertiser.. .'. <* •* ««»■ 

The Front Cover of the First Issue of the Street Railway 

at that time manager of the West Chicago Street Railway 
Company; Dr. A. Everett; Charles T. Yerkes; D. F. Long- 
street; George H. Wheeler; Henry C. Payne and William 
H. Sinclair. 

The Street Railway Review from the beginning paid es- 
pecial attention to accounting and financial matters and 
it was largely through its efforts that the Street Railway 
Accountants' Association was founded in 1897. This serv- 
ice was duly acknowledged in the official report of the first 
meeting issued by the association. 

In October, 1899, when the American Street Railway 
Association held its convention at Chicago, the first daily 
issues of the Street Railway Review were published. Each 
year since the daily has grown and at the different con- 





VOL XVI 8 " b "''"'"l5Fti..,ic.i ' CHICAGO, JULY, 1906 

171 Nan.,,,. SI N 
MO Prtdl HuilJif.M. I 

seT" Ho - 7 


The Traneler Follows the Flag - 

Zones of Clean Transportation Currency : 

Advantages of the Zone System : 

The Old Man's Son* i ■ 

Objectlonc to Nepotlam In Corporate Life 

Cheaper to Give Nickels Than Carry Passengers : 

Compound Track Ball* 

Charging for Hydro-Electric Power 

The Air Resistance of Electric Cara 

T.rc Protection In 0>d Building* 

Relations of Local to National Associations. 

Single-Phase Repair Shop Motors 

The Cambridge Subway Bill . 

Rapid Progress Toward Electrical Operation In 

A Useful Form ?o'r Reporting Defective Car* 

Public Service Building of the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company Illustrated 

The Milwaukee Electric Railway £ Llshl Cora- 
pany rftnntlv ei>m|ileted an excr,.ll(inally line 
puulle Bervlre UulldlnB at Milwaukee. The bulld- 
Ing Is probably I lie finest «t Ha kind no far con- 
structed anil an Illustrated iJescrljillon of the 
Structure and Its riiiitiy MCdMnt feature* Ik here 

New Cars for Buffalo. Illustrated 

Municipal Ownership in Germany. By Hugo .1. 

Dr. Meyer, lately professor 'if political economy 
at the University ol Chicago, came Into promi- 
nence recently Ihrouch his l».ok on "Municipal 
Ownership In Britain." The present article 
Indicates that he Is pursuing his InveatlgaUone 
on this subject Into condition* la other countries 
Rotary Converter Substation for Syracuse Rapid 

Transit Railway. Illustrated 

Electric Railway Test Commission. By Henry H. 

Norria and Bernard V. Swenaon 

In this article Professors Norrls and Sweneon 
present an Interesting general summary of the 
work of the Electric Railway Test Commissi in of 
the Louisiana Purchase KM'tisltlon. The article In 
■ eludes descriptions ol a variety of teats made with 

several types of city and interurban care. 
The Commerce Street Power Plant of the Milwau- 
kee Electric Railway & Light Co. Illustrated 



Electrical Transmiss 

Cold Springs Shops, 
pany. Buffalo. Ill 

Steam Railroad Offlc 

by Wated Power 


lual Meeting. Street Railway Association of the 
State of New York 395 

his la a rtpOlt of the Twenty-Fourth Annual 
leetlnR of the Association, held at Saratoga 
.prion N Y.. on June £6 and 27, A number 
f reports were presented by the various com- 
illteea Including one regarding Inlerc hange- 
ble coupon tickets, which will he of Interest, 
everal interesting papers were read In which 
he sale or power v. 


led. By S. B. Storer 

of Water-Power from the Po 
; Point of View. By C. E. Part 



ivllle, IN. Illustrate 
Station Systems.- 

lecent Electric .Railway Legal Decisions < 

Under this hea-1 will be found an abstract of the 
decision of the Supreme court or the United 
States in what is known as the '99-yeMr act."" 
This decision directly affected the traction prob- 
lem In Chicago and will therefore be of 



The Front Cover of the First Issue of the Electric Railway 

vention cities from four to six daily issues of the Review, 
reporting each day discussions, social features and impor- 
tant events of the preceding day, have been printed. These 
daily issues have varied in amount of reading matter from 
a total of 94 pages published during the Chicago convention 
to 208 closely printed pages of reading matter in the issues 
published last fall at Atlantic City. The daily editions of 
the Electric Railway Review have been published in honor 
of the annual convention of the American Street & Interur- 
ban Railway Association and its allied associations for 
nine consecutive years. 


In June, 1906, contemporaneous with a change in own- 
ership and management, the name of the publication was 
changed from Street Railway Review to its more compre- 
hensive title, Electric Railway Review. With the change 
in ownership, the Review was enlarged so that each month 
there was presented about 80 pages of descriptive and news 
matter. The Electric Railway Review was changed, with 
the first issue in 1907, from a monthly to a weekly publi- 


Much more could be told of the experiences of the past. 
The encouragement received from the active and leading 

1 6 


[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

men in the field, the friendships formed, the trials encoun- 
tered, the records made — all will remain as a treasured 
memory and incentive in the future. But changing con- 
ditions indicate greater usefulness in a combined paper 
than in two publications. Increased capital investments, 
accounting matters, questions of State and governmental 
regulation of public-service corporations, legal problems 
and discussions regarding advancements in construction 
and operating progress now call for editorial specializa- 
tion undreamed of 10 years ago. This condition naturally 
has placed greater obligations on the publications devoted 
to the electric railway industry and has been the most im- 
portant factor leading up to the consolidation of the Street 
Railway Journal and the Electric Railway Review into the 
Electric Railway Journal. 


For the last 10 years the Prussian State Railways man- 
agement has been deeply interested in the possibilities of 
the equipment of some of its lines with electricity. Realiz- 
ing as far as a decade ago that direct current at ordinary 
voltages would not suffice for heavy service, the Govern- 
ment inspired the Zossen trials of 1901-1903 in which three- 
phase current was used. These tests produced very valu- 
able results as regards resistance to train motion at high 
speeds, but also indicated operating objections to two or 
three overhead conductors. The development soon after 
the Zossen trials of the single-phase system led to a ter- 
mination of the three-phase experiments and a project was 
drawn up for a single-phase line between Hamburg and 
Berlin. This was abandoned on account of the high cost. 
At about the same time the Government railway officials 
inaugurated an elaborate series of experiments with Winter- 
Eichberg single-phase motors on the Niederschonweide- 
Spindlersfeld line. These were successful in every respect. 
Shortly afterward the Hamburg-Blankanese-Ohlsdorf sin- 
gle-phase line was built and placed in operation and plans 
were prepared by the management of the Berlin Stadtbahn 
and the suburban steam lines to adopt electricity. The in- 
vestigation of this problem showed that single-phase cur- 
rent only could be considered, as it was found that even 
high-tension direct current would require an uneconomical 
number of substations. 

The plans worked out by the Prussian State Railways' 
officials in Berlin gave particular attention to the electri- 
fication of those' lines which could be operated at a great 
reduction if the change in motive power were made. 
Owing to the high price of good coal in Germany, it was 
considered advantageous to make all estimates on the basis 
of using gas-electric generating sets. There are large de- 
posits of lignite in the Cologne district, and therefore it 
was proposed to equip with electricity one of the Govern- 
ment railways which extends from Cologne to Trier on 
which a great deal of freight is hauled over heavy grades. 
The subject was considered of such interest that in 1906 
the Verein-Deutscher Maschineningenieure (Society of 
German Mechanical Engineers), of which several officials of 
the Prussian State Railways are members, called for a prize 
essay on the best method of electrifying a 200-km line 
operating in a mountainous country and requiring the 
movement of freight trains up to 600 tons weight. Four 
theses, of which three were given prizes, were entered in 
the competition. It is noteworthy that in all the four plans 
offered preference was expressed for single-phase current 
transmitted at 40 cycles, 60,000 volts and used at 10,000 to 

20,000 volts on the trolley wire. One condition made by 
the society was that the power station should use gas en- 
gines for generation. Further particulars of these plans 
will be found in the article by Philip Dawson on page 639 
of the Street Railway Journal for Oct. 12, 1907. 

Although the feasibility of this project was shown by 
these four independent reports, the war department would 
not allow the electrification of this line, owing to its 
strategic importance from a military standpoint, since it is 
so near the French border, and the department held that 
in case of an invasion it would not be difficult for an enemy 
to blow up the power house and destroy the power trans- 
mission systems. Nevertheless, the Prussian State Railways 
asked the Allgemeine-Elektricitats-Gesellschaft to build a 
single-phase freight locomotive for the Oranienburg experi- 
mental division. A note on this line was published on 
page 728 of the Street Railway Journal for May 2, 1908, and 
a description of the locomotive appears at the end of this 
article. The experiments with this locomotive have demon- 
strated that single-phase locomotives can successfully and 
economically cope with heavy weight traffic. 

Recently the Government has been giving its attention to 
the proposed equipment of the Leipzig-Bitterfelde-Magde- 
burg and the Leipzig-Halle lines, both of which are oper- 
ated from Halle. Between Halle and Leipzig there are ex- 
tensive areas of coal which could satisfactorily be used for 
gas production. The preliminary investigations already 
have been completed by the railway management, but the 
officials at Halle have been requested to check the estimates 
before further steps are taken. It is planned to have the 
power station in the very center of the coal district so that 
the expense of fuel transportation will be very small. The 
total length of both divisions mentioned is 164.3 km (102 
miles), the Leipzig-Bitterfelde-Magdeburg line being 128.1 
km (79 miles) long and the Leipzig-Halle line 36.2 km 
(23 miles). It is proposed to use a trolley potential of 
10,000 volts. 

Although no final decision has been made in regard to 
this and other large electrification projects in Germany, it 
is interesting to note that the railway department has 
practically settled upon the single-phase system owing to its 
advantages in potential regulation and the possibility of 
high-voltage transmission over long railway divisions carry- 
ing heavy freight business. 



An electric locomotive has just been built for use on the 
Los Angeles & Redondo Railway in the company's shops 
at Redondo. It is 30 ft. long by 8 ft. 6 in. wide and has a 
center cab 8 ft. 6 in. square with four sliding doors, one at 
each corner. The plan is to use it for freight service and 
for switching chiefly about the yards and piers at Redondo. 
The Los Angeles & Redondo Railway runs one train through 
Inglewood and two trains through Gardena daily in each 

The whole line, except the old route via Sunnyside as far 
as Bridgedale, beyond Moneta, has been double-tracked and 
converted to broad gage. This policy is to be followed 
until the entire line is broad gage. The Redondo shops will 
soon turn out six new passenger cars and the company will 
then operate multiple unit trains. The new coaches will be 
4 ft. longer and 6 in. wider than the old ones and will have 
seats for 52 passengers, 36 inside and 16 outside. The in- 
terior design of these new cars is very handsome. The 
finishings are of Spanish cedar, with the appearance of 

June 6, 1908.] 




When the first of the through routes between the north 
and south sides of Chicago was put into operation on 
March 17 last, a new form of transfer was designed with 
spaces for indicating the general direction of travel. This 
form of transfer was shown in the Street Railway Jour- 
nal for March 21, 1908, page 464. On May 17 the Chicago 
City Railway placed in effect on all lines a system of trans- 
fers based on the principle of showing the general direction 
of travel. Under the new system a passenger paying cash 
fare is entitled to an original transfer and as many re- 
transfers as he may desire to use provided he does not 
reverse the general direction; for example, north and west. 
A passenger may reverse his direction of travel at any 
junction point on a retransfer, but the retransfer is good 
in the reverse direction to the next junction point only. 
The form of the through route transfer has been changed 
slightly in order to make it uniform with the transfer issued 
on local cars. The accompanying engraving shows the 
form of transfer used on local cars. 

When a passenger pays a cash fare and asks for a trans- 
fer, the conductor punches on the transfer the direction of 
travel of his car. This transfer is then good on any inter- 
secting line. If the passenger, after boarding a car on an 
intersecting line, desires a retransfer, the conductor punches 
both the primary direction of travel indicated by the trans- 
fer collected and the direction in which his car is bound, 
completing the statement of general direction. As many 
subsequent retransfers can be made going in the general 
direction as the passenger may desire from the connecting • 

To assure quick identification of direction of travel a 
color scheme is used. Transfers issued from south-bound 
cars are printed on manila paper ; from north bound cars, . 
on salmon colored paper; from east bound cars, on pink 
paper, and from west bound cars, on green paper. The 
instructions to conductors provide that when a transfer is 
offered with the direction space unpunched, it will be 
honored as a transfer issued on payment of a cash fare, 
and the direction of travel will be considered as correspond- 
ing with the direction indicated by the color of the transfer. 

The transfer slip contains a small space for punching 
half fare for children under 12 years of age. The half- 
fare rate is 3 cents for one child and 5 cents for two chil- 
dren. Two transfers are issued when fares for two chil- 

" * ■ Y tQta<wthw~s trip-.) vt'mr, ti ' " 


e 1 7 } 8 fat 10 1 1 1 

O fit 

3 1 w 


>! 40 




New Chicago City Railway Transfer 

dren are paid with one 5-cent piece and registered as one 
full fare. Under the terms of the ordinance the company 
is not required to issue or receive transfers in the district 
bound by Twelfth Street on the south, and by the Chicago 
River on the north and west, except in cases of transfers 
issued from car to car in the event of a breakdown. 

The following instructions are given to conductors : Con- 
ductors must be patient, civil and polite, remembering that 
the passenger is not always as thoroughly informed as the 

trainmen. Conductors as well as passengers may make 
mistakes and discretion in the matter of accepting transfers 
is always allowed conductors. When a passenger presents 
a transfer slip upon which the time has expired, or which 
is improperly punched, and insists upon the right to ride, 
the conductor may permit the passenger to ride without 
extra fare, provided the conductor believes that the train- 
man who issued the transfer made a mistake ; but in such a 
case the transfer with a written report of the transaction 
must be forwarded promptly to the general office. In the 
event of long headway caused by blockades, accidents, 
schedules, etc., conductors are instructed to make proper 
allowance for the lost time and honor transfers accordingly. 


A European engineer closely identified with electric rail- 
way developments on the Continent states that the stilt 
arrangement of the insulator which carries the main cable 
of the multiple catenary suspension used on the Blankenese- 
Ohlsdorf and other single-phase lines in Germany is to be 

Double Catenary Construction with Top Cable Carried On 
Stilt Insulators 

abandoned in future installations. This method has been 
illustrated in previous issues of the paper, but the accom- 
panying sketch has been prepared to show the scheme in 
detail. It has been found that the iron strap which carries 
the insulator is a very disagreeable feature, as it is too weak 
to withstand the leverage due to the swaying of the mes- 
senger cable. Should the strap break or be pulled up, there 
is nothing to prevent the cable from falling on to the 
bracket. It is probable that hereafter the Germans will 
follow the American practice of placing the messenger cable 
insulator close to the supporting bracket and thereby mini- 
mize the leverage. 

Although the 2000-volt d.c. locomotives for Maizeres in 
the Moselle district, France, were tried out successfully last 
year (as reported in the Street Railway Journal of May 
4, 1907) they are not yet in regular service owing to com- 
mercial reasons which have delayed the completion of the 
line. It is reported that when a generator is in circuit with 
the line, the attendants are rather wary of getting closer to 
it than 6 ft. owing to some painful experiences with flashes 
from this high-tension d.c. machine. 

The Manchester (England) Corporation Tramways 
Committee reports that, while last year it estimated that 
there would be no profits from the parcels department, it 
has actually produced an income of $7,200. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 


The most extensive electric railway undertaking in New 
York State nearing completion is the Buffalo, Lockport & 
Rochester Railway, which will form an important part of 
an all-electric, high-speed route between Buffalo and Al- 
bany, leaving only a 30-mile gap between the towns of 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Electric Track Paralleling 
the New York Central Railroad 

Little Falls and Fonda, N. Y. Several attempts have been 
made in the past to build electric railways through this 
prosperous fruit-growing region, but the early projects met 
with little success, owing to the strong opposition made by 
steam railroad interests and to the difficulty of raising funds. 
In 1905 the present 
company took over 
the Albion & Lock- 
port Railway, the Al- 
bion & Rochester 
Railway and the Al- 
bion Electric Rail- 
way. The rights thus 
acquired were prin- 
cipally for franchises 
and right of way ex- 
cept in the case of the 
Albion Electric Rail- 
way, which had built 
about 1.7 miles of 
track in Albion. The 
line will be operated 
from the interurban 
railway terminal near 
the famous Four Cor- 
ners in the heart of 
Rochester, over the 
direct double-track 

lines of the Rochester Railway Company to the city limits 
at Lyell Avenue, and thence over the company's own tracks 
to East Avenue, Lockport, where connection will be made 
with and cars operated over the track of the International 
Railway Company operating to Buffalo and Niagara Falls. 

The railway, which is now being constructed and 
equipped by J. G. White & Company, Inc., of New York, 

will include 54 miles of single track and 4.4 miles of side 
track. Practically all of this is on private right of way, 66 
ft. wide, with completed roadbed and bridges for two tracks, 
to permit double-track operation as soon as the growth of 
traffic demands it — probably within three years. There 
appears to be a good opportunity also to develop a profitable 
package express and carload freight business for transfer 
to various steam railways at both terminals, as the ship- 
ment of vegetables and fruit from this territory aggregates 
several millions of dollars per annum. In general the right 
of way either directly adjoins the Rochester-Niagara Falls 
branch of the New York Central Railroad or is within hail- 
ing distance, but the electric railway passes through the 
towns at more accessible locations. The construction is 
double tracked for one mile from the connection with the 
Rochester city system at Lyell Avenue to the car house of 
the new road. There are 17 sidings on the entire route. 

As will appear from the description of the physical con- 
struction and equipment, this railway has everything in its 
favor to permit high-speed service with safety and com- 
fort. The management plans to give an hourly express 
schedule the greater part of the day, running the 54 miles 
between Rochester and Lockport in 2 hours and 12 min- 
utes, which is about the average time made by the steam 
trains between the same points. There are eight through 
steam trains a day on this division of the New York Cen- 
tral, and the electric railway will probably secure the bulk 
of the passenger business in this territory, besides develop- 
ing other traffic to a large amount by the operation of local 
cars between the through trains. These locals, according 
to the calculated schedule, will make an average of one 
stop per mile and complete the trip in three hours. The 
fares will approximate those of the New York Central in 
this territory. The work has now advanced to such a 
point that operation between Rochester and Albion should 
begin about June 15, and provided injunction difficulties in 
Middleport are overcome by that time, the rest of the line 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Middleport Over Crossing with New York Central 

should be ready by the early part of September. It might 
be added here that the completion of the work has been 
greatly delayed by franchise and other difficulties beyond 
the contractor's control. 


As previously noted, practically all of the line is on a 
wide private right of way near or adjoining the Rochester- 

June 6, 1908.] 



Niagara Falls division of the New York Central Railroad. 
The line has been laid out with such care that the maximum 
grade does not exceed i l /> per cent except for a 300-ft. or 
400-ft. length of 4 per cent in the village of Spencerport. 
The alignment is particularly good, and not more than 4 
per cent of the line is on curves. The construction of the 
new Erie barge canal in this territory required a 100,000- 
cu. yd. fill in Holley, where the railway runs along the 
south bank of the canal, and some 50,000 cu. yd. or 60,000 
cu. yd. of earth were used for easy bridge approaches in 
Middleport. The completed system will have only three 
large bridges, all double-track structures. Two miles west 
of Middleport, a crossing over the New York Central track 

and were erected by the J. (j. Gray Company, of New York, 

At Holley is installed a hand-operated horizontal lift 
bridge across a stub end of the old Erie Canal, constructed 
as shown in the accompanying detail drawings, The bridge 
proper consists of a pair of ordinary deck-plate girders 
resting on foundation piles with cast-iron bearing plates. 
The main framing of the lift structure consists of a col- 
umn at each corner made up of two 10-in. laced channels, 
10-in. and 12-in. laced channels between the tops of the 
posts, a diagonal strut at the top and knee braces. The 
bridge proper is raised on two channels to which the lift- 
ing chains are attached. The lifting chains are operated 

Smtch stand v Pipes operating loch 

to unlock both ends of at opposite end of bridge 

bridge add set both and semaphore 
signals to danger 

Pipes operating bridge locb and signal 

Half plan at top 

Details of Low-Tension Line 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Plan and Elevations of Lift Bridge Over Canal at Holley 

has a through truss span of 140 ft. with three deck-plate 
girder spans on steel bents and concrete abutments, as 
shown on page 18. The second bridge, built as an 
over-crossing for the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg Rail- 
way, is of the through plate-girder type with a ballasted 
concrete floor on a center pier of concrete and end abut- 
ments of heavy stone masonry. The third bridge, which is 
already delivered ready for erection when the barge canal 
in this vicinity is completed, will be a riveted through-truss 
structure of 170 ft. span, placed 1^-2 miles west of the car 
house. At present the railway diverges slightly to the north 
pending the excavation of the new canal channel. The 
bridges were fabricated by the Fort Pitt Bridge Company 

from one end only and run over sheaves which actuate the 
lifting shaft through worm gearing, as shown in .the half 
plan of the top. The actual lift is only 1000 lb., as the 
bridge has a counterweight of 16,000 lb. However, provi- 
sion has been made to use a motor if necessary. 

The signal arrangement in connection with this lift bridge 
requires a semaphore set back about 500 ft. from each end 
of the bridge. Each semaphore is operated from the same 
lever as the bridge lock. Through this interlock the bridge 
cannot be opened without pulling the semaphores up and 
blocking the track. After the semaphores are up the track 
cannot be cleared until the bridge is down and locked. 

The standard rail used for the greater part of the sys- 



I Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

tern is a 70-lb. A. S. C. E. T-rail laid in 33-ft. lengths except 
for an 86-lb. girder rail in the villages of Medina and Brock- 
port. The track is laid on 6-in. x 8-in. x 8-ft. ties, placed 
24-in. centers on tangents and 16-in. centers on curves, 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Lift Bridge at Holley 

dered foot bonds. No. 8 spring frogs and split switches 
are used at all sidings. There are only three crossing frogs 
on the line, one at the Albion quarry siding and two caused 
by spur connections with the New York Central; a "Y" 
is being installed near the Albion sub- 
station. All special work was fur- 
nished by the Raniapo Iron Works, 
of Hillburn, N. Y., and the Ernst 
Werner Company, of New York. 

Every provision has been made for 
careful drainage. Concrete box cul- 
verts do not exceed 4 ft. x 4 ft. ; gen- 
erally spans from 4 ft. to 8 ft. are 
reinforced concrete arches; and open 
I-beam construction is used only for 
spans exceeding 8 ft., but where pos- 
sible concrete arches are used in 
preference to open spans. Climax 
tile cattle guards are installed at all 
road crossings and there are several 
concrete cattle passes. The right of 
way is entirely fenced. 


The Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester 
Railway will use power transmitted 
over cross-country lines at 60,000 
volts, three-phase, 25-cycles from taps 
at Lockport and South Greece, on 

.? •§•*>' Mach. bolt" 
in with sq wash. 
I §*s' 'Lag screw 

- Ground wire support 
J*« -?"»/* 

-Insulators , 
Insulator Pm with Bolt £ 

'Square washer 
Bolt $ *» I -j " with galv. sq. 
^» washers 
5 5 "'J- " washer galv. 
5"* ?** 7-0 " crossarm 
~^<f^3*cut washer galv 
^S-£**)'-3* Bolts galv. 
with washers at 
both ends 


-io turns *4 wire galv steel 

e 'Strip of */6 galv Irvn 
■y 42 "long nailed around 
T pole . Bend one end of 
v strip around wire and 
j solder securely. 

— ; -i — *4 Ground copper wire 

Standard Pole Arrangement 

Butt Fble Brace Where Necessary 

Notch pok 

Alternate scheme 
for ground wire 


1 Notch pole i'g * 

Brace 4**6* 

Plan of Right Angle Turn 

Plan of 45 'Turn 

Standard Pole Top Detail 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Various Construction Details of High-Tension Pole Line 

bridges and trestles: Oak ties are used on curves and long- 
leaf yellow pine on tangents. The line is ballasted with 
about 2000 cu. yd. of crushed rock to the mile. 

The rails, which were furnished by the Lackawanna Steel 
Company, have angle-bar, four-hole joints and Lord sol- 

the lines of the Niagara, Lockport & Ontario Power 
Company. The South Greece connection, which will be 
the first used, is secured by a cross-country line from con- 
necting at a'point three miles south. Near the South Greece 
substation a switch house of steel frame reinforced 

June 6, 1908.] 



"Trussit" concrete has been erected to contain G.E. bomb- 
fuse circuit breakers, Westinghouse current and potential 
transformers and the necessary measuring instruments, such 
as integrating and graphic recording wattmeters. The line, 
just before entering the switch house, will be protected by 
G.E. electrolytic lightning arresters and in addition there 
will be on each circuit a single wide-gap, high-tension dis- 
charge horn arrester fused to ground with no resistance. 
The railway company's high-tension wood-pole trans- 

wire, so that there is little danger even if the grounding 
wire should break. At public crossings and similar places, 
where people might touch the high-tension poles, a 6-in. 
grounding strip of galvanized iron is placed on the pole 
about 10 ft. above the ground. The plan of the standard 
pole arrangement also shows the method of butt-bracing 
adopted instead of guying. 

A novel variation in the pole construction was required 
where detours around towns had to be made along the 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — High-Tension Side of 

mission line, 60 miles in length, carried on its right of way, 
with detours at all villages, presents several interesting 
features. The wires are carried over four-part Ohio Brass 
Company's insulators, tested to 150,000 volts for five min- 
utes and to 60,000 volts on each section. These insulators are 
mounted on iron pins with a separable thimble cemented 
into the insulator to permit easy removal of the latter. The 
insulators are installed two and one on cross-arms, respec- 
tively, 7 ft. and 2 ft. long. Most of these cross-arms lack 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Low-Tension Side of 

border of one property without projecting over that of 
another. In this case each wire is carried on one side on 
separate wooden braced cross-arms, while the ground wire 
is carried on a straight angle iron screwed alongside the 
pole. To avoid disturb- 
ing the telephone circuits 
on the opposite pole line 
the high-tension wires 
are transposed a corn- 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Single-End Motor Car 

the customary braces, but instead the lower or longer arm 
is secured by two ^'-iri. through bolts and washers, and the 
upper or shorter arm by one 5 4-in. bolt and the lower por- 
tion of the bent angle which carries the aerial grounding 
wire. The latter is of the tough phono-electric material 
and is grounded every fourth pole. It will be seen from 
the detail of the upper part of the pole that this wire is 
carried about 20 in. to one side of the upper high-tension 


Intake in 

plete turn between each substation and the telephone 
wires are transposed every fourth pole, or 440 ft. 
Among the other features shown in the overhead detail 
drawing are elevations and plans of 90-deg. and 45-deg. 


The high-tension transmission wires are carried to five 
substations placed as follows: No. 1, Gasport, 8 miles from 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

Lockport; No. 2, Medina, 10 miles from Gasport ; No. 3, 
Albion, 8 miles from Medina; No. 4, Brockport, 12 miles 
from Albion; No. 5, South Greece, 10 miles from Brockport, 
leaving about 6 miles to the Rochester city line. All of the 
stations are of uniform design and size, each being intended 
to house ultimately three 400-kw rotary converters with 
the usual appurtenances. The substation walls are built of 

at turnouts. The bracket is of 2-in. diameter tubing, 9 ft. 
long, and its outer end is supported by a ^-in. wrought- 
iron tie rod. To avoid overhead frogs and simplify the 
change to double-track operation, it was considered desir- 
able to install two trolley wires from the beginning. These 
are suspended 20 ft. above the rail by the bow-string 
method. Both trolley wires are No. 0000 throughout and 

Truss A ■ 
ff oof load 60 lbs. per soft, total 

Purlins - 3 "c s -13. as * 
Posts - a l? z± "« a *» 

d - 2L* Z~"*2'x 

Truss C 

Roof load 60 lbs. per sq.ft. 

Truss B 

Roof load 60 lbs. per sq.ft. total. 
5000 lbs. concentrated af any 
point of bottom chord- 
Hangers - IL 2£"*z'*£' 

-*o'-9" fto f walls - 

-3S-9* f tofwal/s- 

-js'-s"f to f nails- 

-40'- 9 'f to f. Wd/ls - 

/SS'-o" face to face walls 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Cross-Section of Car House, Showing Details of Roof Framing 

concrete blocks, the floor is of concrete and the roof of 
yellow pine covered with Carey's magnesia flexible cement 
roofing. The machine room is one story high and is sep- 
arated from the two-story, higb-tension transmission cham- 
ber by a concrete wall. All the barriers of the high-tension 
chambers are also of concrete and the openings on the 
ground floor level are covered with removable asbestos 
boards. The high-tension circuits are brought into the 
station on Locke entrance insulators and where they enter 
the building are protected by multiplex lightning arresters. 
The transformers are of the water-cooled type, each sta- 
tion being provided with two motor-driven circulating 
pumps which take water from an outside concrete cooling 
basin. There is also a tank in the upper floor to give grav- 
ity cooling should 
the pumps break 
down. The oil 
switches are oper- 
ated with current 
from a storage bat- 
tery, which is 
charged from the 
trolley circuit. The 
machine equipment 
for each station is 
now as follows : 
Gasport, two 400-kw 
rotaries; Medina, 
one 400-kw ; Albion, 
two 400-kw ; Brock- 
port, one 400-kw ; 
South Greece, two 
400-kw. All of the 
electrical equipment 
necessary for the 
substation installa- 
tions was furnished by the General Electric Company. 


On the right of way the low-tension poles are of chest- 
nut, 35 ft. high, and spaced no ft. on tangents, but steel 
poles are used at Brockport, Medina and Middleport. Cen- 
ter pole bracket construction is used throughout except 
for some span construction in the villages, at curves and 

in addition an aluminum feeder equivalent to No. 0000 
copper is carried on glass insulators for the entire route. 
There are about six feeder taps to the mile. The circuits 
are protected by Garton-Daniels lightning arresters placed 
about two to the mile. 


The„line will begin operation with 15 passenger motor 
cars and 2 express motor cars made by the Niles Manu- 
facturing Company. The passenger cars, which weigh 
about 35 tons empty, are about 52 ft. over all, but only 8 ft. 
4 in. wide, to permit operation over the curves of the 
Rochester Railway Company. The cars are designed for 
ultimate single-end operation, but as the line will first be 
operated only as far as Albion, it was decided to put on 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Car House, Repair Shop and Offices 

temporarily another controller and air-brake valve to give 
greater flexibility of operation until the entire line is 

Each car has three compartments as follows : The front 
end for the motorman and the storage of express packages; 
the next compartment for smokers, and the third for the 
regular passengers. The front end is furnished with large 

June 6, 1908.] 



sliding outside doors, but hinged doors are used throughout 
the rest of the car. The cars, as shown in the accompany- 
ing view, are of very handsome design and are finished in 
the standard Pullman dark green. Each has Heywood 
Brothers & Wakefield non-reversible seats for 50 passen- 
gers ; plush is used in the passenger compartment and 
leather in the smoker. The inside furnishings embrace all 
the regular conveniences of 
interurban cars, including toi- 
lets finished in enameled metal 
imitation of tiling. Illumina- 
tion is provided by 16-cp lamps 
placed in frosted globes and 
arranged in arches of five 
across the car at intervals of 
about 6 ft. Two lamps are 
placed in a receptacle in the 
dash for illuminating a sten- 
ciled destination sign. The 
curtain fixtures are from the 
Curtain Supply Company. The 
registers are the International 
type for combined cash and 
transfer business, with two 
operating rods. 

The car bodies are mounted 
on Baldwin trucks with Schoen 
solid steel wheels and Syming- 
ton journal boxes. The elec- 
trical equipment consists of 
four GE-73 75-hp motors and 
type M control. Westinghouse 
automatic air brakes are in- 
stalled in addition to a hand 
brake at one end. The cars 
also carry pneumatic Sanders, 

the car builder in not permitting the space blocks to come 
even with the sills, it was possible to get all the wiring 
conduit under the car in position without any cutting what- 


The car house of this railway is located about one 
mile from Lyell Avenue, Rochester. The walls are made 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Plan of Car House, Showing Division Into Small 

Sections for Fire Protection 

of concrete blocks, the floors either of 
concrete or cinders and the roof of 
composition laid over yellow pine 
plank on steel purlins carried on steel 
trusses. The trusses over the truck- 
repair track are designed to carry 
5000 lb. suspended from any point of 
the lower chord in addition to the 
regular roof loads. Abundant light is 
afforded throughout the building by 
the liberal skylight area. The over- 
all dimensions of the structure are 
155 ft. x 165 ft. 

The car house is of particular in- 
terest from the fire protection stand- 
point. It is divided into four main 
sections, which are effectually sepa- 
rated from each other by 8-in. con- 
crete walls with but one fire door 
opening per wall. At the same time 
there is no restriction of car move- 
ment, as the track arrangement out- 
side the car house makes it easy to 
transfer cars from one section to an- 
other. Kinnear steel rolling doors are used for all car 
openings. Besides the precaution against fire taken in the 
design of the building, the usual standpipes, hose and fire 
pails are also installed. Danger from defective insulation 
has been eliminated by carrying all lighting circuits in pipe 

The section marked Stall No. 1 on the plan of the car 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Depressed Shop Floor, Overhauling Track 
and Machine Shop Equipment 

Kalamazoo track scrapers and Climax electric headlights. 

The express cars have the same trucks and general oper- 
ating equipment as the passenger cars, but are permanently 
arranged for double-end operation. All of the rolling stock 
was electrically equipped and wired by I. R. Nelson & Com- 
pany, of Newark, N. J., in the shops of the Buffalo, Lock- 
port & Rochester Railway. Owing to arrangement with 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

house is used for truck and motor overhauling and also 
contains the machine shop, blacksmith shop and steam heat- 
ing plant. Instead of having a pit, however, the entire room 
is depressed 5 ft. below the level of the yard. Cars coming- 
in for repairs are brought in over an elevated track, which 
is carried on I-beam stringers set on concrete pedestals 
spaced 15-ft. centers. Each pedestal is capped by a 
wrought-iron plate, through which the I-beam stringers are 
bolted into the concrete. A section of the track, 5 ft. 2 in. 
long, can readily be removed to facilitate wheel changing. 
A narrow-gage line under this track has been provided to 
take care of a hydraulic jack. It is believed that the ele- 
vated repair track described will prove more convenient 
than the usual pit method because all the work can be done 
standing up; there is plenty of daylight, no fire danger 
from hidden rubbish and where work is done on the side 
of the trucks there are no devil strips to remove. 

This depressed room also serves for the machine and 
blacksmith shops, the equipment being arranged in line be- 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester — Under View of Car on 
Elevated Repair Track 

tween repair track and outer wall of the building. The 
tools were furnished by the Prentiss Tool & Supply Com- 
pany and consist of the following: Fay & Scott 45-in. en- 
gine lathe; Fay & Scott 12-in. back-geared engine lathe; 
Bickford drill press; grinders; Rochester wheel press; 
shaper and blacksmith forge equipment. All of the ma- 
chine tools are operated from shafting driven by a 20-hp 
G.E. motor. The heating plant, which adjoins the black- 
smith equipment, consists of a 25-hp Ideal steam heater 
with connections to i l / 2 -'m. steam pipes run along the walls. 
The section beyond the pit room, which is used for storage, 
is on the same level as the rest of the building. 

Stalls Nos. 2 and 3 each contain three tracks, 165 ft. 
long, and are used for storage and inspection. The tracks 
in these sections open on the west end like that of the pit 
room. The fourth section of the building consists of the 
offices and trainmen's room on the west side and the paint 
shop and carpenter shop directly behind. It will be noticed 
from the plan that the tracks of this shop open on the east 
and are separated from the office section by an 8-in. wall. 


All cars are to be dispatched by telephone from the car 
house. For this purpose telephones have been placed in 
all substations, booths at turnouts, etc. The telephone 
equipment was furnished by the Slromberg-Carlson Tele- 
phone Manufacturing Company, of Rochester, N. Y., and 
consists of one cabinet equipped with 10 bridging drop lines, 
five pairs of cords and one operator's equipment, including 
night-bell contact. The instruments are not of the usual 
types for exterior stations, but consist of 25 telephones of 

the company's No. 110 type with five-bar generators, 1600- 
ohm ringers and a like number of substation protectors. 
This company also supplied a lineman's portable testing in- 
strument. There are duplicate telephone circuits of four 
No. 12 B. & S. copper wires on the low-tension pole lines. 


In accordance with the steam railroad practice, the im- 
portant highway crossings will be protected by crossing 
signs and automatic signal bells of the Union Switch & 
Signal Company, to indicate the approach of a car. 


J. G. White & Company, Ltd., have done the engineering, 
surveys, securing of rights of way and the entire construc- 
tion and equipment. The work was under the general direc- 
tion of C. G. Young, construction manager for J. G. White 
& Company, and Joseph D. Evans was the local construc- 
tion superintendent. The railway company was represented 
by Edmund Wragge, C.E., of Toronto, engineer for the 
construction committee financing the property, and Le 
Grand Brown, of Rochester, resident engineer. J. M. 
Campbell, of Kingston, Ont., has just been elected president 
of the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Railway, succeeding 
Charles B. Hill, attorney, of Buffalo. Mr. Campbell will 
also fill the position as manager and operate the property. 


The Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Com- 
pany, by means of a connection effected with the lines of 
the Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company and the 
Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company, is 
operating an electric Pullman limited service between In- 
dianapolis and Louisville, 117 miles distant. The run is 
made in four hours. Trains are dispatched from Indianapo- 
lis at 9 a. m. and at 2 p. m. daily and arrive in Louisville 
at 1 p. m. and 6 p. m., respectively, and from Louisville 
at 8 :30 a. m. and 1 :30 p. m. and arrive at Indianapolis at 
12:27 and 5:27 p. hi., respectively. Practically the only 
changes made by the. Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern on 
the introduction of the service were the elimination of a 
few short curves and the putting in of a few additional 
sidings. The spring switches were taken out and replaced 
with rigid throws and semaphore switch lamps showing 
green for main-line track position and red when siding is 
open were put in on all switch stands. These lamps are 
equipped with long-time burners purchased from the Adams 
& Westlake Company, using a small round wick and small 
inner globe. After experimenting with different grades of 
oil, the company found the lamps would burn for a week 
without refilling or retrimming, although as a matter of 
safety they are trimmed and filled every five days. The 
oil in use is purchased from the Galena Signal Oil Com- 
pany. The Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction 
Company's line extends from Indianapolis to Seymour, a 
distance of 62.22' miles, and the local cars make the one- 
way trip in two hours and forty minutes. The limited cars 
which run through to Louisville make the distance between 
Indianapolis and Seymour in two hours and thirteen min- 
utes and stop at four important cities. The distance from 
Seymour to Louisville is 54.97 miles and the local ser"ice 
between these points is hourly, the local time be>ng two 
hours, fourteen minutes. The time of limited car-, between 
Indianapolis and Louisville is four hours, incWding delays 
at terminals. An additional fare of 10 cents is collected 
for any distance on the limited cars between Seymour and 
Indianapolis, but no extra fare is charged between Seymour 
and Louisville. 

Junk 6, 1908.] 




In the accompanying illustrations are shown an electric 
cable puller designed for use in construction work on the 
feeder system of the New Orleans Railway & Light Com- 
pany. The apparatus is mounted on a flat-topped wagon 
about 13 ft. long x 4 ft. 6 in. wide, and it consists of a pair 
of drums with grooves in the circumferences driven by 
sprockets and a gear wheel propelled by a 500-volt direct 

iently be handled was about 1000 ft., and to take this down 
required about an hour. The cable puller also enables the 
work to be done with the minimum time of obstruction in 
the street to other traffic and the cable is kept in much 
better shape than if it were allowed to drag on the street. 

Special care has been taken in New Orleans to erect the 
overhead lines in as workmanlike a manner as possible. 
To enable large numbers of cables to be handled with as 

New Orleans Feeder Methods — Electric Cable Puller 

current railway motor. 
The drums are each 3 
ft. in diameter and 10 
in. wide. Each drum 
is carried on a shaft 
1 15/16 in. in diam- 
eter, which runs in a 
pair of standard pillow 
blocks bolted to the 
frame of the wagon. 
The latter is built with 
two main longitudinal 
timbers 8 in. x 12 in. 
x 11 in. in dimensions, 
carried about 30 in. 
above ground. The 
motor pinion is 4^4 in. 
in diameter and 
meshes with a gear 22 
in. in diameter, both 
pinion and gear being 
standard outfits. 

In operation the 
wagon is brought to 
the proper place by 
horses, and if cable is 
to be taken down a 
reel wagon is attached 
to the rear of the cable 
puller. The controller 
is located at the head 
end of the puller, so 
that the man who looks 
after the horses can 
stopping of the motor. 

New Orleans Feeder Methods — Brass End Connector for 
1,000,000 Circ. Mil Cable 


New Orleans Feeder Methods — Plan and Elevation of Electric Cable Puller 

also supervise the starting and 
As a cable is fed from the 
overhead line, it is passed around the two drums and then 
led to the reel. With this device a length of 4000 ft. of 
cable has been taken down in 15 minutes, whereas by thf 
old hand methods the maximum length that could conver 

much ease as can be attained in a contracted space, the 
company uses an angle iron junction frame as shown in 
the accompanying drawing. Eye bolts are attached to the 
outside of the frame and to the bolts are fastened the strain 
insulators carrying the cables. The frame is made up of 
3 in. x 3 in. x T l> in. angles, braced twice by 24-in. round 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

iron bolts carried inside pipes I in. in diameter. Nuts at 
the ends of these pipes provide the proper take-up. The 
eye bolts are y& in. in diameter and 8 in. long, with threads 
on the ends so that they can be properly tightened. They 
are installed 8 in. apart on centers. In pulling cable over 
the cross arm, the regular type of roller block is used. A 
drawing of a brass end connector for 1,000,000 cm cables 

round iron i 3 -long with nu 

— 18- 

M ^ 

12- w) 12—- 

' Positic 
£ of Casting j| 




\ % X 8 eye bolts with nuts 

New Orleans Feeder Methods — Angle Iron Junction Frame 

is also shown. This has been found particularly advan- 
tageous in enabling a corner to be turned with a 
heavy wire without cutting and with no harm to the in- 
sulation. The connector is divided into two parts which 
are clamped together by JMs-in. U-bolts fitted with standard 
hexagonal nuts. For the size named, the diameter of the 
interior bushing is 1% hi. At one end a lug with an oval 
hole takes the strain of the cable span when held up by the 
cross arm or frame to which the cable is fastened. Ac- 
knowledgment is due A. L. Black, engineer of the New 
Orleans Railway & Light Company, for the foregoing il- 
lustrative matter. 

According to the report of the Deputy Minister and 
chief engineer of the Department of Railways and Canals 
of Canada street railway travel in that country is safer in 
Montreal than in any other Canadian city. Not a single 
person was killed there last year. The greater safety of 
Montreal's service is attributed to the use of the pay-as- 
you-enter car, which was in use on three routes. Below is 
given an extract from the annual report bearing upon this 
matter: "The killing of 71 persons and the injuring of 1736 
others reveals the sacrifice which would appear to be in- 
separable from the operation of electric railways. The 
danger is manifestly in proportion to the number of cars 
run and the population served thereby, since out of 71 fatal 
accidents 22 took place in Montreal and 20 in Toronto. 
Singularly, however, not a single passenger was killed in 
Montreal. Of the 1736 non-fatal accidents, many of which 
were of a minor character, 490 occurred in Montreal and' 
696 in Toronto. Thus, while but one passenger in every 
40,311,552 was killed in 1901, this proportion was reduced 
to 6,782,243 in 1905, and last year to 10,188,126. The aver- 
age for the seven years was one in every 18,268,306." 



A couple of years ago when the writer was in charge of 
controller work for the Lake Shore Electric Railway, of 
Cleveland, he was requested to simplify the wiring and re- 
duce the size of some GE B-8 controllers by eliminating the 

electric braking features 
The cars had been equipped 
with both air and hand 
brakes, so that the removal 
of the electric braking fea- 
ture was more than balanced 
by a decrease in the width 
of the controller cylinder 
from 31 in. to ig 1 /, in., thus 
giving more vestibule space 
and reducing the load on 
the sub sills. 

The change" was made by 
taking out the stand wiring, 
fingerboards and cylinders 
and then the cut-out switch 
box on the bottom was cut 
to measure 14^ in. and the 
back of the controller shell 
was placed in a planer to be 
cut off to the desired size. 
The controller cover was also reduced in width by cutting 
out a piece between the reverse and braking handles, after 
which the side and back were planed to fit as shown in 

Controller Case Open to 
Show Part Cut Off 

i A Ail/ 


1 Where top was cut an<\ 

portion removed. 

2 Where side was cut . 

3 Set Bcrews to hold aide 

to back of stand . 
6 Fiber to hold wires in pla 
Wood Cover. 

G. E. B-8 Controller Braking Cylinder 

the drawing, without requiring any new castings whatever. 

In the transformer controller the running and reverse 
cylinders are in their original state, but owing to the change 
in the cut-out switch box, the last two blades to the right 
were removed to give the switch cut-out six knife blades 
instead of eight. Blades 1-3-4 and blades 5-6 were then 
connected with jumpers. All wires were led to the right 
side and securely fastened with a piece of fiber. 

June 6, iyo8.] 



The Illinois Traction System, operating last year an 
average of 325 miles of interurban lines, had total gross 
earnings from freight traffic of $191,148. With the com- 
pletion of about 110 miles of new interurban lines during 
the last six or eight months, the company now has through 
lines connecting East St. Louis", 111., Springfield, Peoria, 
Bloomington, Decatur, Champaign and Danville. It is 
thus enabled to get its share of the large merchandise traffic 
distributed through Illinois by the wholesale houses in St. 
Louis and a good part of the distributing business of the 
smaller wholesale houses in the other large cities which it 
reaches. There are comparatively few manufacturing in- 
dustries along its lines which contribute local traffic in any 
large amounts. A larger volume of business is obtained 
from the distilleries in Peoria than from almost any other 
single industry. The territory reached by the lines of the 
Illinois Traction System, however, includes besides the 
larger cities already mentioned several prosperous towns 
in the coal-mining districts south of Springfield and all the 
way between Springfield and Danville. As well as contribut- 
ing local merchandise traffic, these coal-mining towns pro- 
duced last year a traffic of about 150,000 tons of coal, 
which was handled in the traction company's own cars 
between the mines with which it has connections and the 
larger cities on the system. 

In developing its freight traffic, the aim has been to 
solicit and accept every kind of shipment which could be 
handled and to make a special effort to give prompt deliv- 
ery without in any way attempting to cut rates below the 
maximum allowed under the distance tariffs of the Illinois 
Railroad & Warehouse Commission for Class A roads. 
The company is prepared to handle bulk shipments of coal, 
sand, lumber and other similar freight, produce, general 
and perishable merchandise and package shipments. 


This railway has been handicapped in the development 
of through business by two conditions which it has been 
unable so far to overcome — the antagonistic attitude of the 
steam railroads in the territory it covers, which have con- 
stantly refused to interchange through business either in 
carload or less than carload lots, and the fact that under 
its franchises in Springfield and Decatur particularly, it is 
unable to haul freight cars in trains over tracks inside the 
city limits. This second difficulty can only be met by the 
construction of belt lines around the two cities, but work 
has already been begun on such a line around Decatur, and 
surveys have been made for a similar line around Spring- 
field. When these belt lines are finished the company will 
be in a position to handle through trains of freight cars 
between Granite City, 111., and Danville. Its franchises 
in all of the intermediate cities, with the exception of the 
two already noted, are liberal and permit hauling of freight 
cars under certain restrictions over the city streets during 
the early hours of the morning. It is now hauling trains 
of six coal cars and an electric locomotive through the 
streets of Urbana and Champaign and in Danville. This 
coal is obtained from a mine in the Danville district, which 
has no connection with the steam railroads, and its entire 
output is handled by the electric line. The company ob- 
tained the right to run such trains in these three cities 
largely because it promised a reduction in the price of coal 
delivered amounting to 50 cents a ton. 

The largest originating point on the system is East St. 
Louis. Pending the completion of its own bridge across 

the Mississippi River and a direct entrance into St. Louis, 
the Illinois Traction Company has trackage rights over 
the East St. Louis & Suburban from Granite City into 
the passenger terminal of the East St. Louis & Suburban 
at the east end of the Eads Bridge. All freight to or from 
St. Louis is transferred across the river in wagons. In 
this respect the electric line handles its St. Louis freight 
business under the same disadvantages with which most of 
the steam roads entering St. Louis from the east have to 
contend. With the exception of the Wabash Railway, all 
of the steam roads entering St. Louis from the east have 
their freight terminals in East St. Louis, and all deliv- 
eries and receipts are transferred across the river either 
over the bridges or by ferry on heavy two and four-horse 
trucks. There are two transfer companies which handle 
the bulk of this business for the steam roads, having their 
own receiving and distributing warehouses in St. Louis. 
These are the St. Louis Transfer Company and the Colum- 
bia Transfer Company. When the Illinois Traction Sys- 
tem began to operate into East St. Louis, it attempted to 
make a contract with both these companies, but like the 
steam railroads, which were their largest customers, they 
refused to handle the business of the electric road. A con- 
tract was, therefore, made with an independent transfer 
company— the East St. Louis & St. Louis Transfer Com- 
pany — which was doing a small miscellaneous transfer busi- 
ness on both sides of the river. This company has a ware- 
house at 716 Morgan Street, St. Louis, where it receives 
all shipments consigned to the Illinois Traction Company. 
It loads consignments received at this freight house on its 
own trucks and hauls them across the river to the freight 
house of the Illinois Traction System on Collinsville Ave- 
nue, about three-fourths of a mile from the east end of the 
Eads Bridge. Its contract with the railway company pro- 
vides for a transfer charge of an average of about 5 cents 
per 100 lb., based on the class of freight handled, but this 
charge is absorbed by the traction company in its pub- 
lished rates from St. Louis. From six to eight trucks are 
used, depending on the volume of freight to be handled. 
These trucks have a capacity of from 10,000 lb. to 15,000 lb. 
and are hauled by two, three or four horses. 

The freight house in St. Louis is open for receiving con- 
signments up to 6 o'clock in the evening, and as fast as a 
truckload accumulates on the platform it is loaded on the 
wagons of the transfer company and dispatched to the 
freight house in East St. Louis. At the end of the day a 
sufficient number of trucks are pressed into service to de- 
liver promptly all freight received up to closing time to 
the other side of the river. Where single shipments from 
one consignor exceed 10,000 lb., the transfer company on 
notification will load one or more of its trucks direct from 
the consignor's warehouse and deliver the shipment to the 
freight house in East St. Louis without reloading and 
without any extra charge. Shippers and consignees in 
East St. Louis deliver and receive goods directly from the 
freight house, paying all delivery charges in addition to the 
regular freight rates. 


When the new bridge of the Illinois Traction System 
across the Mississippi River at St. Louis is completed this 
company will have an entrance of its own into the heart of 
the wholesale district and will erect a freight and passenger 
terminal at the corner of Twelfth and Lucas Streets. 

The company has freight houses in all of the other large 
cities which it reaches. In East St. Louis it leased an 
abandoned car house and remodeled it into a very satis- 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

factory freight depot which, however, is hardly large enough 
to handle the increasing volume of business. A loading plat- 
form, 25 ft. wide and about 125 ft. long, was built in the center 
of the house with a teaming space on one side and three 
storage tracks on the other side. By spotting cars so that 
the side doors come opposite each other, freight can be 
trucked from the platform through the intermediate car 
or cars to a car standing on either the second or third 
track away from the platform. The tracks are long enough 
to accommodate three cars each in the house and so 
extended in the rear about 150 ft. that stub-end storage 
space for six to eight more cars is provided. In 
Springfield the company has two freight houses. Others 
have been built in Decatur, Champaign, Danville, Peoria 
and Bloomington. 


Most of the merchandise freight business is handled in 
standard express cars. The company has in service 15 
motor express cars and 36 trailer cars with substantially 
the same design of body and having a capacity of 50,000 lb. 
In addition to this equipment, it has in service four re- 
frigerator trail cars, built along the lines of standard steam 
railroa.d practice and having ice boxes in each end with 
icing doors on the sides. These cars are used for handling 
fresh meat, dairy produce, beer and ice. For the heavy 
bulk freight traffic the company owns 360 40,000-lb. and 
50,000-lb. capacity gondola coal cars and 40 flat cars. These 
are equipped with air brakes and M.C.B. couplers and 
are regularly hauled over the road by 15 electric locomo- 
tives. These electric locomotives were described in the 
Street Railway Journal March 16, 1907. They weigh 
40 tons, are mounted on two M.C.B. type swivel trucks and 
are equipped with four GE-55-H motors designed to give 
a tractive effort of 16,800 lb. They are used in construc- 
tion work and in hauling company freight, such as power- 
house coal and material and supplies, when not required 
for handling revenue freight trains. Ordinarily six is 
the maximum number of cars hauled. The motor express 
cars are equipped for multiple unit control and usually 
handle from one to three trail cars when the volume of 
traffic demands that number. 


The methods and forms of accounting for the freight de- 
livered and received at each station are based in a general 
way on the standard freight accounting systems of steam 
roads, although they have been modified and simplified to a 
great extent. Some additional forms and reports are re- 
quired from the East St. Louis office because of the fact 
that the company transfers a large part of its freight to the 
East St. Louis & St. Louis Express Company, which makes 
the actual deliveries and collections in St. Louis. Goods 
received for shipment at the St. Louis freight house of the 
transfer company are receipted for in good order usually 
on the duplex freight _ receipts made out by the shipper. 
Most of the large shippers in St. Louis have their own 
forms of these receipts. These are made out in duplicate and 
one copy signed and delivered to the driver, while the other 
copy is retained and used in making out the regular way- 
bill. When a wagon load of shipments is ready to leave 
the St. Louis freight house it is checked on the wagon 
and a driver's report is made out showing the number 
of shipments, number of packages in each and the 
weight. At the bottom are spaces for the signature of the 
checker, the driver, the time of departure from St. Louis, 
the time of arrival at the East St. Louis freight house and 
the time unloaded. These reports are made out in dupli- 

cate. One is retained by the express company, while the 
other is used in checking the load and is then filed by the 
freight agent at the house. From these reports are made up 
the monthly settlements between the express company and 
the railway company for outbound shipment. Accompany- 
ing the driver's reports with each load are the shippers' 
delivery receipts from which waybills are made out. The 
way bills are numbered consecutively and are made out in 
triplicate on paper of three colors. The original is sent 
forward with the shipment; the second is sent to the con- 
signor and the third copy is retained by the agent. At 
the end of each day the agent makes up an abstract of the 
freight forwarded and sends it to the general .traffic man- 
ager's office at Springfield by the first car leaving the fol- 
lowing morning. Where the shipment goes through over 
the company's lines beyond Staunton, the agent enters it 
on a daily report of through business, showing the 
destination, weight and charges. This report is turned in 
at the auditor's office and a division of revenue between 
the various branches is made in that office on a mileage 
basis. Similar daily abstracts of local express received 
and through express received are made out and sent in to 
the auditor's office, where they are checked against each 
other. The reports of freight forwarded are printed on 
yellow paper and the reports of freight received are printed 
on pink paper. 

Agents are required to make cash settlements with the 
company once each week only. The statements sent to the 
main office show charges collected and amounts still due 


Express Service at Freight Holts 



Yours Iruly. 

Route Card for General Distribution 

and from whom. They are sent in after the close of busi- 
ness on the 7th, 14th, 21st and last day of each month with 
the total amount of cash due. 

Inbound shipments to St. Louis are transferred from the 
East St. Louis freight house by the East St. Louis & St. 
Louis Express Company, which makes any collections due on 
delivery of the freight to the consignee. 

Other blanks used include the car messenger's report of 
express over, short and damaged, and a similar report 
made out by station agents. These reports embody the 
information necessary in tracing a lost or damaged ship- 
ment and determining the cause and responsibility for the 
loss or damage. All transfers of shipments from car to car 
at junction points are also checked and reported. 


The organization of the traffic department is headed by 
the general traffic manager, B. R. Stephens, with offices at 
Springfield, 111. District traffic managers are located at 
Champaign, Peoria, Bloomington, East St. Louis and two 
in Springfield. These district traffic managers have gen- 
eral supervision over the freight and passenger business in 
their respective territories and do soliciting as well. Freight 
solicitors who do nothing but cultivate the merchants and 
shippers along the line are also employed in each of th«e 

June 6, 1908.] 



district offices. The company has not only confined its 
efforts toward building up freight traffic to the shippers, 
but has inaugurated a campaign among the small merchants 
in the towns who buy in St. Louis and the other large 
cities. All employees of the traffic department and con- 
ductors on passenger cars are supplied with pads of small 
routing cards, so-called, which are shown herewith. These 
are distributed among the merchants with the request that 
in sending in their orders they attach one of these slips 
and insist that every shipment be made over the electric 
line as requested. This method has been productive of 
good results, although some of the wholesale houses who 
have not yet come to realize the advantages of the prompt 
service offered, or who are very closely in touch with the 
steam railroads, sometimes disregard the request of their 
customers and ship over the steam roads. 


In St. Louis particularly the Illinois Traction System is 
competing with the steam roads for local business in Illinois 
on the basis of service alone and not on rates. Under the 
ruling of the Illinois Railroad and Warehouse Commission, 
the Illinois Traction System is included under the Class B 
roads and is entitled to charge rates uniformly 10 per cent 
higher than the Class A rates, which all of the competing 
steam roads are compelled to use. It has not, however, 
taken advantage of this 10 per cent increase, but charges 
the same rates as the Class A roads. Furthermore, its 
rates are based on the short line mileage of the steam roads 
or of its own lines, as the case may be, regardless of the 
fact that it is not interchanging freight with the steam 
roads. The company employs five standard classifications 
for less than car-load shipments, the rates being based on 
distance. The minimum short haul rate from East St. 
Louis is to Stallings, 9 miles, for which the first class rate 
is 17.5 cents per 100 lb. and the fifth class rate 8 cents. 
Car load shipments are accepted at the classifications and 
distance tariffs published by the Warehouse Commission. 


The service out of East St. Louis has been steadily im- 
proved as the traffic warranted and on May 1 a new sched- 
ule was put into effect which gives a service excelling any- 
thing that the steam roads can offer. Under the new 
schedule freight received at the St. Louis warehouse of the 
transfer company up to 6 p. m. is delivered in Danville, 111., 
225 miles, and Peoria, 175 miles, at 7:30 a. m. the following 
morning. A special through express leaves East St. Louis 
at 9 p. m., arriving at Springfield at 12:40 p. m. ; Decatur 
at 2:30 a. m. ; Champaign at 6 a. m., and Danville at 7:30 
a. m. In addition to this, a local express leaves East St. 
Louis at 2 130 a. m., arriving at Springfield at 9 130 a. m., 
making all stops between Staunton and Springfield. An 
afternoon express car leaves East St. Louis at 1 p. m., 
running through to Carlinville, where shipments to Spring- 
field and intermediate points are transferred to a local pas- 
senger car leaving at 4:30 p. m. A United States Express 
Company local express car also leaves East St. Louis every 
morning at 9 o'clock, arriving at Danville at 9 p. m. the 
same day. A corresponding service is maintained in the 
opposite direction, the through express leaving Danville at 
8 p. m. and arriving at East St. Louis at 6 a. m. the follow- 
ing morning. 

The freight traffic of the Illinois Traction System is 
growing all the time. With an increase in mileage of 
about 30 per cent this year, it increased nearly 65 per cent 
over the corresponding months of last year. This growth 
has been maintained steadily ever since the cessation of 

business activity last fall and in spite of a complete shut- 
down during the last two months of the coal mines, which 
are the principal industry in a large part of the territory 
served. Special efforts have been made to develop freight 
traffic because it has been found to be very profitable. Last 
year the gross earnings from this source were $191,148 
and the operating expenses, pro rated in accordance with 
the usual percentage charges, were $89,136, leaving net 
earnings of $102,012. This is only about 6 per cent of the 
total net earnings of the entire properties including the 
city lines operated, and is of course a much smaller per- 
centage than is found on. steam roads. The freight busi- 
ness is developing faster, however, than the passenger busi- 
ness, which, it may be said, has also shown a gratifying 
increase over last year, and it will only be a question of 
time until parts of the system at least will have to be double- 
tracked. On the St. Louis-Springfield division at the pres- 
ent time the passenger schedule calls for 15 limited trains 
each way per day, with additional local trains in between. 
The freight traffic is now largely handled during the night 
and the early hours of the morning, when there is little or 
no passenger traffic, but it will not long be possible to keep 
freight cars off of the line during the daytime. 

This paper is indebted to B. R. Stephens, general traffic 
manager of the Illinois Traction System, for the informa- 
tion from which this article was prepared. 


In the expansion of power plants the feed pumps some- 
times become separated through the lack of a preliminary 
design providing for symmetrical additions to the equip- 
ment, especially in the less developed sections of the coun- 
try where power station apparatus is apt to exemplify 
mixed types of varying efficiency under a single roof. The 
chances are that the growth of the plant was not anticipated 
in the earlier days, and that the importance of consolidating 
equipment of the same kind in the same part of the station 
did not make itself felt. As a plant grows there is inevit- 
ably a tendency for the cost of attendance to increase at too 
rapid a rate, unless the machinery is installed according to 
a progressive plan. Boiler feed pumps occupy compara- 
tively little space and can be piped for steam and water 
with comparative ease; they run without constant adjust- 
ment and require simple and inexpensive foundations. 
Nevertheless it is a policy of doubtful wisdom to locate feed 
pumps at any point in the boiler room or basement that 
happens to be convenient. 

By grouping the pumps closely together the steam and 
water piping can be cross connected at the minimum ex- 
pense. The most flexible piping can be installed in this 
way, each pump acting as a unit on the steam and water 
mains and being able to feed any boiler in the plant. Thus 
the effect of a shutdown on any pump or line becomes mini- 
mized, but the most important point is the improvement in 
the attendance. In a plant large enough to require three 
or four feed pumps one man can attend to the entire outfit 
if it is a centralized layout. If anything goes wrong the 
responsibility can be definitely fixed, and the quality of the 
service is sure to be improved. Scattered pump installa- 
tions, on the other hand, are unfavorable to either economy 
in the piping installation, flexibility in reserve capacity or 
low cost of attendance. 

The experimental railway at Orienburg, near Berlin, is 
now serving the purpose of testing electric locomotives and 
coaches before they are placed in actual service. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 



The importance of keeping accurate records of the daily 
condition of those parts of the car equipment which require 
frequent attention is well recognized on both small and 
large roads. Various systems for accomplishing this result 
have been described in this paper, but many of them require 
so much detail as to make them too complicated for the 
small company. The object of the present article is to 
give an account of the writer's experience in this matter 
of car checking on the Liverpool & Southport Electric 
Railway, which was converted from steam to electricity 
some four or five years ago, and operates a frequent service 
of heavy passenger trains at a high schedule speed. The 
system described was evolved to meet the requirements of 
such a service, but it should be understood that, with suit- 
able modifications and adaptations, the same general prin- 
ciple may be applied to any railway, either a city or an 
interurban system, and is especially useful where a large 
number of electric 
cars are operated 

during the greater ^ ~ ~ 

part of the day, 
and, for a limited 
number of hours 
each day are 
housed where they 
can be inspected 
for running re- 
pairs and over- 
hauling, and 
where, owing to 
the exigencies of 
traffic conditions, 
it is impossible to 
prophecy exactly 
at which of two or 
three possible 
points a car or 
train will eventu- 
ally be housed. 
This is the usual 
problem which has 
to be faced. 

Let it be at once 
said that the sys- 
tem adopted and herein described was not the first one tried. 
It was the result of many attempts at this always knotty 
proposition, and survived only after many others had been 
tried and found to be either too cumbersome or inelastic, or 
costly in labor, to make it worth while using them. As time 
went on, and system after system was discarded, it began 
gradually to be perceived that only a graphic system, a plan 
whereby the condition of each item on each of many cars 
could be shown at once as a picture, would meet all the re- 
quirements, and this was eventually adopted. Now after 
two years' trial, during which gratifying results have been 
attained, the writer publishes the results in the hope that 
they may be of use to others. 

Let us suppose, as an example, that it is the oiling of the 
armature bearings of which we wish to keep a record. 

Take a piece of squared paper of suitable size as in the 
diagram, divided preferably into i-in. squares with 10 sub- 
divisions to each inch. Along the upper border write the 

numbers of the cars in order, beginning at the left upper 
corner with the lowest serial number as in the figure, allow- 
ing I in. square for each car. Along the border at the 
left side at each inch square write the items to be checked, 
beginning at the upper square with "Motor armature bear- 
ings oiled" and following down the column with other 
items as shown, "Truck axles oiled," "Main motor brush- 
gear examined," and so on. 

Let us suppose that from the oiler's record it is possible 
for us to know that the armature bearings of car No. I 
were oiled, say, on the night of May I, 1908, and further, 
that we have fixed the limit which an armature bearing 
must run without examination at four days. 

On May 2 a reference to the oiler's report of cars ex- 
amined discloses the fact that the car No. 1 has not had 
attention. Take a pen, and, beginning at the extreme left- 
hand upper corner, draw a line one small square downward 
and to the right, i. e., a diagonal across a small square as 
shown. The next day if again the car is not reported as 
having been oiled at the armature bearing, repeat the opera- 
tion, and so on for four days, as shown. On the fourth 
day, looking at the line (and at the same time at all the 


Contro'lers / 


apparatus . 
overhauled ) 

Graphic Record of Car Inspection and Maintenance Work 

lines along the same horizontal row) it will be seen by 
noting the number of squares down that the limit has been 
reached, and that this car needs attention. The oiler or 
oilers can then be notified that- this car must be looked out 
for and attended to. It will now be seen that what has been 
done with this item of this particular car could have been 
done with each car for the same item providing a i-in. 
square had been utilized for each car in service. For in- 
stance, a reference to the diagram will show that not only 
car No. 1, but cars Nos. 3, 6 and 7 are at the same time 
in the same condition, i. e., requiring oiling at this point, 
whereas on this date cars Nos. 2, 4 and 5 have been run only 
one, two and three days respectively. Car No. 8 is standing 
spare ready in every particular, and Nos. 9 and 10 have 
each run two days, and have stood spare two days. This 
can all be seen at a glance for the full number of cars on 
the sheet, and instead of a single car number, a list of all 
cars requiring oiling on this date can be given to the oilers. 

June 6, 1908.] 



The general principle will now be perceived, i. e., as the 
oil in the bearing is decreasing the corresponding line on 
the sheet is also coming down, and represents graphically 
the level of the oil in the bearing. 

On the next day, i. e., May 4, the oilers report would 
contain the numbers 1, 3, 6 and 7, and so on, and the lines 
in the squares would be raised vertically to the original 
level, as shown, to proceed again as before. The chart 
has been reproduced when six days have expired since the 
commencement of the record. 

What applies to "armature bearings" applies to other 
items of the car equipment, such as controllers, unit 
switches, brake gear, motor brush gear and all other items 
which require frequent and certain examination if mini- 
mum operating and maintenance costs are to be reached 
and maintained, it being understood that suitable limiting 
dates be set to correspond with each item; some items, for 
instance, requiring possible daily examination, and others 
running for weeks or months. The scale of the record 
sheet can, of course, be arranged to suit any local condi- 

Analysis of the diagram reveals several interesting points. 
Taking item (2) "Truck axles oiled," it will be seen that: 

(a) Car No. 2 ran two days, was oiled, ran two days 
and was oiled again, i. e., it was oiled three times in six 
days, although the regular period is four days. 

Evidently there is something amiss with this item ; either 
the oilers know the bearing to be in bad condition and are 
giving it extra attention, or they are oiling it unnecessarily 
and so wasting time, oil and money ; in either case the 
master mechanic has cause here for inquiry; 

(b) Car No. 3 had run two days without oiling at the 
commencement of this chart. It ran two more, was oiled 
and is now, on the sixth day, due for oiling again. 

(c) Car No. 6, by inattention, or due to some emergency, 
had been allowed to run six days, i. e., two days longer than 
the prescribed time ; following this it was oiled three days 
in succession. Evidently the bearing had become scored or 
roughened due to the omission of the oiling at the regular 
period and gave trouble for several days after. 

In a similar way other useful deductions may be made 
from certain of the remaining squares. 

At the expiration of the ten days the final condition is 
transferred to a new chart, care being taken to start each 
item correctly as regards the time-spacing of the squares, 

Assuming that there are 50 motor cars to be kept track 
of, then without getting a cumbersome size of sheet it is 
clear from the explanation that we now have on one chart 
not only a graphic representation of the condition of each 
item of the 50 cars, but we have also a history of what has 
been done to each item on each car during the preceding 10 
days and can trace items by referring to previous charts, 
as far back as may be desired. 

Usually it will be found that not more than 50 cars can 
be conveniently negotiated on one sheet; 100 cars would 
take two similar sheets, and so on. 

The advantage of such a system may now be enumerated : 

(1) The rolling stock superintendent or master mechanic, 
by reference to the chart, can tell at a glance the condition 
of each item at any moment as regards the need for over- 

(2) A life history of the attention given to each item 
is shown, which is of inestimable value in tracing out the 
cause of breakdowns of any particular part of the equip- 

(3) Regularity of inspection and attention is assured 
with a corresponding decrease in the number and extent of 
those failures which take place, due to equipment being 
allowed to run because "Tom" was under the impression 
that "George" had done this, or "Harry" that. 

(4) The charts required for, say, 200 cars, can be com- 
fortably handled by one clerk, with but little training, in 
about three hours each day. 

(5) The fact that each examiner, oiler, electrician, etc., 
receives each day a list of those cars needing his atten- 
tion, lessens the need for personal checking and thought on 
his part, and has in other ways a salutary effect. 

(6) As soon as the system has begun work with regu- 
larity the limitations of each part of the equipment becomes 
more clearly seen. Exactly how long a bearing or piece of 
electrical apparatus can be safely allowed to run without 
inspection becomes less a matter of conjecture. 

Usually it is found that the intervals can be extended 
(in many cases considerably so) with a consequent saving 
in labor and material. Too often in railway work the case 
of the man is repeated who wound up his eight-day clock 
each day for 14 years, under the impression that the clock 
would run for 36 hours only. 

The duplication of labor where two or more gangs of 
men are employed on similar work is avoided. It is very 
frequently found that two men have each given attention 
to the same piece of apparatus, each being unaware of the 
other's movements. Under a chart system each man re- 
ceives definite instructions of what cars are needing atten- 
tion, and by inference the numbers not mentioned are 
either not yet needing attention or are being dealt with 
by others. 

The general result of a graphic system as outlined above 
should be: (a) fewer failures, (b) lower operating costs, 
(c) reduction of staff to a minimum, (d) a more comfort- 
able feeling in the minds of those responsible owing to the 
consciousness that things are working with regularity and 

To those who desire still greater precision the principle 
may be developed on a mileage instead of on a daily basis. 
The need for this will largely depend upon local conditions ; 
the writer's experience goes to prove that in most cases a 
record based upon the daily run of the cars will average out 
sufficiently well in practice, and at any rate will serve as an 
introduction to the more precise method, which can be 
adopted later as the needs of the case dictate. 

In conclusion it may be stated that a close working ac- 
quaintance with such a chart system will from day to dav 
reveal many other possibilities which cannot but be of great 
value to the master mechanic who wishes to have a "live" 
hold on his organization ; to such a one it will be found that 
the chart offers a solution to many difficulties ; he will 
gradually acquire the habit of referring to and analyzing 
it more and more frequently as time goes on with a corre- 
sponding increase in the efficiency of his department. 


A useful little book, "The Chicago and Interurban Trol- 
ley Guide," has just been issued. It tells Chicagoans just 
how to reach surrounding suburbs and towns by trolley or 
steamer, and gives the rate of fare. It also contains 
schedules .of cities, towns, villages, suburbs and amusement 
and fishing resorts, alphabetically arranged, which are 
reached by trolley or steamers from Chicago and vicinity. 
Time-tables and mileage are also included. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 


The Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Company has a 
28-mile line extending from Kokomo, Ind., a city of about 
18,000 population, to Marion, which has about 26,000 people. 
There are also several smaller towns along the route. The 
interurban railway was built by the owners of the Kokomo 
city railways, who found it necessary to erect a new power 
plant to serve the enlarged system, which combines railway, 
lighting and power loads. The new station is a brick build- 
ing with concrete floors. 

The boiler equipment consists of three batteries, two of 
which include four 235-hp Stirling boilers, and the third a 
400-hp Atlas water-tube boiler. A main steam loop header 
12 in. in diameter, located above the pump compartment in 
the steam turbine room, feeds each turbine through a 7-in. 
pipe. Crane gate valves are placed between each battery 
of boilers and between each turbine inlet. There is also a 
4/^-in. auxiliary header. A proper arrangement of valves 
enables any part of the plant to be supplied from any boiler 
at will. 

The condensers and all of the other auxiliaries exhaust 
into a Cochrane heater with Sorge water purifier. Water 

Kokomo, Marion & Western — Power House Interior 

may be drawn from either the condenser suction or dis- 
charge pipes, from a deep well or from the city mains, and 
discharged into an elevated tank which feeds by gravity 
into the heater and from there by gravity into the boiler 
feed pumps ; or the water may be by-passed directly to the 
boiler. Two Worthington pumps are used for supplying 
the tank over the heater and two Dean pumps for boiler 
feed. Either one of any of these two is, however, able to 
care for the water system of the entire plant. The former 
are now being displaced by a centrifugal pump with 2^2-in. 
discharge, driven by an induction motor supplied from the 
main generator buses through a stepdown transformer; the 
steam pumps will be held in reserve. 

The machine room contains two 1000-kw Allis-Chalmers 
horizontal steam turbines and generators, a 330-kw engine- 
driven alternator operated in parallel with them, the ex- 
citers for these units and substation apparatus, transform- 
ers, switchboard, etc. 

Among the special features of the turbines are channel- 
shaped shrouds protecting the ends of the blading from 
injury; machine cut slots in the foundation rings insuring 
accurate spacing of the blades ; a method of fastening the 

latter which effectually prevents them from working loose, 
and improved balance pistons. The turbines operate at 
1800 r.p.m. at 140 lb. steam pressure and a vacuum of 28 in. 
of mercury referred to 30-in. barometer at the exhaust 
nozzle. The machines are frequently run six weeks at a 
time without taking the load off and then only to make 

The condensers are of the jet type built by the Allis- 
Chalmers Company. Cycloidal air pumps, direct-connected 
to enclosed, self-oiling, high-speed engines, and duplex, 
double-acting circulating pumps are installed with this ap- 
paratus, as is also a third condenser to take the exhaust 
from the remainder of the plant. 

The speed of each turbine is regulated within close limits 
by a governor driven from the shaft through cut gears 
working in an oil bath. The governors can be adjusted for 
speed while the turbines are running, thereby facilitating 
the synchronizing of the alternators and dividing the load 
as may be desired. To provide for accidental derangement 
of the main governing mechanism, there is a separate over- 
speed governor, driven directly by the turbine shaft without 
gearing. Should the turbine reach the predetermined speed 
above which the main governor is set, the safety governor 
will trip a valve, shutting off the steam and stopping the 

The lubrication of the bearings is effected by oil supplied 
to the middle of each bearing by means of a small cycloidal 
pump driven from the turbine shaft, and allowing it to flow 
out at the ends. The oil is passed through a tubular cooler 
with water circulation, and pumped back to the bearings. 
It is not necessary to supply the bearings with oil under 
pressure, but only at a head sufficient to enable the oil to 
run to and through the bearings. No oil of any kind is 
used in the interior of these turbines, nor in the glands 
through which their shafts pass. Low oil alarms have been 
provided for the turbines. 

The revolving field alternators driven by these turbines 
are of the turbine builder's standard type for high peri- 
pheral speeds. They are designed for two-phase, 2300 volts, 
which is stepped up to 11,000 volts for the three-phase 
transmission system. The exciters for these turbines are of 
30 kw and 35 ,kw capacity respectively. Direct-current for 
the city railway system and 10 miles of the interurban line 
is supplied through 600-volt generators driven by 216-hp 

There is also a chloride accumulator battery of 288 cells, 
or 480 ampere-hour capacity, in another building 60 ft. from 
the power station. 


The report of the Havana Electric Railway Company for 
year ended Dec. 31, 1907, shows gross earnings of the rail- 
way and stage properties as $2,143,122, an increase of 
$224,019. The total net earnings were $924,951, from 
which must be deducted fixed charges $558,877, leaving 
$366,074, and after paying dividends amounting to 
per cent on the preferred shares there remains a surplus 
of $91,074. The track mile earnings during the year were 
in excess of $36,000, indicating that the maximum earnings 
upon the present track mileage of the company is being 
approximated and that additional mileage will soon be re- 
quired to properly handle the increased traffic incident to 
the normal growth of the city. In anticipation of this 
necessity the company has now pending before the proper 
authorities an application for the right to construct the 
additional trackage required, and favorable action upon 
this application is anticipated. 

June 6, iyo8.] 




The system of the Memphis Street Railway Company 
covers about 100 miles of track and serves a population of 
some 150,000 people within the limits of its territory. Prac- 
tically all the company's traffic is urban, there being one 
12-mile suburban line to Raleigh Springs which is an ex- 
ception to the other routes in the through character of its 
business. In the main the different routes are radial in 
character, centering on the commercial heart of the city 
and branching out into residential or manufacturing dis- 
tricts on the north, east and south. A map of the com- 
pany's lines is shown in Fig. 1. 

Thirteen separate routes are required to handle the busi- 
ness of the company. The rolling stock totals 270 cars and 
20 double track trail- 
ers of the 13-bench 
open type. All single 
truck box cars are 
numbered from 100 to 
299; these have 20-ft. 
bodies and are 32 ft. 
over all. Open single 
truck cars are num- 
bered from 300 to 499, 
closed double truck 
cars from 500 to 699, 
the bodies being 30 ft. 
long and the cars 42 
ft. 6 in. over all, and 
trailers, from 700 to 
800. In case any car 
is delayed or injured 
in any way, the re- 
porting of the num- 
ber instantly conveys 
the type of car, and 
measures can be 
taken more quickly to 
provide relief in the 
best way than as 
though the number 
did not at once sug- 
gest the type of car 
which is held up. 

There are 35 Brill 
semi- convertible 
double truck cars 
seating 40 passengers 
each, equipped with 
four GE 57 motors; 
20 Brill cars of the 
same type, equipped with four GE 80 motors ; 10 longi- 
tudinal seat box cars equipped with four GE 80 motors 
each, and seating 44 passengers; 96 single truck lon- 
gitudinal seated cars operated by two GE 800 motors 
and seating 22 passengers each ; 50 ten-bench open 
cars equipped with two GE 67 motors ; 44 ten-bench 
single truck cars driven by two GE 800 motors, and 15 
new double truck longitudinal seated semi-convertible cars 
with disappearing windows, with four GE 80 motors and a 
seating capacity of 40. The 20 trailers have already been 

In general the principal routes are as follows : 
Beale and Lane line: Starts at Overton Park on east 
side of city, reaches Main Street via Lane, High and Mar- 

ket Streets, passes southward through the business district 
for about a mile, traversing Main Street, the principal ar- 
tery of traffic, and swings southeast to a terminus at Elm- 
wood Cemetery. 

Davie and North Second line: Starts at North Second 
Street Illinois Central Railroad crossing in extreme north- 
west of city, traverses Main Street southward to Union 
Avenue and thence runs south to Georgia Street via Soutti 
Third Street. 

East End line: Starts at the center of the business dis- 
trict, Main and Madison Streets, loops around a square and 
runs eastward across the city to the vicinity of the New 
Memphis Jockey Club. 

Jackson Mound line: Starts at Union and Main Streets, 
loops the business center, passing southward on Main Street 

Fig. 1. — Memphis Street Railway, Map Showing City Lines 

to Calhoun and terminating in the southwest quarter of the 
city at Delaware and Division Streets. 

Kansas Avenue line: Starts at Union and Main Streets, 
loops the business center, passing southward on Main 
Street to Virginia Street, terminating near the end of the 
Jackson Mound line. 

Linden and Johnson line: Starts at Old Raleigh Road and 
Watkins Street in the northeast side of the city, passes ta 
Main Street via Jackson Avenue, runs southward on Main 
Street to Linden and thence to the southeastern side of the 
city via Mississippi Boulevard, terminating at Rayner Ave- 
nue near the city limits. 

Main Street line: Starts at Main Street and Railroad 
Avenue, near Iowa Avenue, in the southern part of the city, 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

and passes northward through Main Street to Mill Street, 
and thence northeasterly to the end of the new Raleigh 
Road or to the Memphis Driving Club via Thomas Street. 
This is one of the most important lines in the city, although 
considerable Main Street service is handled by other lines 
passing through that thoroughfare. 

Raleigh Springs line: Starts at Main and West Court 
Streets, loops a block in the business district and passes 

at Rozelle Street and the N. C. & St. Louis crossing. 

Binghamton line : Starts at Main and West Court Streets, 
loops the business district and passes eastward to Bingham- 
ton via Poplar Avenue, Evergreen Street and the balance 
of the Raleigh Springs route as far as Binghamton. 

On the above lines four parks are located. Two of these 
are maintained by the city, namely, Overton and Riverside. 
Overton Park contains a lake, the Memphis Zoo and special 

Lv. Sta. 





No. 1 











1 1 












7 . 13 




7 .40 

7 .40 

7 .48 









9. 12 


9 .20 












1 1 .00 

11 .00 

1 1 .08 


11 .23 

11 .38 

11 .50 

11 .50 

12 .02 

12 . 13 



12 .32 

12 .40 

12.40 . 

12 .48 


1 .03 

1 . 18 


1 .30 

1 .42 




2 . 12 

2 .20 

2 .20 

2 .28 


2 .43 


. 3.10 

3 . 10 

3 .22 













5 .02 




5 .32 

5 .40 

5 .40 












7 .20 

7 .20 

7 .28 


7 .43 

7 .58 



















10. 17 







1 1 .03 

11 . 18 

11 .30 

Sta '.. . 

11 .33 

11 .45 

11 .56 

12 .00 



12 .23 



12 .42 

12 .46 

No. 1. 12.55 A.M. run No. 4 Vance and Poplar Time Table No. 9 effective January 2d, 1907. 
Relieved from 12.02 to 1.42 by P.M. crew No. 12. Day Crew off at 6.18 by P.M. Crew No. 4. 

Fig. 2. — Memphis Street Railway, Timetable of Run No. 4 on Vance and Poplar Line 

out of the city via Poplar Avenue and Binghamton to Ra- 
leigh Springs. 

South Memphis line: Starts from Main Street and Union 
Avenue, loops the business center and passes southward via 
Main and Florida Streets to South Memphis. 

Suburban line: Starts from Main and Madison Streets, 
loops a block in the business district and passes southward 
via Main Street, Rayburn Boulevard and then to South 

floral attractions, and is about 375 acres in extent. River- 
side Park, in the southwest part of the city, overlooks the 
Mississippi River and covers about 350 acres. Two pri- 
vately owned amusement parks, East End and Fairyland, 
are located on the company's lines. Trailers are operated 
from March 15 to Nov. .1 on the East End and Raleigh 
Springs lines. This service is given afternoons and Sun- 
days on the Raleigh Springs line to handle a large pleasure 


superintendent's daily report of operation. 

Day of week, 

Weather, A.M., P.M., Date, 





EXTRA cars 


















Beal and Lane 









Misc. Trouble 
Change of Type 

Davie and North Second 







Misc. Trouble 
Change of Type 


Report on Rolling Stock 


Regular Cars in Service 

At 6p.m. 








Extra Cars in Service 

Cars in Shop for Minor R< 
Cars in Shop for Repairs 
Cars held in Barn, not us 
Total Cars 



Car Hours Today, 2,062.30 

147 Cars. 

Note — Minor Repairs are those that will be ready 

for service in 12 hours or less. Part of Report with Totals of all Lines. 

Fig. 3. — Memphis Street Railway, Copy of Superintendent's Daily Report of Car Operation 

Memphis via Lauderdale Street or to Calvary Cemetery via 
Hernando Road. 

Union Street line: Starts at Main and Union, loops the 
business section and passes easterly via Union, Spring and 
Peabody Avenue to South Barksdale Street in the east cen- 
tral part of the city. 

Vance and Poplar line: Starts at Tucker Avenue and 
Poplar Boulevard, in the east central section of the city, 
passes westward to Main Street, southward to Vance Street 
and thence eastward via Vance Street to the terminals 

traffic, and all day on the East End line every day in the 

The routes carrying the heaviest traffic in Memphis are 
the Vance and Poplar line, the East End, Linden and John- 
son, Main Street and Suburban lines. All cars in the city 
pass the corner of Main and Madison Streets, and the aver- 
age headway between cars 1 this part of Main Street is 
about 42 seconds on each of ae two tracks laid in that thor- 
oughfare. In a second stor/ office at Main and Madison 
Streets an inspector of traffic is located throughout all the 

June 6, 1908.] 



eighteen hours in which cars are operated. This work is 
handled by two men, who average nine hours' service each. 
Each car passing this central point is noted by its route 
number or car number if it is at night, and the time of 
passing is recorded on a log sheet. Telephone connection 
with the starter at the car house and with other points on 
the system enables the service to be handled quickly in case 
extra cars are needed. Irregularities in intervals are mini- 
mized, the maintenance of the schedule checked, and in 
case of disputes over the time of transfers issued, arrival 
of connecting cars, etc., the exact figures kept by the station- 
ary inspector furnish the company with unquestioned data. 

The number of cars operated for the month of December 1907 are as follows: 


Regular rars 

Extra cars 

fetal number of cars. 

East End '." 

63 7 2 1 2 


Linden and Johnson 

496 1ft 5 



Vance and Poplar 




Main Street 








Beale and Lane 




Davie and North Second .... 



Union Street 



South Memphis 




Jackson Mound 



Raleigh Springs 








Kansas Avenue 






Fig. 4. — Memphis Street Railway, December Car Record 

A standard clock with Western Union hourly time is lo- 
cated at the corner of Main and Madison Streets for the 
convenience of trainmen. The route numbers of the differ- 
ent cars are attached in the form of tin tags, 4 ins. square, 
which are slotted on one side in such a way that they can be 
locked in position when hung upon a bolt extending outward 
from the vestibule near the hood of the car. It is probable 
that these tags will soon be replaced by similar slotted tags 
with black figures on a porcelain background. 

To facilitate conductors' reports of trips run and to 

the company's books and these are operated as the condi- 
tions of service can be anticipated, as on Sundays and cer- 
tain week days when the travel varies considerably from 
that on other days. When a timetable is assigned for a cer- 
tain day, each car on the system is provided with a metal tag 
about 3 in. x %y 2 in., upon which is mounted the schedule 
for the particular run the car is to make during its service. 
( )ne of the run schedules is shown in the accompanying 
table, Fig. 2, illustrating Run 4 of the Vance and Poplar line 
on timetable No. 9. The first car leaves the car house, sta- 
tion 1, at 5:25 a. m. and runs on dead mileage to station 26, 
which is the end of Poplar Avenue. Its first revenue trip 
begins at 6 a. m., and the time the car is required to pass the 
various points en route is indicated in the table. Thus at 
6:08 the car is due at station 28, Poplar and Bellevue 
Streets, at 6:19; station 11, Main and Poplar, at 6:23; sta- 
tion 9, Main and Madison; at 6:38, station 36, Vance and 
Walnut Streets, and at station 32, end of the line, Annes- 
dale, the car is due at 6:50. The return trip begins at once 
without layover. To facilitate the reading of the table by 
motormen and conductors the schedules are all arranged to 
read from left to right. All the trips, reliefs, layovers and 
final housing of the car at night at station 1, 12:55 a - m -> 
are shown, and the card goes with the car all day regardless 
of what crew is operating it. 

Each day the superintendent of the company, E. W. Ford, 
submits a report of the operating conditions of the day be- 
fore, to the president of the company, T. H. Tutwiler. One 
of these reports is shown in Fig. 3, the original being 10% 
in. x t6J/8 in. Space is provided on these reports for the 
statistics of each line, the schedule speed for the day, the 
minimum and regular headway, number of regular and ex- 
tra cars and changes in cars in service. On Thursday, Dec. 
26, 1907. which was selected as a representative winter day, 
the schedule speeds on the different lines varied from 6.75 
to 10.99 m il es P er hour. The slowest speeds were obtained 
either on the lines where the traffic was densest or on routes 
where there are a large number of curves. The regular 

Beale and Lane 

Davie and North Second 

* East End 

Jackson Mound 

Kansas Avenue »J 

* Linden and Johnson q 

* Main Street u 

Raleigh Springs 

South Memphis 

* Suburban 

Union Street 

* Vance and Poplar 



Pi ' 

Total All Lines. 

Total average 



3 ,597 




Average daily 
cash fares 


1 1,863 







Average daily 
other fares 


Average daily 
car miles 








Average daily 
car hours 








Average total 
per car mile 









Daily passengers 
per car hour 

51 .9 

52 .9 
39. 1 

52 .6 

*Heaviest Lines 

Fig. 5. — Memphis Street Railway, General Report, Covering December, igo7 

enable the accounting department to figure mileage more 
quickly a table of 91 numbers has been prepared, which is 
carried by each man in the car service department. These 
numbers are assigned to every important turning or turn- 
back point on the system, beginning at the Walnut and 
Beale Street car house with one and including the most 
important street intersections in the city, passing track 
switches and ends of routes and beginnings of single track 
runs. By far the greater nart of the company's lines is 
double tracked, which, of co- >.se, enables a much better serv- 
ice to be given the public tj an on lines where much single 
track abounds. r 

About a dozen different timetables are established on 

headway varied from 5 to 30 minutes on the different lines. 
The peak headway shown applies to the afternoon only, as 
there is not any very extensive peak in the morning at 

The peak headways varied from 2.5 to 30 minutes. On 
the suburban line to Raleigh Springs and Binghamton, the 
Kansas Avenue, Davie and North Second lines, no increase 
in car service was necessary during the afternoon hours. 
It must be borne in mind in considering figures of this char- 
acter that conditions obtaining on one day do not neces- 
sarily repeat themselves on another. In general, however, 
a long, sparsely settled suburban line, part of whose route is 
traversed by a shorter run city car service, does not require 



the decreased headway during rush hours if the latter serv- 
ice is flexibly maintained in response to the traffic variations. 
On the five lines of heaviest traffic the intervals were ap- 
proximately cut in half during the afternoon peak. On 
the Vance and Poplar line the headway fell from 6 to 4 
minutes; on the East End, from 5 to 2^2 minutes; on the 
Linden and Johnson, from 6 to 3 minutes; on the Main 
Street, from 6 to 2^ minutes, and on the suburban, from 
5 to 2 l /2 minutes. 

To handle the service on the day shown 66 single-truck 
box cars were required and 56 double-truck box cars for 
the regular schedule. The extra travel was handled by 25 
cars of the single-truck box type. Thus, a total of 122 regu- 
lar cars and 25 extras were required, making 147 cars on 
the system for the day as a whole. These ran 2062.30 car 
hours or an average of about 14 hours per car. The Vance 
and Poplar, East End, South Memphis and Raleigh Springs 
lines used only the double-truck cars and all the other lines 
used single-truck cars with the exception of the suburban, 
on which both types were employed. Fifteen changes in 
motor equipments were made during the day, two-thirds of 
these being on account of the GE-800 motors. The later 
motors showed much less need of shop treatment. On these 
sheets the designation "Minor Repairs" applied to those 
that enable the car to be placed back in service inside of 12 

All the company's single-truck box cars except two were 
required in the run off of the schedule in force on Dec. 26, 
and all but 5 of the double-truck box cars were used. The 
trailers were not in service. Seven cars were in the shop 
for repairs. Causes of car changes in service are usually 
classified as due to brakes, motors, miscellaneous trouble or 
a change of type on account of a change in weather or 
traffic conditions. 

In order to examine the volume of traffic handled on an 
average day, the figures for the different lines in the city 
were summarized for the month of December and divided 
by the number of days. Fig. 4 shows the average number 
of regular, extra and total cars used on each line per day 
during December, 1907. 

Fig. 5 shows the total average daily passengers, average 
daily cash fares, average daily other fares, average daily 
car miles and car hours by lines for the month of December, 
1907. The average total passengers per mile and per car 
hour have been included also. The average passengers per 
car mile for the system per day was 6, and per car hour 
52.6. Revenue traffic was 82 per cent of the total and trans- 
fer and other fares 28 per cent. The highest density of 
traffic was not always on the lines carrying the largest 
number of passengers, but the heavy lines handled the 
maximum transfer traffic. The suburban line to Raleigh 
Springs showed a low passenger density per car mile, but 
a good figure per car hour. In general, the traffic density 
of the principal lines was quite evenly distributed. 

The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company has issued a 
program of the musical attractions at Willow Grove Park 
for the coming season. The park opened May 30 with 
Arthur Pryor and band, who continue until June 27. Victor 
Herbert follows, then Theodore Thomas and finally comes 
Sousa, by whom the season will be closed on Sept. 7. Music 
is one of the great features at Willow Grove, it not being 
unusual for 30,000 people to hear a concert. The railway 
company has reproduced the page from the Philadelphia 
North American of June 23, 1907, which contained a long 
illustrated article on Willow Grove by Walter R. Linn. 



It is well known that the way to raise the temperature 
of a flame is to heat the air with which it is fed. The 
heating of the air has been the cause of very greatly in- 
creased brilliancy in gas lights. It appears, therefore, to be 
correct to heat the air which flows to any furnace. But 
such a proceeding has by no means always been a success. 
When air is heated it is expanded, and a very much greater 
volume will be required to supply the same weight, hence 
the velocity of flow must be greater. Since the molecular 
velocity of gases is inversely as the square root of their 
density, it follows that, if the volume of air be doubled by 
doubling its absolute temperature, its velocity of flow will 
be increased by only 41 per cent. It will not be doubled, 
and for the same draught power there will not flow into 
the furnace the same weight of air as formerly. The door 
is thus open for, or, may it not better be said, closed against, 
the proper flow of air. To take in the same air supply the 
flow must be of double the velocity, and, unless there is 
still a large margin of draft available, the requisite volume 
of hot air cannot be obtained. 

In order that the same weight of air may flow into a fur- 
nace its velocity must be doubled, still figuring on the as- 
sumption of a doubled, absolute temperature, and if the 

velocity is double, the energy or will be quadrupled. 

The power required to give the same weight of air is thus 
also quadrupled, and ordinarily the chimney could not be 
so raised as to do this. Velocity of flow due to head varies 
with the square root of the head, and this seems to indicate 
a chimney four times higher than that for cold air supply. 
Unless, therefore, small volumes of air are needed, it looks 
as though heating a boiler "draft" could not be a success. 

The chief resistance to the entry of air to a boiler fur- 
nace is the grate and the fuel on it, and there does not, on 
the face of it, seem much prospect for a hot draft under 
the grate. But for the air needed over the grate, entering 
by way of orifices not blocked with fuel, there is not much 
resistance to be overcome and, when burning bituminous 
coal, there is some prospect of success in the supply above 
the fire of hot air to burn the gases evolved from the fresh 
charges of coal. It is not to be supposed that the draft 
required for heated air can economically be produced by 
allowing the chimney to be hotter, for this would be throw- 
ing away probably more than could be got back in any case 
by the heating of the draft. The one thing that may be 
practicable is the production of draft by a fan. It is well 
known that a fan should work with a mere fraction of the 
heat that is needed to produce a chimney draft, and it may 
well be argued that, if there is anything of serious good in 
heated air supply, this must be forced into the furnace by 
a fan, and the fan mnst work upon the air either before it 
enters the heater or after it has passed all the heat-absorbing 

The difficulties of heated air and its disappointments are 
seen to be due to mechanical causes, and a recognition of 
such causes will serve perhaps to prevent indulgence in too 
sanguine hopes of air heating. Since, however, it is the 
grate and the fuel bed which constitute the greater part of 
the resistance to the flow of air to a furnace, the conclu- 
sions reached do not necessarily apply where liquid fuel is 
consumed. This, indeed, is well known to be the case. It 
also follows that with a given chimney and liquid fuel a 
heated air supply is likely to be more successfully applied 

Junk 6, Hjo8.J 



than with solid fuel, unless the solid fuel is supplied without 
grate resistance; that is to say, in the state of powder or 
fine dust. Hot air has always been a success when applied 
to gas firing, for again there is no serious resistance to 
its flow and, though failures have resulted from the appli- 
cation of hot draft to solid fuels, it is not the heat that is 
the true cause of failure, but the want of sufficient air that 
is indirectly brought about by the expansive effect of heat 
and the provision of only the same air passages. 

method was designed and has been patented by P. N. Jones, 
electrical and mechanical engineer of tn*e Pittsburg Rail- 
ways Company. 



The Pittsburg Railways Company, instead of purchasing 
new four-motor capacity controllers, has adopted the novel 
expedient of backing its old two-motor controllers in pairs 
and turning their cylinders as one by using an intermediate 
idler which meshes with a gear on each cylinder. The com- 
pany is applying this scheme to K-2, K-io and K-n con- 
trollers in connection with £f ur 50-hp motor equipments, but 
the same thing can be done^with any controllers of D form 
by using the proper size idler. 

The controllers are bolted back to back on the car plat- 
form, with or without intermediate insulating fillers as judg- 
ment may indicate. The tops of the controllers are removed 
and replaced by a new cover which contains the mechanism 
for the two-fold control. This mechanism, as shown in one 

Top of Double Controller With and Without Cover 

of the accompanying views, consists of a plate and three 
gears mounted. Two of these gears are attached to the 
controller spindles while the intermediate one acts as an 
idler. Consequently, by attaching the regular controller 
handle to either cylinders it is possible to turn the other at 
the same time. The notch for indicating the current steps 
remains the same as on the original K-type controllers. Re- 
versing is effected with one of the original reversing 
handles, simultaneous action being secured by the under- 
plate levers connecting the reversing cylinders as indicated 
in one of the illustrations. 

As the idler gear is removable, one controller may be 
operated independently in case of trouble with the others. 
In general any desirable combination of motors is possible, 
but in Pittsburg one-half of the double controller serves for 
motors Nos. 1 and 2 and the other for motors 3 and 4. This 

In the report of the committee on protection from light- 
ning, read before the National Electric Light Association, 
Chicago, May 22, the following recommendations are 
made : 

Each company should keep a simple record of the loca- 
tions and causes of all lightning troubles and the amount of 
injury due to lightning. Some standard method should be 
used by all companies, and your committee would urge all 
the members who have adopted any form or method of 
keeping records to contribute their ideas to the committee 
so that the best form, or a combination of the better ones, 
may be recommended to the association as an aid to the 
various companies who desire to find out the results they 
are obtaining from their protective apparatus. 

Station arresters should always be located where they can 
readily be inspected and cleaned. Regular weekly inspec- 
tions should be made, and the arrester grounds should be 
inspected at regular intervals. Test papers should be left 
in the arrester gaps and examined after each storm. 

In installing lightning arresters and other protective ap- 
paratus the conditions must be carefully studied, so as to ob- 
tain the very best 
protection. Light- 
ning arresters are 
necessary on all 
circuits, and should 
be installed on dis- 
tribution circuits 
where there is ap- 
paratus to be pro- 

Choke coils have 
a definite value, 
but are not to be 
recommended for 
promiscuous use. 
Where experience 
or calculation indi- 
cates their use 
they should be in- 
stalled. Used in 
the wrong place, 
they may do harm. 
Grounds should 

be made as perfectly as possible. The committee on 
grounding of secondaries has considered this subject 
very carefully this year, and has proposed for the 
National Electrical Code a set of rules for the construction 
of grounds. A few feet of ^-in. pipe have been considered 
in many cases ample for driven pipe grounds. Such a 
ground would not be permanent even under ideal conditions. 
The proposed rules specify heavier pipe driven deep into 
the earth. The conductivity of grounds should be tested by 
blowing at no volts a 2-amp fuse connected to the ground 
wire whenever it is practicable to make such a test. 

The London County Council is considering the advisa- 
bility of street cars solely for women. The contention is 
that during working hours women stand a poor show of 
getting their rights as tramway passengers. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. r. 


Although electric power for the operation of industrial 
and mining machinery has been applied on a large scale 
in Mexico, electrification of street railways has not taken 
place as rapidly as might be expected in view of the large 

Double-Truck Interurban Car 

number of populous towns in that country. An interesting 
fact in connection with the electrical development of 
Mexico is that Canadian people are in control of the two 
most extensive enterprises of that character, the one at 
Necaxa and the other at Monterey. These interests and 
projects, however, are entirely distinct and the towns them- 
selves are situated several hundred miles apart. 

Monterey is an industrial center 
of more than 80,000 people and has 
long been considered an inviting field 
for an electric railway. Owing to 
its proximity to the United States it 
has a larger American population 
than any other city in Mexico. Sev- 
eral years ago some American pro- 
moters took hold of the project of 
electrification, but nothing came of 
the matter despite the encourage- 
ment of the government and munici- 
pal authorities. Two years ago, 
however, the two mule-car systems 
of the city were purchased by Wm. 
MacKenzie, of Toronto, on behalf of 
a Canadian syndicate, after which 
a concession was obtained for the 
electrification and extension of these 
lines. The mule systems, which 
were about 42 kilometers (26 miles) 
long and narrow gage, were con- 
solidated and operated by animal 

traction until the work of electrification was completed. 
The latter work began in January, 1907, and was fin- 
ished early in April of this year. The work of changing 
over presented a number of unusual difficulties, partly be- 
cause of the decision to use standard-gage track in spite of 
the very narrow streets. The rail used is 72-lb. T-section, 
6 in. high with all-wire bonds. On account of the narrow 
streets it was difficult to establish a standard system of 

curves and switch sets simple enough to be understood and 
executed by native labor. It was finally decided to adopt 
a system of compound curves, using an entrance radius of 
100 ft. or 50 ft. and diminishing to a center radius in some 
instances of as low as 35 ft. The curves were designed to 
have chords of even foot lengths over the compound en- 
trances to facilitate the proper curv- 
ing in the bending yard. By so 
doing only two types of tongue 
switches were necessary, namely, 
those having 50-ft. radius and those 
having a 100-ft. radius. Derailing 
devices are installed at all crossings. 

The overhead equipment, which is 
designed for standard 550-volt, d.c. 
operation, was furnished by the 
Ohio Brass Company. Bracket con- 
struction generally is used, as the 
track generally is located on one 
side of the street. The trolley poles 
are all steel with welded joints. 

The power plant, which is situ- 
ated in the city, consists of one 
300-kw and one 400-kw generator, 
both of the General Electric Com- 
pany's form S. direct-current type. 
These generators are direct con- 
nected to Harrisburg-Fleming cross- 
compound engines, the smaller units 
operating at 200 r.p.m. and the larger at 150 r.p.m. Both 
units have Bulkley condensers. The steam generating 
equipment consists of three 300-hp Atlas water-tube boilers 
with extra large grate surface for burning Mexican coal. 
The power house is a brick building with steel frame work 
and steel roof trusses. The roof over the engine room is of 
tiling and over the boiler house of corrugated iron. 

Single-Truck Car for City Service 

The passenger equipment now consists of 12 single-truck 
cars each equipped with two G. E.-800 motors ; seven 
double-truck city cars mounted on maximum traction trucks 
and equipped with Westinghouse 93-A-2 motors ; six in- 
terurban cars mounted on St. Louis Car Company's No. 47 
trucks, driven by two 93-A motors. Only the double-truck 
cars have a first-class and second-class compartment. In 
addition to the regular traffic from the city's industries, the 

June 6, 1908.] 



company operates a 4-mile line to a suburban health and 
pleasure resort at Topo Chico, where there are some popu- 
lar medicinal hot-water springs. 

The motormen and conductors employed on the line are 
Mexicans, most of whom saw service on the mule cars. 
They have been carefully trained for the electric service 
and are proving quite proficient. The company has had 
some difficulty in making the lower-class native realize that 
the electric cars are traveling at somewhat greater speed 
than a mule canter, as many of them still have the habit 
of jumping off the moving car wherever they please. 

The personal representative of the owners while the re- 
construction was in progress was Lewis Lukes. F. H. 
Lancashire, now engineer and manager of the company, 
was the engineer in charge of construction. The other 
chief operating officers are: Samuel Irvine, superintendent, 
who came from Toronto to reorganize the mule service ; 
E. R. Rust, comptroller; Frank Page, master mechanic, 
and Thomas Murray, power station engineer. The com- 
pany has almost completed the electrification, in which 
it has received the encouragement and assistance of the 
municipal authorities and of Bernardo Reyes, Governor of 
the State of Nuevo Leon, of which Monterey is the capital. 


An account was published in the Street Railway Jour- 
nal for Feb. 15, 1908, of the car-testing plant of the Wor- 
cester Polytechnic Institute. It forms part of the general 
electrical laboratory of the institute, which has recently 
been completed. An interior view is given herewith. The 
laboratory is 200 ft. in length and is served by a 100-ton 
electric traveling crane. With its galleries it has a floor 
area of 19,400 sq. ft. 

The car-testing equipment occupies one end of the 
laboratory, the end in the engraving farthest from the 
observer. The rest of the equipment in the general 

Test Car and Tracks to Laboratory 

laboratory embraces over 50 generators and motors, in- 
cluding all the important types, 40 transformers of various 
types and sizes, over 200 instruments, two storage batteries, 
one of 160 cells and the other of 60 cells, and a large 
collection of special machinery and apparatus. This equip- 
ment is arranged with special standardized terminals and 
circuits so that any combination of circuits, instruments and 
apparatus is readily secured for experimental purposes. 

The heavier machinery is placed upon the main floor, 
while the galleries are used for experimental work involv- 
ing the lighter machinery, or for special work which it is 
desirable to remove slightly from the main floor and yet 
keep in close touch with its equipment. Smaller rooms for 
storage battery, telephone, photographic, photometric or 
other special work are conveniently located. 

Electrical Laboratory of Worcester Polytechnic Institute 

The power for the laboratory is supplied at 2200 volts by 
underground cables from the power laboratory of the insti- 
tute, where are three service units in charge of the electrical 
engineering department. 



The electric railway opened in Warsaw, Russia, in April 
succeeds horse-drawn cars introduced in 1881 by a Belgian 
company, which in 1889 sold it to the city for an annual 
payment of $175,000 until the expiration of the concession, 
in 1916. Operating 304 cars and charging passengers 3.6 
cents first class and 2.5 cents second class for not exceed- 
ing two miles, a gross revenue of $839,052 was secured in 
1907. The daily hours of employees are from 7 a. m. to 
11:30 p. m., with intervals for meals, for which drivers 
receive 62 to 67 cents; conductors, 62 to 83 cents. In- 
spectors receive $30.90 to $41.20 per month. The con- 
struction work was carried on through a building commit- 
tee appointed by the Emperor. The principal private con- 
tractors were German electric companies. The system is 
to be managed by a syndicate, which has closed a contract 
with the city until 1922. The syndicate agrees to pay the 
city an annual sum of $207,030 and 5^ per cent on the 
invested capital of about $3,605,000. Out of these receipts 
the city will continue the payment of about $175,000 per 
annum to the Belgian Company up to the year 1916. After 
the expiration of this liability the income passes into the 
city treasury. Whatever surplus net profit remains after 
payment to the city of the sums agreed upon is to be divided 
into equal parts between the city and the syndicate. 

The Lisbon Electric Tramway Company reports a net 
profit of £93,000 for the year 1907. This is very gratifying 
to the managers of the company, as Spain has suffered con- 
siderably from political unrest and financial depression the 
past year. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 


The Mobile Light & Railroad Company operates a sys- 
tem including about 52 miles of track and requiring about 
107 cars to handle the traffic. Fourteen cars are double 
truck and the rest single truck. Of these cars 33 are of 
the single-truck open type used from May to November, 
and 36 semi-convertible, used the year round. 

All cars are maintained at the new Monroe Park shops, 

Mobile Repair Shops — Exhausters in the Mill Room 

which are provided with about 3000 ft. 

of track under cover. The company 

also has a car house located at Spring 

Rill Avenue and another at Royal 

Street. The former has a storage ca- 
pacity of 18 cars and the latter of 

about 35 cars. Besides the shops and 

main car house at Monroe Park, the 

company owns at this point a four- 
track shed for storing trailers. During 

the warm season the company rents 

this shed to picnic parties and in rainy 

weather the arrangement has been of 

great value. The Monroe Park shop 

property is about 1000 ft. long and 600 

ft. wide in its longest dimensions and 

has both loop and through tracks. The 

car house and machine-shop building 

is provided with nine through tracks 

and five additional parallel tracks with 

stub ends. This building is in the 

north central section of the property 

and has recently been enlarged by a 

four-track brick extension 45 ft. wide 

by 225 ft. long. The total length of 
the shops is now about 250 ft. and the 

maximum width 225 ft. The carpenter 
:snop is east of the machine shops. 

In the main shops tracks 1, 2, 3 and 4 are new and tracks 
5 to 14, inclusive, are about nine years old. The shop ar- 
rangement, however, is largely new. Pits are provided in 
tracks 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14. A general view of the 
shop exterior is shown, the buildings being of brick, with 
composition tar and gravel roof on the old section and a 
reinforced concrete roof on the new part of the structure 
Ample skylight facilities and plenty of room for expan- 
sion in the future are provided. In operating the shops 

tracks 1 to 7, inclusive, are used for car storage, tracks 
8 to 10, inclusive, for inspection and tracks 11 to 14 for 

The machine shop has a blacksmith division, 22 ft. by 30 
ft., with four forges and the usual tools. Forced draft 
for the forge equipment is provided by a 12-in. Buffalo 
blower. The fan exhausts into a 4-in. duct trunk line made 
of sewer pipe and from this 4-in. branches are taken to 
feed the individual forges. The machine shop tools are 
group driven by a single-phase, 5-hp, no- volt G. E. motor 
located on top of the armature room, which is set off at 
one side of the shop. An overhead traveler connects the 
armature room with the rest of the shop. A 500-volt, d. c. 
motor is reserved to run the shop machinery should the 
alternating-current supply fail. In the near future S. M. 
Coffin, master mechanic and chief engineer, plans to install 
an inclined track in the machine shop to facilitate inspec- 
tion and light adjustments required under the cars. It is 
probable that when this arrangement is effected a traveler 
will be installed so the wheels can be taken with minimum 
delay from the inclined track to the wheel press, the latter 
being located at the end of the shop nearest the proposed 

The armature room is provided with the usual equip- 
ment for this class of repairs. The armature rack shown 
consists of a hard pine frame with main members, 16 in. 
deep and 3 in. wide, braced at the top and bottom. The 
pins for supporting the armatures are composed of ordi- 
nary Y^-'m. pipe sunk into the frame. This rack has a 

Mobile Repair Shops — Repair and Construction Shop 

home-made jib crane consisting of a 16- ft. mast set with 
i34-in. cold-rolled pins at the ends to enable the mast to 
swing around a vertical axis. The mast is provided with a 
Yz-m. x ^y 2 -in. curved bar iron bracket carrying a i-ton 
differential hoist used to handle the armatures. 

The carpenter shop tools are group driven by two 10-hp, 
220-volt a. c. motors, but d. c. motors are available should 
there be an interruption in the a. c. circuit. One of the 
best features of the carpenter shop is the arrangement in 

June 6, ujo8.] 



use for handling the sawdust and shavings from the differ- 
ent tools, shown in one of the views. The exhaust fan is 
operated by a io-hp motor, both located on a platform, 
about 15 ft. above the floor. The fan, 36 in. in diam., is 
located at the outlet of a 14-in. main duct, which receives 
from appropriate branches all the sawdust and debris from 
the several wood-working tools. The discharge pipe from 
the fan is 12 in. x 16 in. in section, leading to a chamber 
outside the plant, where the sawdust is collected and later 
burned. The ducts leading from the different machines 
are brought into a trunk line varying in diameter from 
6 in. to 14 in. on its way to the fan. 

For the most part inspection and car cleaning are done 
at night. The blacksmith force includes four men, the 
paint shop three men, the carpenter shop eight men and 
two helpers, and two machinists handle most of the work in 
the machine shop. For pit work, wiring, motor and truck 

Mobile Repair Shops — Armature Rack and Home-Made 
Chain Hoist 

inspection and repairs six men and four helpers are re- 
quired. In the armature room are three men, who also 
handle repairs of valves, governors, compressors and con- 
trollers. From 48 to 50 cars are operated by the company 
at any one time. The men in the different parts of the 
shop do not always confine themselves to one class of 
work, but the more delicate repairs are handled by the 
armature-room force. 

Car windows are cleaned daily and other parts once 
every week or 10 days. The company does not use air in 
this cleaning, as it is considered objectionable in compari- 
son with water. Arc headlights are inspected daily by the 
day men at Spring Hill Avenue barn, from which they 
all run. The daily motor inspection includes brushes, 
commutators, coils and bearings. The new track for 
the inspection of the under sides of cars will be raised 
on concrete foundations, 42 in. above the floor level, and 
will be about 60 ft. long. Armatures are changed with a 

pit jack, dropping the lower halves of the motors. Com- 
mutator segments are tested for grounds and short circuits 
by a 500-volt grounded light connection, adjacent segments 
being tested between segment and ground by the applica- 
tion of full line potential. 


In view of the widespread consideration which lately has 
been shown the pay-as-you-enter plan of fare collection, 
it may be of interest at this time to review briefly the ex- 
tent to which street railways have adopted this new design 
of car. 

The pay-as-you-enter cars were first put in operation in 
Montreal in June, 1905. But few were at first tried. With- 
in a year's time, however, the Montreal Street Railway 
Company had installed 125 pay-as-you-enter cars, and 
since has adopted the plan for its entire system. The type 
of car used in Montreal has frequently been described. 
Of this type, which has 9-ft. platforms and is designed for 
single-end operation, there are 300 now in successful use. 

On Nov. 24 the Chicago City Railway Company began 
operating pay-as-you-enter cars on its Cottage Grove 
Avenue lines. This company has extended the use of 
these cars to its Indiana Avenue lines and to the State 
Street lines. There now are operated on the South Side 
lines in Chicago 300 double-end pay-as-you-enter cars, and 
at the Chicago City Railway shops 100 of the 1905 type of 
cars of this company are being reconstructed so that the 
pay-as-you-enter plan of fare collection may be used. 

The International Railway Company, of Buffalo, N. Y., 
on Jan. 5, 1908, began operating on its city lines in Buffalo 
the first of 100 double-end pay-as-you-enter cars. The 
service was inaugurated without trouble and the company 
is at present altering 150 of its larger earlier type cars, so 
that the pay-as-you-enter methods may be used. 

The New York City Railway Company began operating 
155 double-end pay-as-you-enter cars on March 22, 1908, 
and is said to have under consideration the use of an addi- 
tional 100 cars of a similar type. The New York cars will 
be provided with longitudinal seats while those in the 
other cities mentioned have cross seats in the center of the 
car and longitudinal seats at the ends. 

The fifth company to put pay-as-you-enter cars into serv- 
ice was the Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, 
which on April 15, 1908, began introducing 150 single-end 
cars into its regular schedules in Newark. This company 
is now considering the alteration of 400 of its large double- 
truck cars so that the pay-as-you-enter features may be used. 

Immediately after the reorganization of the Chicago 
Union Traction Company its successor, the Chicago Rail- 
ways Company, placed an order for 350 double-end pay-as- 
you-enter cars, 50 of which equipments will be constructed 
of steel. It is said that this company is also considering 
the immediate purchase of 300 more cars of the pay-as- 
you-enter type. It also has been announced that The Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Company is altering a 
number of its city equipments so that they may be used as 
single-end pay-as-you-enter cars. The United Railways 
Company of St. Louis also is considering the reconstruction 
of some of its standard double-truck cars so that the bene- 
fits obtainable by the use of the pay-as-you-enter plan may 
be had. 

No serious defects have been found in the service ren- 
dered by the new cars, and there practically has been no op- 
position to their use, either by the public or the railway 

4 2 


[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 


When the Chicago Railways Company accepted the re- 
habilitation ordinance last February, preparations were 
made to begin at once on an extensive programme of track 
reconstruction on the north and west sides. Some recon- 
struction work was done by this company last year com- 
plying with the standards specified by the board of super- 
vising engineers, in anticipation of the acceptance of the 

Pouring End of Concrete Mixer 

rehabilitation ordinance, but the programme for the year 
1908 is much more extensive. It includes the reconstruc- 
tion of both tracks on North Clark Street from Washing- 
ton Street to Addison Street ; on Van Buren Street, from 
Clinton Street to Kedzie Avenue ; on 
Halsted Street, from Van Buren 
Street to Lake Street; on Milwaukee 
Avenue, from Desplaines Street to 
North Avenue, and on Blue Island 
Avenue, from Harrison Street to 
Seventeenth Street. 

The Clark, Madison, Milwaukee and 
Blue Island Avenue lines were for- 
merly operated by cable, and the 
track reconstruction includes the re- 
moval of the cable slot and rail yokes, 
and the construction in the cable 
trough of a multiple-tile conduit sys- 
tem in which feeder and return copper 
cables are to be laid. 

All of the track reconstruction out- 
lined in this programme, except a 
short section at the west end of Van 

Buren Street, will be built after the design described as 
type No. 2 by the board of supervising engineers. This 
design calls for the standard grooved rail approved by the 
city, supported on wooden ties embedded in concrete. The 
western end of Van Buren Street is built on a fill on the 
prairie and for this reason No. 3 type of construction, using 
wooden ties on rolled broken stone ballast, will be employed. 

In the Street Railway Journal Oct. 26, 1907, a descrip- 
tion was given of the reconstruction methods of the Chi- 
cago City Railway Company, which last year rebuilt about 
25 miles of track under the terms of its ordinance. The 

methods described at that time are being employed by the 
Chicago Railways Company in its track reconstruction of 
the present year, with some few modifications, particularly 
in the matter of mixing concrete. 

So far traffic on the lines being rebuilt is handled by keep- 
ing one track open and diverting the normal traffic of the 
other track to a parallel line. The first step in the recon- 
struction is to tear up the paving and cut the tie rods and 
bolts holding the track rails to the cable slot yokes. The 
rail joints are then broken off and the rails and cable slot 
are dragged out of the trench with a team of horses or a 
motor car. The trench is excavated down to the concrete 
in which the cable slot yokes are embedded, and the con- 
crete is broken away with picks on each side of the yokes. 
A piece of T-rail about 10 ft. long and having six fixed 
handles is used as a battering ram to break off the cast-iron 
yokes below the level of the bottom of the trench, no at- 
tempt being made to remove them entirely. The concrete 
surrounding the cable slot is cut away sufficiently to ex- 
pose its full cross-section, and the base of the trough is 
then filled with' gravel concrete as a bed on which single- 
duct tile conduits are laid. Splicing chambers of brick are 
built about every 500 ft. 

After the tile conduit has_ beenjaid, the ties, spaced on 
4-ft. centers, are placed in the trench and the space between 
the ties banked up in mounds about 6 in. high with spoil 
from the excavation, which is allowed to remain in the 
gutter of the street. These mounds are thoroughly tamped 
and rounded off and serve to displace an equal amount of 
concrete in the sub-base. Following this the rails are fast- 
ened to the ties with screw spikes and connected together 
with temporary two-bolt splice plates. The ties are then 
blocked up at each end and the track lined and surfaced. 
This completes the preparation for the concrete sub-base. 

The concrete used is a mixture of 1 part cement, 3 parts 
sand and 6 parts stone, mixed wet and thoroughly tamped 
in place. Both hand and machine mixing are employed. 

Loading End of Concrete Mixer 

With hand mixing two boards are placed on top of the rails 
manned by six mixers each, and the concrete is scraped off 
the end of the boards uniformly across the width of the 
excavation. These two boards, working under favorable 
conditions, can lay 500 lineal feet a day. They begin in the 
morning about 250 ft. apart, and at the end of the day the 
rear board has been worked forward to the point where the 
forward board began. 

Two machine mixers of a new design are now at work 
and give satisfactory results. They were designed and 
built especially for this purpose by the Chicago Concrete 

June 6, 1908.] 



Machinery Company. The mixer and skip bucket are 
mounted on one end of a low flat car which runs on the tem- 
porarily supported track in advance of the concreting and 
which is moved by a light single-truck motor car coupled 
to it. The machine consists of a standard No. 1 Chicago 
concrete mixer, having a swinging discharge spout, and 
skip buckets on each side for raising the batch after it has 
been unloaded from wheelbarrows and automatically de- 
positing it in the feed spout. The mixer is driven by a 
15-hp motor and the skip buckets are raised by the same 
motor through individual friction clutches on a chain-driven 

The mixer has a capacity of 1/3 cu. yd. and the skip 
buckets are designed to hold 13 cu. ft., which is just the 
proper amount of unmixed aggregate for one batch. With 
a skip bucket and hoist on each side the machine can be 
worked on either track while the other is open for traffic. 
When the machine is working on one track and the other 
track is to be kept open for traffic, the inside skip bucket is 
removed so as to give proper clearance for passing cars. 
The skip buckets are fitted with guide rollers working in a 
track made of steel channels which form part of the frame- 
work supporting the feed spout of the mixer. As the 
bucket is hoisted by a cable working over a sheave on top 
of a frame, the run-way in which the guide rollers work 
automatically guides and tilts the bucket, discharging its 
contents into the feed spout. Each skip bucket has its 
individual hoist drum, friction clutches and brakes, so that 
it may be controlled independently of the other. A safety 
stop automatically disengages the hoist clutches when the 
skip buckets have reached their extreme height. 

The discharge spout at the end of the car is made in two 
parts. The upper spout, which is pivoted to swing in a ver- 
tical plane, can be swung into the discharge opening of the 
mixer to catch the concrete as it falls from the mixer drum. 

This upper spout discharges into the lower spout, which 
swings in a horizontal plane. The discharge can be directed 
at any point across the entire .width of the trench, and very 
little spreading with shovels is required. Both spouts are 
inclined at a sharp angle so that the concrete flows freely 
over them. 

The mixer is equipped with an automatic measuring 
water tank which supplies exactly the right amount of water 
to each batch. After the tank valve is once adjusted no 
skill is required on the part of the operator to keep the 
concrete at the right consistency. 

In operating the machine a hoist operator and one dis- 
charge .operator, who also handles the water tank, are re- 
quired. The sand and stone are distributed in piles along 
the curb and are loaded into wheelbarrows by hand. The 
wheelbarrows are run up on an incline run-way mounted 
along the side of the car carrying the mixer and are un- 
loaded into the skip bucket from a platform only 2 ft. 
above the level of the street. A run-way beyond the unload- 
ing platform permits the empty wheelbarrows to be run off 
without interfering with loaded barrows coming up. 

The capacity of the machine is between 50 and 60 batches 
an hour; or, a total of about 150 cu. yd. of concrete per 
day of eight hours. As the amount of concrete required to 
be laid averages about 1650 cu. yd. per mile for each track, 
the machine can cover from 500 lin. ft. to 600 lin. ft. in 
eight hours. This equals the output of a continuous mixer 
of the same size. 

The framework of the machine and bucket hoist is rigid 
and strong and all parts are designed for wear and hard 
usage. The height has been kept down to a minimum in 

order to enable the machine to be run under subways and 
other overhead structures, and with the skip buckets re- 
moved, the mixing equipment is no wider than a standard 
passenger car. 

The concrete as it is delivered from the mixer is thor- 
oughly tamped to a depth of 6 in. under the ties and spread 
across the entire width of the trench, about 8 ft. It is 
brought up to a level surface 6J/2 in. below the head of the 
rail, thus completely embedding the ties, the base of the 
rails and tie rods. At the rail joints the concrete is brought 
up only to the level of the top of the ties in order to per- 
mit the rails to be welded later without disturbing the con- 
crete. After the concrete has been allowed to set for 
about two days a layer of sand, !'/• in. thick, is spread 
over the top and paving is begun. The space between the 
rails and outside of the rails is paved with 5-in. granite 
blocks laid with tar and gravel joints. The rail joints are 
spaced opposite each other and the paving is left open for 
about 5 ft. at each pair of joints until after the welding is 

Welding is not begun until after the concrete has been 
allowed to set seven days. This part of the work is being 
done with a regular outfit of the Lorain Steel Company 
consisting of a sand blast car, a welding car, a transformer 
car and a grinding car. The joints are welded with a 
3^2-in. x i-in. bar on each side of the web. After the 
grinding car has finished the joints the paving is com- 
pleted, but the finished track is not opened to traffic until 14 
days after the completion of the concreting. 

The same methods of supervising the track reconstruc- 
tion by representatives of the board of supervising engi- 
neers, as were outlined in the description of the track re- 
construction of the Chicago City Railway Company, earlier 
published in the Street Railway Journal, are being fol- 
lowed on the work of the Chicago Railways Company. R. F. 
Kelker, Jr., is division engineer of the supervising board 
in charge of the general track reconstruction. J. H. 
Powers, division engineer, is in charge of the actual con- 
struction work under the direction of C. A. Caul, general 
roadmaster of the Chicago Railways Company. 

The Louisville Railway is said to be considering a plan 
to equip several of its interurban lines with specially de- 
signed truck-garden cars to be used in supplanting to a 
large degree the wagons which bring the city's greenstuffs 
into the market during the early morning hours. The ten- 
tative plan is said to provide for this service on the Jeffer- 
sontown, Fern Creek, Orell and Okolona lines, which tap 
extensive and fertile garden spots. The cars would load 
out in the country from midnight until 3 o'clock in the 
morning and would be switched until unloaded after reach- 
ing the city at Haymarket Square and along Commission 
Row, which is in the neighborhood of Preston and Second 
and Jefferson and Green Streets. Here the garden products 
could be speedily unloaded and then distributed over the 
city by the produce merchants. 

An amateur baseball league is being organized by the 
Eastern Railways Company, of Pottsville, Pa., to comprise 
the towns of Lansford, Coaldale, Tamaqua, Schuylkill 
Haven, Orwigsburg, Minersville and Pottsville. The com- 
pany will put up a cash prize and a 15-ft. pennant for the 
winning club. The games will be played in Pottsville on 
the Tumbling Run grounds. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 


The Curtis Truck Company, Decatur, 111., has recently 
equipped three interurban cars of the Toledo Urban & 
Interurban Railway Company with forged steel motor 
trucks of a new and interesting design. These cars are in 
limited train service between Dayton and Toledo, Ohio, and 
run on a fast schedule. The distinguishing features of 
these trucks are the forged steel construction used through- 
out and the arrangement of spring supports' to give easy 
riding qualities. With the exception of the journal boxes, 
center plate and brake heads and shoes, no castings of any 
kind are employed. The trucks have steel-tired wheels 36 
in. in diameter with treads 4^2 in. wide. They have axles 
with M. C. B. journals and carry two 75-hp motors. 

5"- 9"JournolBo. 

Curtis Motor Truck — General Design 

The side frames are built up of top and bottom wheel 
pieces, both being forged open-hearth steel bars. The 
upper wheel piece is a rectangular bar extending the length 
of the truck over the journal boxes and set on edge to utilize 
the full strength of the section. 
Below it is the lower wheel 
piece made up of two flat bars 
on edge and securely riveted at 
the ends to the bottom of the 
inside pedestal jaws. The 
upper and lower wheel pieces 
are separated by two forged 
steel posts or spreaders. 

Each of the pedestal jaws is 
made of an open hearth steel 
plate bent double and riveted 
to the upper and lower wheel 
pieces. A forged spring bar 
passes through each jaw under 

the upper wheel piece and extends out far enough on 
each side to engage with the spring caps of the 3-in. 
spiral journal box springs. These springs rest on -spring 
seats cast on the journal boxes and transmit the load direct 
from the upper wheel piece through the spring bars to the 
journal box. This relieves the pedestal jaws from any ver- 

tical load. There are four springs to each journal box, two 
outside and two inside the pedestals, making a total of 16 
springs on each truck or 32 per car. They have a free 
height of io>4 in. and are compressed to 8 l /> in. by the 
weight of the car body. The upper wheel piece is carried 
far enough above the journal box so that the four springs 
will set solid before the wheel piece can strike the top of 
the box. The spring bars are designed to have a shearing 
strength of 375,000 lb. each to provide against any excessive 

Both the journal boxes and the pedestal jaws are pro- 
vided with removable chafing plates to take up wear. The 
journal boxes can be quickly removed by taking out a 
turned steel bolt at the bottom of each pedestal jaw and 
dropping the pedestal tie bolt. 

The truck end sills are made of 5-in. x 
4-in. x y 2 -'m. steel angles, fastened to the 
curved truck corner piece at each end 
with three machine-fitted bolts. These 
corner pieces are bent with a 3-in. radius 
from a steel bar 4 in. x 2 in. and atre car- 
ried along the upper wheel piece into the 
outer pedestal jaw where they are riveted 
up. This construction gives a strong 
corner connection, keeps the frame 
square and is less liable to fracture than 
a sharp square corner. 

The transoms on each side of the bol- 
ster are i^-in. x 6-in. steel bars set on 
edge and upset at each end to rest on 
top of the upper wheel pieces. They are 
fastened to the wheel pieces by i-in. x 
6-in. corner braces on the outside corners 
and a i-in. x 6-in. U-shaped spreader 
passing around the end of the bolster. 
These braces are securely riveted to the 
transoms and wheel pieces. These rivets, 
however, are not depended upon to carry 
any of the load in shear; the ample bear- 
ing of the transom ending directly on top 
of the wheel pieces carries all the load. 
The bolster is built up of two plates with filler blocks 
between and rests at each end on 30-in. triple elliptic 
springs having a height between bands of 4 in. under car 
body load. These springs are carried on a 12-in. channel 

Curtis Motor Truck — Limited Toledo-Dayton Car 

spring plank which in turn is hung from swing links pivoted 
from the transoms in the usual way. The bolster is made 
short so that it cannot swing sidewise and strike the wheel 
pieces. It has removable chafing plates engaging with simi- 
lar plates on the transoms. All of these plates can be re- 
newed without lifting the car body or removing the bolster. 

June 6, 1908.] 



The swing links are forged with jaws at the upper ends 
and all pin holes are case hardened. The pins are 1^2 in. 
in diameter and are likewise case hardened, as are the bush- 
ings in the transoms. The point of suspension of the links 
is so located as to secure the greatest amount of resistance 
to side thrust. 

The motors are inside hung with spring-supported nose 
bars carried by brackets riveted to the transom. The trucks 
are equipped with Curtis anti-friction, non-chattering brake 
rigging for inside-hung brakes. The principal advantages 

Curtis Motor Truck — Side View 

claimed for this rigging are even wear of the brake shoes, 
straight brake levers requiring no brake beams and entire 
absence of chattering or rattling. 

These trucks have been designed to withstand the hard 
usage of high-speed service with a minimum amount of re- 
pairs. The use of steel forgings throughout and provision 
for taking up wear reduce the maintenance cost to the 
smallest figure. One of these trucks which has been in 
high-speed interurban service for nearly a year, and which 
has made about 94,000 miles in that time, has only required 
repairs costing less than $2. 

The principal advantages claimed for the design as a 
whole are easy riding qualities, great strength and sim- 
plicity of construction. The four small springs directly 
over each journal box absorb the shocks of each wheel as 
they occur without transmitting them to the truck as a 
whole and to the car body. Their vibration is short and 
quick and they respond faster than a single slow-moving 
spring of the same capacity. The height of these springs 
above the journal boxes also contributes to the easy riding 
qualities in reducing the effects of longitudinal surges of 
the trucks when stopping or starting. Lateral ease of rid- 

Curtis Motor Truck — Three-Quarter View 

ing is attained by locating the swing link supports at a point 
to give maximum resistance to side thrusts of the bolster. 

All parts of the truck are made accurately to templates 
and are perfectly interchangeable. Bolts and bolt holes 
are reamed and machine fitted. Rivets are driven with a 
70-ton riveting press. A noticeable feature of the design 
is that no rivets are subjected to shearing stresses of the 
car-body load. 

Curtis trucks of older design are in use on the Boston 
Elevated, the Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Company, 
Illinois Traction System, Toledo & Western and on the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company's lines. This latter 

company has 98 elevated cars and 375 double-truck surface 
cars equipped with them. 

The Curtis Truck Company has recently been organized 
with ample capital to manufacture these new trucks under 
the direct supervision of Mr. Curtis. The officers of the 
company are : J. P. Drennan, president ; W. N. Wood, vice- 
president; E. A. Curtis, designer and superintendent; R. D. 
Wood, engineer ; J. D. Johnson, secretary and treasurer. A 
large new shop has been completed at Decatur, 111., and 
is equipped with all necessary forging and machine tools, 
many of which are of special design, to produce the special 
parts of these trucks. All of the larger machine tools are 
electrically driven and a full line of air hammers, drills and 
other small tools used in assembling has also been installed. 


A new line of direct-current portable ammeters, volt- 
meters, mil-ammeters and milli-voltmeters with the neces- 
sary portable shunts known as type DP has been placed on 
the market by the General Electric Company. The instru- 
ments are designed especially for laboratory and general 
testing purposes and are constructed on the well-known 
DArsonval principle, the coil of wire carrying the current 
to be measured, or a shunted portion of it, being wound on 
a rectangular frame mounted on jeweled bearings, which 
is free to move in the annular space between a soft iron 
core and the pole pieces of a powerful permanent magnet. 

The case is of drawn steel 
with a cast iron cover, thus 
thoroughly protecting the in- 
strument from the influence of 
stray fields. The magnets are 
of high-grade magnet steel and 
their permanency is assured by 
improved processes of ageing 
and hardening. The scales are 
uniform throughout their entire 
range and are very legible. To 
eliminate errors due to parallax, 
the instruments are equipped 
with flat pointers viewed on 
edge and a mirror is placed 
under the scale. 

Ammeters are made self-contained in capacities up to 
and including 30 amp. For higher ranges up to 2000 amp. 
a milli-voltmeter with scale marked directly in amperes is 
used with a portable shunt. These shunts are designed to 
give a uniform drop of 200 milli-volts at full load rating 
and are interchangeable. The milli-voltmeters used with 
these shunts are also interchangeable. The portable shunts 
are mounted on a base of aluminum alloy and are pro- 
tected by a perforated sheet metal casing. A DP milli- 
voltmeter can be furnished for use in connection with 
switchboard shunts, the instrument giving full scale de- 
flection when subjected to a 60 milli-volt drop in poten- 
tial, or a tap may be brought out at 60 milli-volts on the 
standard 200 milli-volt voltmeter, enabling it to be used 
with both portable and switchboard shunts. Where it is 
desirable to use one instrument to cover a wide range of 
current, a milli-voltmeter can be furnished for use with any 
combination of single, double or triple rated shunts, so se- 
lected that regardless of capacities chosen, the scale read- 
ings may be quickly determined. Voltmeters of the DP 
type are furnished self-contained in capacities up to and in- 
cluding 750 volts. Double scale or low reading instruments 
can be supplied if desired. 

New Portable Instru- 

4 6 


[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 


A simple trolley standard 'earthing device is being sup- 
plied by the Consolidated Accessories Company, of London, 
Eng., for double-decked cars in which the standard must be 
kept at zero potential to avoid possibility of accident to 

The standard is not connected to earth through lamps, or 
resistances shunted by fuses, but is earthed through a suit- 
able connection of very low resistance, with signals in cir- 
cuit that are both visible and audible and operate on a few 
amperes, the visible signal remaining after the removal of 
the earth. Furthermore, it is impossible with the device to 
reset the signals to safety without at the same time auto- 
matically removing the earth connection, but making it pos- 
sible to remove the earth connection so that the car may be 
taken back to the depot under its own power. Interior and 
exterior views of the device are shown in the accompanying 

The terminal D is in connection with the switch contact 
B and is coupled up directly to the trolley standard. The 
switch blade C is connected to the earth terminal A by 
means of a solenoid containing a comparatively small nunu 
ber of turns of copper tape, situated at the underside of the 

Earthing Device with Cover On and Off 

base, giving practically a dead earth connection. Any leak- 
age current passing to earth through the solenoid from a 
few amperes upward is sufficient to attract the armature 
E and release the danger-indicating flag F, which then 
drops to the position shown in the exterior view, an alarm 
bell being rung at the same time. 

In normal position the indicating flag is hidden behind 
the case and the segment-shaped piece / interlocks with 
the rod attached to the handle G and prevents the switch 
being opened. Pushing up the handle G opens the earth 
switch, and the blade interlocks with the indicating flag F 
and retains it in the position shown in the exterior view, 
making it impossible for either the switch or the flag to be 
tampered with. The opening of the earth switch causes the 
alarm bell to cease ringing, but leaves the danger signal 
visible. On the repairs being made, it is impossible for the 
indicating flag to be set to position of safety without auto- 
matically renewing the earth, as on moving the flag to its 
normal position the switch blade C is released and the 
spring immediately closes the switch. A buzzer is fixed in 
the top of the device, as shown in K. Normally the whole 

of the gear in the device is at earth potential, but on the 
earth being broken, only the terminal D and the switch 
contact B are in connection with the live standard. This 
enables the crew to determine promptly whether the stand- 
ard is at line potential. 

The device has been in service about two years on a num- 
ber of English and Continental lines, among them the Bir- 
mingham Corporation Tramways, the lines of the City of 
Birmingham Tramway Company, the Hastings & District 
Tramway and the Wolverhampton District Tramways. 


The Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Traction Company, of 
Bluffton, Ind., has been using for two years on its cars a 

Pole Clamp Loose So That Pole May Be Removed 

trolley clamp, the invention of C. W. Clark and Chas. E. 
Yingling, of the company, adapted to hold a trolley pole 
rigidly in position. It consists of a pair of clamping plates 
which surround the pole, connected to a supplemental plate 
which is operated by a cam by means of a lever for clamp- 

/ ' 

Pole Clamp After Pole Is Replaced and Tightened Up 
Ready for Use 

ing and locking the pole in place. It is said that with this 
clamp a pole can be changed in a few minutes without the 
aid of a hammer or wrench. The clamp can be placed on 
almost any base by simply changing the bolts of the clamp 
to fit the base. It is said that no cars have been brought 
into the Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Company's car house 
on the harp since the clamp has been in use on that road, 
it being so easy to change the pole. 

June 6, 1908.] 




A short account was published on page 187 of the Street 
Railway Journal for Aug. 4, 1906, of the new multiple 
unit system being installed on the trains of the Liverpool & 
Southport Electric Railway in England by Dick, Kerr & 
Company, Ltd. This system of control has recently been 
perfected and possesses many novel and interesting fea- 
tures. It is applicable to any electric train using direct- 
current motors, and is a direct electro-magnetic system with 
series solenoids actuated by the negative or return current 
of the train motors. 

A preliminary explanation of its action can best be given 
by a simple diagram, Fig. 1, which represents a control cir- 
cuit for two motors. T is the trolley or third-rail shoe. 
M M are the motors with their armatures, fields and re- 
sistances. E and E 1 are ground connections. The first 
step is to establish a circuit between T and E v This is 
done by closing contacts c c and at the same time setting 
the two-way switch W to connect the motor circuit with E r 
The motors then start up and the current from them then 
flows through the contactor solenoids 6" 5", thus energizing 
• them and closing the main contacts C C. The contacts c c 
may now be opened without breaking any circuit, as they / 
are duplicated by C C. On the other hand, if the switch W 
is moved to E the current flowing through the solenoids 5 
will be diverted to ground at E, the magnets will become 
de-energized and the contacts C C will open. The circuit 
W S S E x can be paralleled by others, as shown by the 
dotted lines containing as many solenoids as are required 
for the control system, and the switch W is so constructed 


eight notches on the controller, and these are indicated and 
numbered on the diagram to facilitate tracing the various 
connections. The reverser barrel has three positions — for- 
ward, off, reverse. It is in two parts, with a drum for 
switching in either the forward or reverse set of contactors, 
and a drum for reversing the control circuit through both 

In Fig. 2 certain references to points in the simple dia- 
gram (Fig. 1) are made to facilitate comparison. The con- 
troller is shown in the "off" position, and it will be noticed 
that the ground sector of the switch barrel connects the 
end of R e , or the negative end of the motor circuit, to 
ground E of Fig. r. This has de-energized all the con- 




Fig. 1. — Diagram Illustrating Principle of System 

as to cause these solenoids to be brought in or 
out of circuit at the proper time. 

This explains as simply as possible the principle 
upon which the control is based. 

The system comprises master controllers, one 
of which is located at each end of a motor car, 
reversers, series-parallel and resistance con- 
tactors, these being hung beneath the car in the 
usual manner. 

The master controller is made up of three dis- 
tinct parts: (1) the switch barrel, (2) the con- 
tactor barrel and (3) the reversing barrel. Fig. 
2 shows the development of the master controller and a 
diagram of the wiring and connections for a two-motor 
equipment. The motor cutout switches are omitted to avoid 
complication. The heavy lines show the path of the cur- 
rent driving the motors and the light lines indicate the 
wiring of the system of control. 

The switch barrel and the contactor barrel of the master 
controller are in the same vertical plane and are moved by 
the main operating handle, but the former travels indepen- 
dently of the latter through a certain arc, indicated on the 
diagram. After the switch barrel has turned through this 
arc, the contactor barrel turns with it, and both move to- 
gether until the full speed position is reached. There are 



(El ON FIG. l) 

Fig. 2. — Schematic Diagram of Controller Circuits 

factors which are open and has also interrupted the motor 
circuit. To start up, the first controller movement is made 
at the reversing switch, which is pushed from "off" to either 
"forward" or "reverse" as desired. This movement com- 
pletes the control circuit through the motors to ground at 
the ground sector of the master controller, but admits no 
current to the circuit. The reversing handle is me- 
chanically interlocked with the controller handle and the 
above movement releases the controller handle and notch- 
ing up can begin. A mechanical controller handle regu- 
lator is also employed, to prevent notching up too fast. 
The ground sector then disconnects the ground E and the 
solenoid sector connects the end of R. with the control 

4 8 


[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

system at the same time that the contactor barrel begins to 
move with the switch barrel, and both pass into the first 
notch. At this moment the trolley rings close a control 
circuit which is easily traced. The circuit includes the 
lower reversing barrel, the motors and their fields and re- 
sistances, and reverser solenoids 8, 9, 10, 11 and paralleling 
solenoid 1. All of these are in series with each other, and 
also with all the other control sections on the train to the 
final ground (E 1 of Fig. 1 ) , which is always at the rear end 
of the train. It will thus be seen that the consequent clos- 
ing of reverser contactors 8, 9, 10, 11 and series parallel 
contactor 1 starts up the motors in series, with all resist- 
ance in circuit. The next four notches simply cut resist- 
ance out of the series connection of the motors. 

In the transition from series to parallel the interval be- 
tween notch 5 and notch 6 breaks the circuit of the resist- 
ance solenoids 2, 3, 4, 5 and series solenoid I. The resist- 

Fig. 3. — Master Controller 

ance contactors close again with solenoid 6. The trolley 
ring and the reverser contactor solenoid circuits are of 
course maintained in the meantime. The control circuit 
of notch 6, it can be readily seen, causes the paralleling 
contactors 6, 7 and 16 to close, thus placing the motors in 
parallel with the resistance in circuit. Notches 7 and 8 
simply cut out the resistance, and full speed is reached. 

To shut off, the controller handle is returned to the "off" 
position, which can be effected by a single sweep of the 
handle. In this movement the switch barrel turns back 
independently of the contactor barrel, which remains at full 
parallel until the ground sector of the switch barrel di- 
verts the motor current to ground E, which causes all the 
contactors to drop off and break the motor circuits through- 
out the train. Then the two barrels return together to the 
position shown in Fig. 2. 

The master controller shown in Fig. 3 is of small size, 
for it does not break any current, so needs no magnetic 
blowout. In the base of the controller is a magnetic lock 
consisting of a small coil in series with the contactor 
solenoid 1, which determines the series connection of the 
motors. When this locking magnet is energized, it releases 
a catch and allows the motorman to notch up to full series. 
If the series contactor is not pulled up for any reason, the 

controller cannot be notched up, as it remains securely 

It should be carefully noted that the ground connection 
for the contactor circuit and that for the current diverted 
from that circuit are at opposite ends of the train. The 
former ground must, of course, be at the rear end, as it is 
here that the return current is allowed to go to ground 
after passing through all the contactor solenoids in the 
motor cars on the train. The other ground to which this 
current is diverted when it is desired to de-energize the 
solenoids is at the front of the train. To allow control 
from either end of the train, the entire system is paralleled 
at the front and rear master controllers. 

A few explanatory words will probably make the sys- 
tem clearer. The negative or return current from the 
motors of the leading motor car, the master controller of 
which is being operated, supplies the control system of the 
entire train in which every sole- 
noid is in series. For example, 
solenoid 1 is in series with solenoid 
1 of each car until the circuit goes 
to ground E 1 at the rear end of the 
last car. The same is true of all 
the rest; they constitute separate 
circuits, all numbered according to 
the contactor they actuate. Every 
other car of the train has its con- 
tactors operated by this current 
from the leading car, and each dis- 
charges its negative current to 
ground at E v for their master con- 
trollers are in the position shown 
in Fig. 2 and the circuit is com- 
pleted through the ground sector 
of each master controller. 

The control system requires nine 
train wires which are grounded at 
both ends of the train. Special 
provision is made at the ends of 
coaches to carry the leads, and spe- 
cial plugs and sockets are used 
with jumpers at both ends of each 
car. No busline or shoe cable is necessary through the 


The American Street & Interurban Railway Association 
has recently republished in pamphlet form the report of the 
committee on the construction of standard railway car 
storage and operating houses and the report of the commit- 
tee on standardization presented at the convention at At- 
lantic City last fall. These reports have been issued for 
the convenience of those who desire copies. 

The association has also issued a bulletin giving statistics 
of the percentage of gross receipts charged to different 
operating expenses for some 36 companies, and an addi- 
tional circular giving statistics of wages of conductors and 
motormen. These two latter circulars are issued only for 
the benefit of member companies. 

Some time ago the Easton (Pa.) Transit Companj 
adopted the plan of changing the register card in a car 
every time a register was taken out for repairs. This is 
somewhat unusual, as on most roads a note is made of 
the trouble, but the register card is not disturbed. 

June 6, iyo8.] 




The Trolley Supply Company, of Canton, Ohio, has just 
Drought out the Star combined arc and incandescent head- 
light which it believes to embody the simplest and most 
durable construction possible in a combination lamp. The 
framing and most of the other parts, including the magnet 
and carbon holders, are made of malleable iron. The mag- 
net is protected from the heat by the asbestos lining in its 
holder and is kept in position by a pair of malleable iron 

The clutch is constructed without links or chains. Tin- 
reflector is made of nickeled brass instead of aluminum to 
maintain the luster with less trouble. Lava is used for the 
cap of the inner globe. The carbons are set at an angle of 
45 deg. ; the upper carbon is 5/16 in. in diameter and the 
lower Y% in. in diameter. Glass breakage due to heat is 
minimized by setting the arc back as far as possible. The 
resistance, which is mounted on porcelain, is surrounded by 
a galvanized wire netting through which ample ventilation 
is secured. 

An important feature of this headlight is the screw on the 
upper carbon holder which regulates the length of the arc- 

Arc and Incandescent Headlight 

and also permits adjustment for any possible wear of the 
parts. Cleaning and the replacement of carbons are facili- 
tated by mounting all the mechanism on a plate which is 
removed by loosening a thumb screw reached through an 
opening in the case and then swinging out the lamp mechan- 
ism about a pivot bar at the lower front end. The current 
cable is fastened in terminals in front of the bottom plate. 


At a recent meeting of the Council of the Congress of 

Russian Trade and Industry the question was considered 

of placing orders for electric cars for the St. Petersburg 

railways. The Town Council will require 157 motor cars 

and 50 trailers. The system was put in operation during 

the past year, and is equipped with the overhead system. 

Westinghouse-Parsons turbines are installed in the power 

station and the car equipment was supplied by the West- 

inghouse Company. It is said that the orders for the new 

car bodies will be placed with Russian builders. 


The International Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, 
meeting at Columbus, Ohio, decided to admit motormen on 
electric locomotives which have taken the place of steam 
engines on railroads and those on elevated and subway 
trains. It was at first reported that motormen on interur- 
ban cars would be admitted and that those on surface sys- 
tems in the cities would be the only ones not eligible, but 
this has since been denied by one of the' officers. 


Massachusetts. — Street Railroads — Operation — Action for 
Injuries — Questions for Jury — Contributory Negligence 
— Drivers of Vehicles — Proximate Cause — Instructions 
— Requests — Instructions Already Given — Negligence — ■ 
Proximate Cause — Concurrent Causes. 
In an action against a street railway company for personal 
injuries sustained while driving on the track, where the sleigh 
caught in a switch, the question whether the bad condition of 
the road was due to defendant's negligence held one of fact for 
the jury. 

In an action against a street railroad company for personal 
injuries received while driving on the car tracks, owing to the 
sleigh runner catching in a switch and a car striking it, where 
the evidence showed that the road was almost impassable, owing 
to deep snow, part of which was thrown there by defendant's 
snowplows, and that teams drove on the tracks, the driver of the 
sleigh was not negligent in driving on the track. 

In such a case driving on the track, together with the condi- 
tion of the snow at the switch, was the direct and proximate 
cause of the accident. 

In an action against a street railroad company for injuries 
received while driving on the track, defendant's request for a 
ruling that, if plaintiff intrusted the care of the horse to the 
driver, in order to recover she must show that he exercised due 
care and diligence, is properly refused, where the court in- 
structed that, if plaintiff had authority or control over the 
driver, she could not recover where he was at fault, but if she 
had no authority or control, and was under no duty to warn him, 
and had no reason to suspect want of care and skill on his part, 
she could recover, although he was at fault. 

In an action for personal injuries, where defendant's negli- 
gence is the proximate cause of the injury, the fact that there 
are other concurring culpable causes will not preclude recovery. 
— (Miller v. Boston & N. St. Ry. Co., 83 N. E. Rep., 990.) 

Missouri. — Street Railroads — Operation — Personal Injuries 
— Questions for Jury — Trial — Requests for Instructions 
■ — Applicability to Pleading — Street Railroads — Actions 
for Personal Injuries — Instruction — Instructions — Ap- 
plicability to Evidence. 

In an action for injuries to a minor crossing in front of a 
street car, evidence considered, and held sufficient to take to the 
jury the question of the motorman's negligence in not seeing thf 
minor and avoiding the injury. 

Where, in an action for personal injuries, the petition alleges 
that a railroad company knew or should have known that at a 
certain defined crossing children were in the habit of crossing 
the tracks, and the evidence shows that the injury was caused 
within the limits described by the petition, an instruction that the 
•jury could not consider the fact that children were in the habit 
of crossing at other places was properly refused. 

In an action by a parent for injuries to his minor son struck 
by a street car, a requested instruction that the jury, in deter- 
mining whether or not the plaintiff's son was aware of the 
danger of crossing in front of a moving car, and whether or 
not he saw the car while in a place of safety and took his 
chances in crossing, the jury might consider the son's admission 
that he knew the danger and took chances, is erroneous in 
placing the boy on the equality with an adult and properly re- 

Where, in an action for injuries to a minor struck by a street 
car, running at an unlawful rate of speed, the minor admitted 
that he knew the danger and took his chances in endeavoring to 
cross in front of the car, a requested instruction, calling upon 
the jury to consider the admissions of the minor in determining 
whether he knew the danger and took his chances in crossing, is 
properly refused; there being no evidence that he knew that the 
car was being run at an unlawful rate of speed. — (Brown v. St. 
Louis & Suburban Ry. Co., 106 S. W. Rep., 83.) 

New York. — Carriers — Personal Injuries — Care Required- 
Negligence — Question for Jury — Presentation of Obje^. 
tions Below — Sufficiency of Evidence. 

Where workmen are engaged and material changes are con- 
tinually being made along the street car tracks, those in charge 
of a car, particularly when it is crowded to the running board 
with passengers, should exercise special care to avoid accidents. 

Plaintiff was a passenger in a street car, the seats of which 
were occupied, and he rode on the running board. Workmen 
had been excavating the street, and had built a fence near the 
car track, allowing a beam to project over where the running 
board would be. Held, that whether or not defendant's motor- 
man was negligent in running past the fence at a high rate of 
speed, and failing to see the beam or to appreciate its danger, 
was a question for the jury. 

It is not contributory negligence as a matter of law for a 
passenger to ride on the running board of a crowded street car. 

Where a street car is crowded, a passenger riding on the run- 



[Vol. XXXII. No. r. 

ning board assumes only the natural and usual risks of that 

In an action against a street car company for personal in- 
juries, where it was assumed on the trial that plaintiff was a 
passenger and defendant acquiesced in such assumption, and the 
complaint was dismissed at the trial because the evidence showed 
no negligence on defendant's part, and did show plaintiff's con- 
tributory negligence, defendant cannot urge for the first time 
on appeal that there was no evidence that plaintiff was a pas- 
senger. — (Cramer v. Brooklyn Heights R. Co., 83 N. E. Rep., 35.) 

New York. — Evidence — Presumptions Against Suicide — In- 
jury to Person by Street Car — Street Railroads — Injury 
to Pedestrians — Contributory Negligence — Questions 
for Jury. 

While there is no presumption that a pedestrian killed by a 
street car was careful, there is a presumption that he did not 
commit suicide. 

Deceased was walking south on a public footpath between the 
rails of defendant's track, and was struck by a southbound car, 
which came upon him from behind. It was customary to run 
northbound cars exclusively on this track and southbound cars 
on the track on the opposite side of the street; but there was no 
evidence that deceased knew of a temporary change in the 
custom. Held, that deceased was not bound as a matter of law 
to observe any special care to discover cars coming upon him 
from behind, and the question of contributory negligence was 
one of fact for the jury. — (Lamb v. Union Ry. Co. of New York 
City, 109 N. Y. Sup., 97.) 

New York. — Carriers — Carriage of Passengers — Personal 
Injuries — Acts of Carrier's Employees. 
Plaintiff boarded defendant's northbound car, and, falling 
asleep, was carried several blocks beyond his destination He 
then crossed the street to another station to catch defendant's 
southbound car, which he persisted in getting on without paying 
his fare. The trainmen by force kept him off the train. Held, 
that defendant was not liable for the assault, having fully per- 
formed its contract when it carried plaintiff on its northbound 
train to his destination, after which it was under no obligation 
to furnish him a return passage free of charge. — (Brown v 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 107 N. Y. Sup., 629.) 

New York. — Carriers — Passengers — Assumption of Risks — 

A street car passenger, who voluntarily takes his stand on the 
platform or running board of a car, assumes the dangers neces- 
sarily incident to such position ; but he is not guilty of negli- 

A street railway company maintained tracks 4 ft. apart for 
the operation of cars, between which there was a space of 22 
in. in the clear. There were no defects in the roadbed or 
rolling stock. On a holiday, while its cars were overtaxed, a 
passenger on a crowded car took a position on the running board 
next to the parallel track, and was struck by a car thereon. He 
knew of the danger. Held, that the company was required only 
to use reasonable care to carry him safely under the circum- 
stances, and an instruction that it must have used the "utmost" 
care was error. — (Gregory v. Elmira Water, Light & R. Co., 
83 N. E. Rep., 32.) 

New York. — Carriers — Carriage of Passengers — Negligence 
■ — Platforms — -Taking Up Passengers — Action for Injury 
— Instructions — Duty to Give Warning. 

That there was a space of 10 in. between the station and car 
platforms does not of itself constitute negligence. 

Where, owing to the varying widths of a railroad company's 
cars, the space between the platform of a car and the station 
platform varied, it was the duty of the railroad company to use 
reasonable care to prevent accident by giving warning to one 
moving in the midst of a crowd of passengers seeking to board 
one of the narrower cars of the space between the platforms of 
the car and station. 

A requested charge in an action for injury to a passenger re- 
specting the "proximate or principal cause" was bad for using 
the word "principal," which is not a synonym of "proximate." 

Where a passenger knows of an opening between the car and 
station platforms, the railroad company is not liable for failure 
to give warning thereof. — (Woolsey v. Brooklyn Heights R. 
Co., 108 N. Y. Sup., 16.) 

Pennsylvania. — Street Railroads — Injury to Trespasser — 
Question for Jury — Negligence — Imputed Negligence — 
Trial — Remarks of Counsel. 

In an action against a street railway company to recover for 
injuries to a boy five years old injured while riding on the step 
of the platform of a car, the question of negligence of defendant 
on conflicting evidence was for the jury. 

Where the parents of a boy five years old knew that once or 
twice he had gone to the home of his aunt nearby, but did not 
know he was in the habit of doing it, the father of the boy was 
not precluded from recovering for injuries to the boy on the 

street, on the ground that he had permitted his son to go on the 
street in the business part of the city unattended. 

In an action against a street railway company for injury to a 
child, remarks of counsel for plaintiff, without any foundation 
in fact, that evidence had been suppressed, and asking the jury 
to make this company out of its millions put "on that stump a 
foot as good as new," and it was idle for the railway company 
to cry for justice, but to give justice to the boy and make the 
railroad company pay from $5,000 to $20,000, and give them the 
justice they want, was ground for reversal. — (Saxton v. Pittsburg 
Rys. Co., 68 Atl. Rep., 1022.) 

Pennsylvania. — Carriers — Injury to Passenger — Presump- 
tion of Negligence. 

Where a man in a crowded car gives a woman his place, and 
stands on the front platform and is injured, he forfeits the ad- 
vantage of the presumption that the accident resulted from the 
negligence of the company. — (Paterson v. Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Co., 67 Atl. Rep., 616.) 

Rhode Island. — Trial — Verdict — Form — Validity — Damages 
— Temporary Personal Injuries — Excessive Award. 

A verdict must receive a reasonable construction, and the test 
of its validity is whether or not it is an intelligible answer to 
the issue submitted to the jury, and hence where, in an action 
originally brought against a railroad company for injuries to a 
passenger on a trolley car, another company was brought in as a 
defendant, and its counsel admitted that it was in control of the 
car at the time of the accident, and the issue for the jury's de- 
termination was therefore whether the second company was 
guilty of negligence or not, a verdict, "that the defendant cor- 
poration is guilty in manner and form, as the plaintiff has in her 
declaration thereof complained against it," is not defective be- 
cause in the title of the case therein the name of the defendant 
originally sued appeared, and not the name of the one admitting 
its operation of the car. 

Where a person was thrown from her seat in a trolley car to 
the ground and injured by a rush of passengers, or by the 
sudden stopping of the car, a verdict for $5,000 was excessive, in 
the absence of a showing that the injuries were permanent. — 
(Spofford v. Rhode Island Suburban Ry. Co., 69 Atl. Rep., 2.) 

Rhode Island. — Street Railroads — Collision with Pedestrian 
— Proximate Cause — Question for Jury. 

Whether the negligence of the motorman was the proximate 
cause of the injury, making the railroad company liable, not- 
withstanding the negligence of the pedestrian, is a question for 
the jury, where on a street 50 ft wide, there being no other 
pedestrians, cars, or vehicles in sight, a child started to run 
across the street, when a street car, which was late and running 
at a speed of 12 to 15 miles an hour, was 50 ft. away, and was 
struck by the car, which had given no warning signal, and went 
120 ft. beyond the place of collision before it was stopped. — 
(Gormley v. Union R. Co., 67 Atl. Rep., 584.) 

Texas. — Trial — Instructions — Refusal — Propriety — Negli- 
gence — Right of Recovery — Proximate Cause — Trial — 
Instructions — Refusal — Propriety — Trial — Instructions — 
Refusal — Propriety. 

In an action against a street railway company for injuries 
caused by a collision between a car and plaintiff's buggy, an 
instruction to find for plaintiff, if the accident occurred at a 
street intersection and the car was not under such complete 
control that it could be immediately stopped, was properly re- 
fused, as eliminating the questions of proximate cause, con- 
tributory negligence, and injury. 

No recovery may be had for negligence not proximately 
causing injury. 

In an action against a street railway company for injury 
caused by a collision between a car and plaintiff's buggy, an in- 
struction to find for plaintiff, if the motorman did not sound 
the bell at least 75 ft. before reaching the street intersection 
where the accident happened, and did not continue to sound it 
until the intersection was crossed, such failure being negligence 
per se, was properly refused, as ignoring the questions of proxi- 
mate cause, contributory negligence, and injury. 

In an action against a street railway company for injury 
caused by a collision between a car and plaintiff's buggy, an 
instruction to find for plaintiffs regardless of whether they were 
guilty of contributory negligence, if the motorman discovered 
their peril in time to have prevented the accident and did not 
use all means in his power to prevent the accident consistent 
with safety to himself and passengers, was properly refused, as 
ignoring the question of injury. 

In an action against a street railway company for injury to a 
married woman, caused by a collision between a car and a 
buggy, an instruction to find for plaintiff, though the husband 
was guilty of negligence contributing to his injury, if the wife 
was not negligent, was properly refused, as assuming that she 
was injured. — (Feille et al. v. San Antonio Traction Co., 107 
S. W. Rep., 367.) 

June 6, ujo8.] 





The Franco-British Exhibition undoubtedly is the most 
important exhibition which has ever been held in London. 
It has an indirect bearing on tramway work in so far as it 
has added a much needed stimulus to the various tramways 
and electric railways leading to the vicinity of Shepherd's 
Bush, where the exhibition is situated. The exhibition cov- 
ers about 140 acres, and is much more comprehensive than 
anything hitherto seen in London, and compares very favor- 
ably with any of the exhibitions held in Paris. In fact* it 
might fittingly be compared with the World's Fair held in 
Chicago in 1893. The White City, given good weather, will 
undoubtedly form one of the greatest of London's many at- 
tractions. The various palaces and buildings are very well 
laid out. The stadium itself, which seats more than 100,000 
people, is the largest self-contained ground for sports since 
the days of ancient Rome. The electrical display is not 
elaborate, but in the Machinery Hall much machinery of 
interest to tramways and railways is being exhibited. It is 
interesting to note that the exhibition has at least afforded a 
suitable opportunity for the Central London Railway (which 
operates the original "Twopenny Tube") to make a loop 
at the western end of its route. Hitherto the tube has come 
to the surface near the power house, where a large yard 
with car houses is located. To accommodate visitors to the 
exhibition the company has utilized that portion of the rail- 
way which comes to the surface, and has added a loop so 
that the trains come on the surface to the very gates of the 
exhibition. In anticipation of the exposition traffic, the 
company has installed a new 2000-kw unit, consisting of a 
horizontal cross-compound engine built by T. Musgrave & 
Sons, of Bolton, and a three-phase revolving field alternator 
manufactured by the British Thomson-Houston Company, 
of Rugby. The Hammersmith & City Railway and the 
London & North Western Railway have also built new- 
stations in the immediate vicinity, and the London County 
Council is completing a system of tramways in Wood Lane, 
where there is an entrance to the grounds, so as to improve 
the facilities for getting to and from the exhibition. The 
terminus of the London United Tramways which has al- 
ways been at Shepherd's Bush is also useful to visitors from 
the west and southwest of London, and an entrance has 
been made to the exhibition from Uxbridge Road by means 
of a covered way, supported by steel columns. It extends 
over the freight yards of railways in that vicinity, over the 
Central London Railway extension and on to the Wood 
Lane entrance, the whole forming an approach more than 
half a mile long and 70 ft. wide. More than £30,000 was 
spent on the lighting features. Some 2000 arc lamps are 
used. Current is taken from the various borough councils 
which have powers in that part of London. Several sub- 
stations have been erected in the exhibition. v 

London is once more in the throes of electric power bills, 
and much time is being taken up by Lord Cromer's Com- 
mittee of the House of Lords in considering the first of the 
three bills deposited in Parliament for consideration this 
session. The one which is receiving attention at present 
is that for which H. F. Parshall and Robert Hammond are 
acting as chief engineers. There is nothing very different 
in it from the original Merz Bill, and Mr. Parshall stated 
before the committee that it was the intention of the com- 
pany, should the bill be passed, to erect a station at Barking 
with a capacity of 60,000 kw and ultimately of 120,000 kw, 
the total expenditure on the first stage being £2,600,000 and 
for the completed station £4,270,000. Three-phase current 
at 15,000 volts and a frequency of 50 cycles would be trans- 
mitted to 14 substations connected by duplicate mains. All 
the prices given by Mr. Parshall are based upon estimates 
made by responsible firms glad to carry out the work at the 
prices given. The Opposition tried to make much of the 
point of all London being dependent for its lighting and 
power on one generating station, none of the big cities of 
the world being dependent upon one or even two stations. 
Robert Hammond said he did not consider the linking up of 
the existing stations as an efficient scheme for London, and 
that the present scheme would do for London what Niagara 
had done for the territory near Niagara Falls. His opinion 
is that it would be more economical for the present com- 
panies to take their future supply in bulk from the pro- 
moters than to extend their own works. In this connection 
it may be stated that the second bill to be considered by the 
1 same committee is promoted by eight of the existing Lon- 
don electric lighting companies which desire to link their 
stations and create a joint committee to manage the various 
undertakings as one. The third bill is a modification of the 
second. It was promoted by only a few of the West End 
electric lighting companies. 

With regard to the London County Council tramway sys- 

tem there is not much to report. It is to be regretted that 
up to the time of writing the G. B. surface contact system 
in the Mile End Road had not been put into effective opera- 
tion. Experimental cars are being run over the system, 
however, and defects corrected. A number of the cars 
have been equipped by the Council, but no definite results 
have yet been achieved. This is important, as it affects 
many lines contemplated in the north of London. 

Another fatal tramway accident occurred during the 
month, this time on the Bournemouth tramway system. 
Seven people were killed and many injured. The accident 
occurred while descending Poole Hill, which is a severe 
grade with several sharp curves. The car went over a 20-ft. 
embankment and broke its way through branches of 
overhanging trees. It would seem to be another tale of 
defective brakes or ineffective operation of the brakes. An 
inquiry is being held by the Board of Trade, and it would 
appear, although the evidence is somewhat contradictory, 
that the brakes or brake shoes were not in perfect condition 
and were prevented from acting effectively. 

J. B. Hamilton, manager of the Leeds Corporation Tram- 
ways, is once more to be congratulated on their success. 
During the past year the gross revenue amounted to £340,- 
368, while the gross expenditure amounted to £177,316, 
leaving a gross profit of £163,051, and after deducting rates 
and taxes and sinking fund charges a net profit of £64,246 
is left. During the year nearly 76,000,000 passengers were 
carried and the cars ran nearly 7,700,000 car-miles, the fares 
working out at about I0j/>d a car-mile. 

The Midland Railway Company has just inaugurated elec- 
tric traction on part of its electrified lines, the electrical 
working being for the present confined to the Morecambe 
and Heysham branch. The trains are composed of three 
cars, a motor coach accommodating 75 seated passengers 
and two trailer cars with 56 seats in each. The Morecambe- 
lieysham line is the first railway in England to be worked 
on the single-phase system, which has also been adopted by 
the Brighton for its South London electrification. 

Application has been made to the Board of Trade for an 
inspection of the portion of the new Dalmuir to Balloch 
Tramway between Dumbarton and Alexandria, with the 
view of having this section opened for passenger traffic. 
The contractors for the undertaking, J. G. White & Co., 
Ltd., are now pushing ahead with the section of the scheme 
between Dumbarton and Dalmuir, and expect to finish this 
portion, as well as that between Alexandria, Jamestown and 
Balloch, early in June. 

By the linking up of Rochester, Chatham, Gillingham and 
Rainham with a tramway service opened about Easter, it is 
possible, with the exception of a few miles, to travel on 
trams from mid-Kent to London. Starting from Rainham, 
a township little to the west of Sittingbourne, one can travel 
by tram to the top of Strood Hill, Rochester, from which 
spot a five-mile walk will take one to Gravesend. There 
the tram can be taken to Swanscombe, where a one-mile 
walk will reach the trams again, which continue through 
Dartford to London. 

The president of the Board of Trade has appointed a 
committee, consisting of G. R. Askwith, K. C; Sir John 
Gavey, K. T., C. B.; Dr. R. T. Glazebrooke, R. S.; Major 
P. A. MacMahon, F. R. S.; Major W. A. J. O'Meara, R. E., 
C. M. G., and A. P. Trotter, to prepare a program for 
the consideration of the delegates to the International Con- 
ference on Electrical Units and Standards, to be held in 
London in the ensuing autumn, and of making arrange- 
ments for the reception and assembly of the delegates at- 
tending the conference. 

Definite action has at last been taken in regard to the 
laying of tramways to link Saddleworth and Moseley with 
the Oldham system. A prospectus will shortly be issued, 
and has already been filed with the Registrar of Joint Stock 
Companies, in connection with the Oldham and Saddleworth 
District Tramways Company, Limited. The share capital is 
to be £100.000, divided into 50,000 6 per cent cumulative 
preference shares of £1 each, and 50,000 ordinary shares of 
£1 each. It is also proposed to raise £100,000 in 4 per cent 
mortgage debenture stock. The consulting engineers are 
Sir Douglas Fox and Partners, London, and the resident 
engineer Robert Blackmore. The generating station will be 
at Stalybridge. The scheme provides for the laying of 4^2 
miles of tramways, starting at the Mossley boundary at 
Royal George and passing through Friezland, Waterside, 
Greenfield, Uppermill and Dobcross to the main street in 
Delph. A second length of 2 l / 2 miles starts at Greenfield 
and links up with Springhead, and a third length couples up 
Springhead and Mossley. The Stalybridge, Hyde, Mossley 
and Dukinfield Joint Tramways Board have agreed to sup- 
ply the electric current at il 2 d down to id unit, according to 
the quantity used. A favorable arrangement has been' made 
with the joint board for running powers over the system, 
which has a length of 27 miles. A. C. S. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

News of Electric Railways 

Indiana State Tax Board Fixes Traction Values 

Wisconsin Tax Commission Announces Valuations 

The Indiana State Tax Board has made a slight reduc- 
tion in the valuation of traction properties. The board 
closed its first session May 26. The total valuation placed 
on traction properties for 1907 was $21,133,614. In 1908 it 
was $21,104,587. Reductions in the assessments were made 
for several reasons. In a number of cases it was shown 
that competition had affected the earnings of the lines; in 
other cases business depression had affected earnings. Sev- 
eral companies in Southern Indiana and one company in 
Northeastern Indiana suffered heavy losses on account of 
high water. The principal companies were assessed as 
follows : 

1907. 1908. 

Indiana Union Traction Company $3,689,563 $3i555,457 

Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company 1,566,235 ij575,575 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction 

Company 3,074,074 

Indianapolis & Southern Traction Company... 624,477 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction 

Company 398,550 531,045 

Indianapolis traction & Terminal Company... 1,420,750 1,274,591 
Indianapolis Street Railway Company 6,066,360 5,861,170 

New England Street Railway Club 

The May meeting of the New England Street Railway 
Club was held at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute on 
May 26. About 150 members and guests assembled at 5 p. m. 
at Park Square, Boston, where four special cars of the Bos- 
ton & Worcester Street Railway were waiting. Through 
the courtesy of the Boston Elevated Railway, the Boston 
& Worcester Street Railway and the Worcester Consoli- 
dated Street Railway the club was given a complimentary 
trip from Park Square to the Worcester Polytechnic Insti- 
tute and return. Lunch was served and the party arrived 
at Worcester about 8:15, where it was met by Professor 
Smith, Professor Richey and Instructor Adams, of the 
Electrical Engineering Department. 

Mr. Adams _ entertained the members with some high- 
voltage experiments in the main lecture room. Insulator 
tests were made with potentials of from 100.000 volts to 
125.000 volts, showing the character of the discharge over 
and around the insulator. A parallel wire demonstration 
was also made, showing the tendency of a high-voltage arc 
to ascend as in the horn type of lightning arrester. Dis- 
charges between glass tubes completed the display. Pro- 
fessor Richey explained the purpose and equipment of the 
laboratories and the members made an inspection of the 
facilities available for instruction and experiment. The 
test car was shown in operation on its stand and an oscil- 
lograph and motor-stand test were both in service. At 
9 p. m. the party boarded the special cars, E. G. Connette, 
general manager Worcester Consolidated Street Railway, 
being present as host. 

The Strike in Cleveland 

Efforts to settle the strike of employees of the Municipal 
Traction Company, of Cleveland, have failed. President Du- 
Pont holds to his determination to give the new men the prefer- 
ence in regard to seniority rights. There is little violence. 
The men have turned their attention to the referendum work 
and will attempt to accomplish their purpose by this means. 

President DuPont is quoted as stating that cars have been 
operated on schedules. The receipts have been somewhat less 
than normal, but this has probably resulted from the fact that 
the steam roads are carrying many people who under other 
circumstances would patronize the local lines. Cars were 
started on Detroit Avenue and other West Side streets the 
latter part of last week. The New York, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railroad had been carrying most of the passengers from the 
western section of the city up to that time. 

The names on the petitions for a referendum vote on the 
security franchise are being compared with the registration 
books as rapidly as possible by a large force from the city 
clerk's office. As there are more than 26,000 names to be 
checked and compared, it may take a month to complete 
the task. 

It is said that Mayor Johnson is writing to each voter, asking 
if he signed the petition. Several members of the City Council 
have expressed themselves in favor of having an early vote, in 
order that business may go forward either under the new 
company or the old one, as decided by the vote. 

The Wisconsin Tax Commission announces that it has fixed 
the preliminary valuation of the property of street railway com- 
panies and light, heat and power companies in Wisconsin at 
$36,098,000. This is the first time the commission has fixed the 
value of property of these companies, and the figures are sub- 
ject to change after hearings to be held between now and 
July i. The preliminary valuations follow: 

Ashland Light, Power & Street Railway Company $140,000 

Beloit Traction Company 70,000 

Chippewa Valley Railway, Light & Power Company 750,000 

Duluth Street Railway Company 900,000 

Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Company 750,000 

Green Bay Traction Company 900,000 

Janesville Street Railway Company 40,000 

Kenosha Electric Railway Company 200,000 

La Crosse & Onalaska Street Railway Company 18,000 

Manitowoc & Northern Traction Company 145,000 

Menominee & Marinette Light & Traction Company 230,000 

Merrill Railway & Lighting Company 180,000 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company 22,000,000 

Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company 5,200,000 

Milwaukee Northern Railway Company 560,000 

Rockford & Interurban Railway Company... 325,000 

Sheboygan Light, Power & Railway Company 650,000 

Southern Wisconsin Railway Company 675,000 

Twin City General Electric Company 60,000 

Waupaca Electric Light & Railway Company 85,000 

Wausau Street Railway Company 70,000 

Winnebago Traction Company 625,000 

Wisconsin Traction, Light, Heat & Power Company 1,025,000 

Plans Announced by the Tidewater Company 

The Birmingham & Gulf Railway & Navigation Company, 
which is controlled by the Tidew r ater Development Com- 
pany, has filed a mortgage for $10,000,000 at Tuscaloosa, 
Ala., the proceeds of which will be used to carry out the 
company's plans for an electric railway from Tuscaloosa to 
Gadsden, Ala., via Birmingham, and a barge line on the 
Warrior and Tombigbee rivers. The company has the Tus- 
caloosa Belt Railway as a nucleus for its system, having 
purchased that line last year. With this projected railroad 
and the barge line it is intended to establish a new route 
for Alabama coal to the Gulf, Mobile being the objective 
port of shipment. Henry S. Thompson, of New York, is 
president of the company. J. A. Vandegrift, of Tuscaloosa 
and Philadelphia, is general manager. The belt line is now 
operated by steam locomotives, but it will be the first sec- 
tion of the through road to be worked with electricity. 

J. M. Dewberry, vice-president, is quoted in a report from 
Birmingham as saying that the conversion of the Tusca- 
loosa Belt Railway to an electric railw r ay, which was begun 
last fall, will be completed within two or three months, 
when construction will begin on the main line in Birming- 
ham, working toward East Lake and Bessemer. Construc- 
tion will be continued in both directions until the line is 
completed from Gadsden to Tuscaloosa, 170 miles, including 
double tracks in the Birmingham district, side-tracks, etc. 
The location surveys have been completed, most of the pri- 
vate right of way is assured and all the city franchises are 
obtained. The bonds were taken by Morris Bros., of Phila- 
delphia, and George Davidson Rogers, of New York City. 
The Carnegie Trust Company, of New York, is trustee of 
the mortgage. 

Mr. Dewberry is quoted as saying: "The entire transpor- 
tation line is to be an electric railway from Gadsden through 
the Birmingham district to Tuscaloosa, and from that city 
by water to Mobile and New Orleans. The company will 
also operate steamboats on the Alabama River from Mont- 
gomery to Mobile and a line of steamers from Mobile 
through the Mississippi Sound to New Orleans. An option 
has been secured on Dauphin Island, near Mobile, for $70,- 
000 with the object of making that place the export terminal. 
The company proposes to operate altogether about 850 miles 
of steamboat and barge line between Tuscaloosa, Mobile 
and New Orleans, and also between Mobile, Selma and 
Montgomery. The electric railway will make connections 
with the principal trunk line railroads of the South." 

The officers of the Birmingham & Gulf Railway & Navi- 
gation Company are: Henry S. Thompson, New York, 
NT. Y,. president; J. M. Dewberry, Birmingham, Ala., vice- 
president; George D. Rogers, New York, N. Y., secretary 
and treasurer; E. T. Brackett, president Adirondack Trust 
Company, Saratoga Springs, N. Y.; J. M. Dewberry, presi- 
dent Tidewater Development Company, Birmingham, Ala.; 
Charles C. Dickinson, president Carnegie Trust Company, 
New York, N. Y.; Eugene F. Enslen, cashier Jefferson 

June 6, iyo8.] 



County Savings Bank; Forney Johnston, of Campbell & 
Johnston, attorneys, both of Birmingham, Ala.; F. Z. Ma- 
guire, Robert B. Moorhead, Carnegie Trust Company, both 
of New York, N. Y.; James H. Morris, of Morris Bros., 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Geo. D. Rogers, Henry S. Thompson, 
vice-president Globe & Rutgers Fire Insurance Company, 
both of New York, N. Y.;,J. A. Vandegrift, president Bir- 
mingham & Gulf Construction Company, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; 
W. H. Woodin, vice-president American Car & Foundry 
Company, New York, directors. 

August Belmont on Short-Term Franchises 

Discussing (he failure of Governor Hughes of New York to 
sign the Robinson rapid transit bill, August Belmont, chairman 
of the board of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, said 
before the Brooklyn League last week: 

"It is absolutely impossible to construct a subway under the 
present conditions, and anybody who says that private capital 
can do the work as things are at present says something that is 
absolutely not so. The Governor has vetoed the Robinson bill, 
which sought to lengthen the period of franchise terms under 
which constructing companies could operate the roads. There 
is not one single interest that could be induced to undertake 
the operation of a road on a short-time franchise. As far back 
as 1906 I called the attention of Speaker Wadsworth of the 
State Legislature to the weak points in the Elsberg law, which 
was then under consideration by both houses in Albany, saying 
at the time that the city would be injured if the Elsberg bill 
became a law. 

"Private capital cannot be invested with profit in any proposi- 
tion under a short-term franchise agreement, and I said then, as 
I say now, that the Elsberg bill is the rankest folly, which was 
aimed at the corporations at a time when certain persons were 
trying to become popular by attacking corporations. The pur- 
pose of those who advocated the measures was to reduce the co- 
operation which public service corporations could give in the 
solutions of the big problems and force municipal operation on 
the city. Municipal operation is a very burdensome proposition 
from the viewpoint of taxation, as the ferry proposition has 
amply demonstrated. 

"You can put out of your mind any idea of private capital 
interesting itself in short-term franchise propositions. It might 
be possible to build a road, but it will never be possible to equip 
and operate it, for the equipment is often half the cost. The 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company spent $35,000,000 or 
$40,000,000 on its equipment, and how can you expect capitalists 
to invest that amount for only 20 years? You must insure at 
least the return of the capital invested. If the city can build a 
subway it cannot lease it on a basis of cost so that the city will 
get its money back, because it could not possibly be operated 
at such a high franchise figure. Then, if the city is to stand 
the cost and lease out the subway much below the figure, so 
that a concern can afford to run it, that is a different matter, 
and you then have a sinking fund proposition on your hands. 
The fact is you are against a very awkward proposition." 

Affairs in New York 

The Public Service Commission of the First District of 
New York has asked the board of estimate to appropriate 
$2,850,000 for the partial construction of each of the divi- 
sions of the Fourth Avenue subway. As each division is 
partially constructed, a further sum toward completing it 
will be requested. Thus the work can uniformly go on in 
each section, instead of completing only one section at a 
time, and making it possible to abandon the others. 

E. P. Bryan, president of the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, in a letter under date of May 29 to the Public 
Service Commission, requests the commission to act upon 
the suggestions of the company embodied in a previous let- 
ter regarding the purchase by the city of the Steinway 
tunnel, connecting Manhattan and Queens. The commis- 
sion never took any action on these suggestions because it 
lacked jurisdiction in the premises. Mr. Bryan now calls 
attention to the fact that Governor Hughes has signed the 
Frawley bill empowering the commission, with the consent 
of the board of estimate, to open negotiations for the pur- 
chase of the tunnel. Chairman Willcox, of the commission, 
some time ago announced that while he realized the impor- 
tance of this link connecting Queens and Manhattan, he 
believed that in view of the city's crippled finances, all the 
money available should be used in developing the subway 
systems which have already been laid out. This work, he 
said at the time, he thought was of more importance than 
the purchase and operation of the Steinway tunnel by the 

Mr. Bryan incloses in his letter the text of the Feb. 27 
proposition. This provides for the purchase of the tunnel 

by the city at $7,239,476.50, its cost to the Interborough 
Company. The company is willing to accept payment in 
4 per cent bonds of the City of New York at par, and sug- 
gests that an operating agreement for 25 years be entered 
into by the city with the New York & Queens County Rail- 
way to operate the tunnel in connection with its surface 
lines in Queens. The expenses of operation, it is sug- 
gested, should be fixed by agreement at an arbitrary sum, 
one-half to be paid by the city and one-half by the com- 
pany. A single fare of 5 cents is to be charged between 
New York and any point on the New York & Queens 
County system. 

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company has issued the follow- 
ing statement of the reason of the company for declining to 
avail itself of the opportunity to run trains in the $10,000,000 
subway loop, now building, to connect the two bridges : 

"The officers of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company have 
presented to the members of the commission informally facts 
and figures concerning the effect of the operation of the Center 
Street loop connecting the Brooklyn and Williamsburg bridges. 
We are convinced that, with their knowledge of the financial 
and physical difficulties with the proposed Center Street bridge 
subway and the connections to it from the three bridges, the 
transportation interests of Brooklyn will be carefully considered 
Whether or not the transportation interests in Brooklyn can best 
be served by the Manhattan lines entering Brooklyn, or the 
Brooklyn lines entering Manhattan, is a matter which can only 
be determined after more careful consideration." 

The construction of a subway from the Williamsburg Bridge 
to Lafayette Avenue, Brooklyn ; the building of another tunnel 
under the East River at Beekman Street, and the diversion of 
the proposed Broadway and Lexington Avenue line so as to 
take in the Center Street loop line are some of the schemes pro- 
posed, now that the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company has re- 
fused to operate the loop subway connecting the Brooklyn and 
the Williamsburg bridges. 

The Interborough Rapid Transit Company has applied to the 
Public Service Commission, First District, for authority to use 
the first section of the Fourth Avenue subway, Brooklyn, and 
the Manhattan Bridge, now under construction, for an exten- 
sion of the company's subway system. The application has 
been referred to the committee of the whole. 

At a hearing June 2 before Commissioner Maltbie on a 
proposed order that the companies under the jurisdiction of 
the commission should supply the commission with plans 
of all new cars, brakes, fenders and other appurtenances of 
rolling stock to be purchased before such accessories were 
bought, the representatives of the companies protested 
against promulgation of the order. The matter was finally 
settled by a proposal from Mr. Maltbie that the companies 
furnish the plans after, instead of before, purchase of the 

Line Between Brantford and Hamilton, Ont., Opened. — 

The Brantford & Hamilton Electric Railway, between 
Brantford and Hamilton, Ont., has been opened. 

Canadian Pacific Railway to Electrify Westminster Junc- 
tion Line. — The Canadian Pacific Railway is arranging to 
electrify its line between New Westminster, B. C, and 
Westminster Junction next year. 

Connecticut Commissioners Inspecting Railroads. — The 

Connecticut Board of Railroad Commissioners is making its 
annual inspection of electric railways. Last week the mem- 
bers of the board inspected many of the lines in the western 
part of the State, including the properties operated by the 
Connecticut Company in Willimantic, Norwich and New 

Illinois University Bulletins. — The first edition of Bulletin 
No. 15 of the Engineering Experiment Station, "How to 
Burn Illinois Coal Without Smoke," by L. P. Brecken- 
ridge, was published in December, 1907, but on account of 
the large number of requests for it, a second edition of copies has just been issued. A few pages are de- 
voted to the principles of combustion and the losses due 
to smoking chimneys, but the larger part of the bulletin 
relates to the constructive features of those boiler settings 
and furnaces that have been found practically smokeless in 
operation at the power plant and in the experiment station 
at the University of Illinois. The leading dimensions of 
the settings and furnaces are given and sectional cuts show 
the general character of the settings. While the smokeless 
burning of Illinois coals furnishes the main discussion, the 
principles and methods explained apply equally well to the 
burning of all kinds of soft coal. Copies of this bulletin 
may be obtained gratis upon application to the director, 
Engineering Experiment Station, Urbana, 111. 

Springfield (111.) Franchise Questioned. — Quo warranto 
proceedings have been begun in the Sangamon Circuit Court, 



[Vol. XXXH. No. i. 

Springfield, by the State's Attorney to determine the life of 
certain franchises under which the Springfield Consolidated 
Railway is operating. 

Fender Test in Toronto. — The Toronto Railway Com- 
pany has suggested that three experts outside the Prov- 
ince of Ontario be selected to make a test of fenders in 
the presence of the Ontario Railway & Municipal Board, 
agreeing to accept the decision of the board. 

Inquiry Into Philadelphia Accident. — The Pennsylvania 
Railroad Commission is investigating an accident that oc- 
curred May 24 on the Chestnut Hill division of the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Company. According to the state- 
ment made to Charles O. Kruger, second vice-president and 
general manager of the company, by the motorman of the 
car, the accident was due to the fact that a passenger tam- 
pered with the rear brake. 

Grade Crossing Protector Tested in Toledo. — Representa- 
tives of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern and the Michi- 
gan Central railroads, in a conference with officials of the 
street railways in Toledo, Ohio, agreed upon a safety device 
for grade crossings in the city which will be submitted to the 
Ohio Railroad Commission, and, if approved, will be used. 
The details of the plan will not be announced until the 
Railroad Commission passes upon them. 

John I. Beggs Addresses Students at Madison, Wis. — 

John I. Beggs, president and general manager of The Mil- 
waukee (Wis.) Electric Railway & Light Company, ad- 
dressed the students of Prof. B. H. Meyer at the University 
of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., May 27, on railway problems. 
Mr. Beggs talked of the difficulties encountered in provid- 
ing transportation, particularly in the cities, and of the 
development of the electric railway. 

Disorder Follows Chester Strike. — The disorder that has 
marked the strike of the employees of the Chester Traction 
Company was renewed June 2 when three of the company's 
cars were damaged by dynamite. Two cars were wrecked 
on Saville Avenue, in Eddystone, and a third at Palmer's 
Corner, on the Media division, outside the city. The car at 
the latter point was badly damaged. Two passengers were 
carried on one of the cars, but neither person was hurt. 

Road Between Lima and Toledo to Be Opened Soon. — 

The Ohio Electric Railway expects to have the road be- 
tween Lima and Toledo, Ohio, in operation not later than 
June 15. Officials of the company inspected a portion of 
the road a few days ago. It is possible that the cars will 
be run over the line of the Maumee Valley Railways & 
Light Company until the new track between Toledo and 
Maumee is completed. Three of the new cars have been 
received and are ready for operation. 

Connecticut Valley Street Railway Changes Fares. — The 

Connecticut Valley Street Railway, of Greenfield, Mass., 
announced last week that in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, the 
schedule of fares on the Millers Falls division, beginning 
June 1, would be as follows: Regular cash fares between 
Turners Falls, Lake Pleasant. Millers Falls or Montague 
will be two fares of 6 cents each. Workmen's tickets on 
this line will be withdrawn. It is intended to continue the 
coupon book basis of 4 1/6 cents. 

Deposit of Boston Elevated to Secure Abuttors Recov- 
ered. — The full bench of the Massachusetts Supreme Court 
dismissed the Boston Elevated Railway petition to recover 
$500,000 deposited with the State Treasurer, at time of the 
construction of the elevated structure, to secure payment 
of claims of abuttors. The company asserted that, as all 
claims have been settled, it was entitled to the money, but 
the court rules that, as the company is still engaged in the 
construction of an elevated in Cambridge and of a subway 
approach on Washington Street, the treasurer must re- 
tain ,the fund. 

Appleton Line To Be Extended. — As a result of a confer- 
ence between John I. Beggs, of Milwaukee, president of the 
Wisconsin Traction, Light, Heat & Power Company, Su- 
perintendent Ellis and the members of the Appleton Board 
of Public Works May 30, it has been practically decided 
to extend the lines of the company to Appleton to the 
driving park and form a loop circling the city about two 
miles long. On June 16 the case against the company in 
which application is made for a 5 instead of a 10-cent fare 
between Appleton and the Lake Winnebago resorts comes 
up for settlement. The company will contend that owing 
to the expense of operating the line it can not afford a 
5-cent fare. 

Franchise Conditions in Hamilton, Ont. — The special 
committee of the City Council, Hamilton, Ont., went over last 

week the clauses in the proposed new agreement with repre- 
sentatives of the Dominion Power & Transmission Company, 
Ltd. Several important matters were agreed on, subject to 
modification. The mileage will remain as at present till the 
end of 1928. The company will be asked to put on 10 new 
double-truck cars the first year and 10 for the next succeeding 
four years till 50 cars have been added. No extensions will 
be made during the last three years of the franchise. The 
company will be expected to spend $100,000 in 1908, $200,000 
in 1909, and $200,000 in 1910. One-third of the new extensions 
will be made in each of the first three years. 

Investigation of Relations Between Oil Companies and 
Railways. — Calvin Skinner, superintendent of the Scioto 
Valley Traction Company, of Columbus, Ohio, testified in 
New York on May 29, in the investigation which the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission is making of the relations be- 
tween the Standard Oil Company and its subsidiary com- 
panies with the railroads. Most of Mr. Skinner's testimony 
related to his steam railroad experiences with the lubrica- 
tion methods and oils of the Galena Signal Oil Company, 
but incidentally he mentioned that the introduction by him 
of Galena methods and material on the Scioto Valley sys- 
tem had reduced lubricating costs 3 to 4 cents per 1000 
'miles run. The Scioto company pays 20 cents per gallon. 

Bridge Suit Decided in Favor of Cincinnati Company. — 

In a suit brought by Councilman Kellogg, as a taxpayer, 
against the Cincinnati Traction Company to enjoin it from 
constructing a bridge over Eastern Avenue, at Pendleton, 
for the purpose of carrying coal to its power house near that 
place, the Common Pleas Court rendered a decision in favor 
of the defendant by consent, in order that the case may be 
carried to the Supreme Court as quickly as possible and 
the points brought out tested. Mr. Kellogg claims that 
the Council had no right to pass an ordinance allowing the 
building of a bridge in a certain locality, but that such an 
ordinance should be general in its character, allowing any 
one to build a bridge over any street, so long as the bridge 
did not interfere with travel on the street. In addition, it 
was claimed that if a property owner has a right to build 
a bridge across a street simply because it does not inter- 
fere with travel, then the property owner does not need the 
consent of the Council. The answer filed by the traction 
company and the city, which is made a party defendant, was 
to the effect that the structure contemplated is to be sub- 
stantial and ornamental and an improvement of great con- 

Legislation Affecting Electric Railways 

New York. — The Assembly Committee on Electricity, Gas 
& Water Supply has reported the Page-Wainwright bill. 
This bill provides that "a railroad corporation and a street 
railroad corporation shall not be required to establish 
through routes or joint rates with each other." 

Massachusetts. — A bill authorizing the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad to hold stock of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad until July 1, 1910, and to acquire additional 
Boston & Maine stock, but not to vote on the same, the 
Board of Railroad Commissioners being made trustees with 
the right to vote the stock, was agreed upon May 27 by 
the committee on railroads of the Legislature. The House 
of Representatives has passed the bill to provide that 
railroads and street railways may issue additional stock 
at a price fixed by their stockholders and approved by the 
railroad commissioners. Before passage the bill was 
amended at request of the Public Franchise League so that 
the commissioners shall refuse to sanction the issue if the 
price is "so low as to be inconsistent with public interest." 

Boston Elevated-West End. — The bill authorizing the 
consolidation of the Boston Elevated and the West End has 
been signed. The Elevated Railway is authorized to increase 
its capital stock to an amount equal at par to the par value of 
the capital stock of the West End Street Railway at the time of the 
purchase, such new stock to consist of shares of $100 each, 
divided into first preferred stock and second preferred stock, 
the par value of the first to equal the par value of the preferred 
stock of the West End Street Railway, and the par value of 
the second to equal the par value of the common stock of the 
West End Street Railway. In short, holders of West End 
Street Railway preferred stock are to be offered 8 per cent first 
preferred of the Boston Elevated Railway, and West End Street 
Railway common shareholders 7 per cent second preferred of 
the Elevated Railway, thus maintaining the present dividends 
paid under the lease. It is estimated that the annual saving 
in operating economies and lessened investment required under 
the consolidation will amount to $310,000 annually, a sum equal 
to 2 per cent on the present $13,300,000 Boston Elevated stock. 

June 6, 1908.] 



Financial and C orporate 

Stock and Money Markets 

New York, June 2, 1908. 

Stocks listed on the Stock Exchange have been higher 
and the strength in prices has been accompanied by a good 
volume of trading. The appointment of a receiver for the 
Wabash-Pittsburg Terminal Railway had been forecast for 
so long a time that the court proceedings did not influence 
the general market. Failure of this property to earn its 
fixed charges was due primarily to the expensive nature 
of its construction and the physical inability of its single- 
track outlet, the Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad, to handle 
the traffic gathered by the terminal lines at Pittsburg. 
With the affairs of the Pittsburg terminal property in the 
hands of the courts the situation affecting the Gould sys- 
tem of railways becomes less complicated. 

The annual report of the Amalgamated Copper Company, 
showing largely reduced earnings as compared with the 
previous year, had no adverse effect. The statement of 
views of the present outlook in the copper industry was 
optimistic. In the fiscal year ended April 30, 1908, the net 
income was $6,680,556, as compared with $14,154,400 in the 
previous fiscal year. The report said that on February 1 
the surplus stock of copper had practically disappeared and 
that the mines are now operated at their full capacity. 

Another event of importance, which did not influence 
prices of securities, was the announcement on behalf of the 
United States Steel Corporation of a reduction in the price 
of steel bars from $1.60 to $1.40 per 100 lb. This corpora- 
tion and the large manufacturers associated in the general 
movement to maintain prices follow in this action a reduc- 
tion made by the smaller manufacturers, who were securing 
the business offered by making a concession from the pre- 
vailing quotation. 

Rates for money continue low and the going rate for 
call funds on Stock Exchange collateral is 1.34 per cent. 
Time funds range from 2.y 2 per cent for 60 days to 4^/2 per 
cent for loans extending beyond the turn of the year, giving 
evidence of the excess of bankers' balances. Sentiment is 
divided concerning the probability of higher rates when the 
demand for currency for crop moving purposes starts. 

Other Markets 

Traction securities listed in the Philadelphia market have 
not been active and have held on about the level which 
they reached in the decline of the previous week. 

Securities of the United Railways & Electric Company, 
of Baltimore, have been active on the Baltimore Stock Ex- 
change. The refunding 5 per cent bonds were lower, selling 
at 76-]^ to 76-)4, and the income bonds were quoted at 50J4 
to 5ij4, ex-coupon. 

Little trading took place on the Chicago Stock Exchange 
in electric railway securities. Interest in the stocks of the 
elevated railways has been reduced by the cessation of agi- 
tation of consolidation. 

In the Boston market there has been a little trading in 
Boston Elevated Railway stock at 133 to 135. 

Cleveland Electric Railway stock held between 50 and 51. 
Several 100-share lots sold June 1 at 51, but the close was 
50, and there was no change on Tuesday. Washington, 
Baltimore & Annapolis Electric Railway pooling certificates 
closed at 14, although they sold a point or two lower during 
the week. Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company 
common held at 17 and Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway 
common at 30 bid. 

Quotations for various traction securities as compared 
with last week follow: 

May 26. June 2. 

American Railways Company, Philadelphia 44V2 44 5 As 

Boston Elevated Railway ai35 3134 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 51 49^8 

Chicago City Railway 160 aioo 

Cleveland Electric Railway 5i'/2 a5i-}4 

Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey 70A 71 

Detroit United Railway 34 37 J A 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company 12 i2 J A 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 32^ 32% 

Manhattan Railway 136% i37*A 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) 9 10 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) 44 *AaYi 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chicago 

(common) 17 *i8 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chicago 

(preferred) 53 '54 

Metropolitan Street Railway 26 26 

North American Company 60 Vg. 63 j li 

Philadelphia Company Pittsburg (common) 39 39 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company i4?4 '4?4 

Philadelphia Traction Company go 895-2 

Public Service Corporation, certificates 69 a70 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent notes 96 ag7 

Twin City Rapid Transit Cnmnany, Minneapolis (common) 8g'A 90% 
Union Traction Company, Philadelphia $''A 52 

a Asked. 
* East Sale. 

Underground Electric Railways Company, Ltd., London 

Under the plan of readjustment recommended by the direc- 
tors holders of the $25,000,000 share capital are not assessed. 
Cash requirements are to be met by the sale to Speyer & 
Company, of New York, and others of $5,000,000 of 12- 
year 5 per cent prior lien bonds. The company will pledge, 
in addition to $55,000,000 face value of stocks and shares, 
held by the London & Westminster Bank as trustee for 
the noteholders, an additional $17,500,000 of shares and 
the equity in the power house, and issue against this total 
of $72,500,000 securities, the $5,000,000 prior lien bonds, 
$15,000,000 of 4 l / 2 per cent bonds due in 1933, and $26,000,- 
000 of 6 per cent income bonds due in 1948. The holders of 
the $35,000,000 outstanding 5 per cent notes will be asked 
to exchange the notes as to 40 per cent of par value into 
4Y2 per cent bonds at par, and as to 70 per cent of par 
value into 6 per cent income bonds at par. Sir George 
Gibb, managing director and receiver, has made an esti- 
mate of future net revenues, indicating, however, that the 
company is not warranted in undertaking a definite obliga- 
tion to pay the interest during the first few years on the 
4V2 per cent bonds of 1933. Speyer & Company have 
undertaken to provide up to $1,500,000 for any possible 
deficiency in fixed charges during the next few years. They 
will purchase on or before Jan. 1 and July 1 commencing 
with Jan. 1, 1909, such an amount of 4'/> per cent bonds and 
6 per cent income bonds at $1,500 (and accrued interest on 
the 4J/2 per cent bonds), for $1,000 nominal of 4J/2 per cent 
bonds and $1,500 of income bonds, as will make good any 
deficiency in the interest for the preceding half-year on 
the 4*/2 per cent bonds. The directors are of the opinion 
that this $1,500,000 will be sufficient to make up any de- 
ficiencies to and including July 1, 1912, and that there- 
after, if not before, the surplus income will be sufficient to 
meet all of the fixed charges. Sir George Gibb's estimate 
of the surplus to and including 1913, follows: 


able for 

Yea r. 
1908 . . 
1909. . 
1910. . 
1 91 1 . . 
1912. . 
J9I3- • 

Surplus after 
interest on prior 
lien bonds and 
income tax. 
£ 12,147 
. . . 11 5,608 
. . . 1 64,908 

for 4 J/2 per 
cent bonds and 
income tax. 





This estimate assumes that the holdings in subsidiary 
companies are retained, that the amount of prior lien bonds 
issued remains at £1,000,000, and that the coupons due 
Dec. 1, 1907, on the notes and those for the interest to 
July 1, 1908, on the 4^2 per cent bonds, are provided for 
out of the proceeds of the prior lien bonds. 

Creditors' Committee of Toledo Railways & Light Company 

On account of maturing bonds and franchises the Toledo 
(Ohio) Railways & Light Company has been unable, a^ 
announced in a previous issue, to finance its present loans, 
so a committee of creditors consisting of the following has 
been organized: J. R. Nutt. chairman, secretary Citizens' 
Savings & Trust Company, Cleveland; Norman B. Ream, 
New York; Myron T. Herrick, president Society for Sav- 
ings, Cleveland; C. Ledyard Blair, of Blair & Company, New 
York; John Sherwin, president First National Bank, Cleve- 
land; H. P. Mcintosh, president Guardian Savings & Trust 
Company, Cleveland; William B. Hale, trustee the W. E. 
Hale estate, Chicago. 

This committee already controls a majority of the 4 per 
cent bonds of the company and has invited all of the other 
4 per cent bondholders and the secured creditors to deposit 
their claims with the committee. It is expected that the 
committee will ask for deposit also of the unsecured claims. 
The members of the committee feel that with wise and 
conservative management it will be possible to pay all the 
creditors of the company and leave a substantial equity for 
the stockholders, and that it is desirable to avoid, if possible, 
the expense of a receivership as well as the impairment of 
value which would be likely to result from insolvency pro- 
ceedings of any kind. 

The company is now applying its net earnings, after pay- 
ing its operating expenses and keeping the property in 
repair, to its unpaid voucher account, and will apply the 
balance in payment of maturing interest on its secured debt. 
The committee is now engaged in making a careful examina- 
tion of the affairs of the company and expects to present a 
plan for placing the affairs upon a permanent financial basis. 

The Toledo Railways & Light Company owns all of the 
electric railway lines, as well as the electric lighting, heating 
and gas plants, in Toledo. It also controls, through owner- 



ship of the entire stock, the following: Toledo & Western 
Railroad, 80 miles, of which 75 miles are on private right 
of way; Adrian Street Railway; Toledo, Ottawa Beach & 
Northern Railroad; Maumee Valley Railways & Light Com- 
pany; Toledo Casino Company; Toledo Beach Company. 

In June, 1907, the property of the Toledo Gas, Electric 
"i Heating Company was bought by the Toledo Railways 
& Light Company, so that an accurate statement of the 
earnings of the original property is difficult to make, but 
based upon the separate earnings of the several companies, 
it is estimated that the gross earnings for 1908 will exceed 
$3,000,000 and that the operating expenses will not exceed 

The outstanding bonds of the company, which mature on 
July 1, 1909, are: Bonds issued by the Toledo Traction 
Company and its constituent companies, $6,000,000; bonds 
issued by the Toledo Railways & Light Company, $4,866,000. 
There are also $150,000 bonds of the Toledo Gas Light & 
Coke Company, which mature Nov. 1, 1908, making a total 
for which provision must be made of $11,016,000. 

The franchises of the company are operated under more 
than 100 ordinances of the city of Toledo and proceedings 
of the Lucas County Commissioners. The franchises relating 
to gas, electricity, power, light, heating and the underground 
conduit system are perpetual, subject only to the ordinary 
police regulations and to the statutory requirements of the 
State of Ohio that the prices to be charged shall be regu- 
lated at intervals of not exceeding 10 years. The rights 
of the company to operate its street railway in certain 
streets will expire Nov. 9, 1910, but the larger part of the 
system is being operated under ordinances which expire in 
1914, 1915 and 1916. 

The purchases made by the company, especially that of 
control of the Toledo Gas, Electric & Heating Company in 
June, 1907, and the large improvements made in the power 
house and system of the company in 1907, created a large 
floating indebtedness, which, at the time of the panic in 
1907, amounted in round figures to $2,500,000. About 
$1,500,000 of this indebtedness is secured by the deposit of 
treasury bonds of the company as follows: $1,134,000, 
Toledo Railways & Light Company 4's; $500,000, Maumee 
Valley Railways & Light Company Consolidated 4^'s; 
$500,000, Toledo, Ottawa Beach & Northern Railroad first 
mortgage 5's; $108,000, Toledo Gas, Electric & Heating 
Company 5's; $75,000, Adrian Street Railway 5's (entire 
:ssue) ; a total of $2,317,000. The balance of the floating debt 
*f the company is practically unsecured. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Electric Railway Changes 

Action has been taken to change the name of the Cleve- 
land Electric Railway to the Cleveland Railway Company 
and to reduce the number of directors to nine, as follows: 
President, Horace E. Andrews; vice-president, J. J. Stanley; 
C. F. Emery. L. C. Hanna, R. A. Harmon. Samuel Mather. 
H. P. Mcintosh, R. R. Rhodes and J. H. Wade. The stock 
of the Cleveland Electric Railway will be changed for stock 
of the new company in the ratio of 55 to 100. Stock of 
the Forest City Railway will also be exchanged for the new 
stock. Henry J. Davies is secretary of the company. 

Charleston & Summerville Electric Railway, Charleston, 

S. C. — At a meeting of stockholders it was voted to issue 
$100, 000 additional common stock and $300,000 additional 
preferred stock. 

Danbury & Harlem Traction Company, Danbury, Conn. — 

On behalf of three Philadelphia banks application was made 
on June 2, in the Superior Court at Bridgeport, Conn., for a 
temporary receiver for the Danbury & Harlem Traction 
Company, which is building an electric railway from Dan- 
bury to Golden Bridge, N. Y., where it will connect with 
the New York & Harlem Railroad. The allegation is that 
the company has defaulted in payment of interest on its 
bonds. The company has a power plant and has built two- 
thirds of its line. It is capitalized for $500,000 and has 
issued bonds to the amount of $300,000. Dietrich E. Loewe, 
of Danbury, is the president of the company. A hearing 
on the receivership will be held on June 9. Construction 
has been at a standstill about two years. 

Elmira, Corning & Waverly Railroad, Waverly, N. Y. 

ft is reported that plans are under consideration for con- 
solidation of the properties of the Elmira, Corning & Wav- 
erly Railroad, the Corning & Painted Post Street Railway 
and the Waverly, Sayre & Athens Traction Company, which 
are controlled by practically the same interest as the Bing- 
hamton (N. Y.) Railway, of which G. Tracy Rogers is 
president. It is also reported that the Binghamton Railway 
will be extended to Owego and Waverly, thus affording a 
through line between Painted Post and Binghamton. 

Mason City & Clear Lake Traction Company, Mason City, 
Iowa. — This company has filed articles changing the name 

of the company to the Mason City & Clear Lake Railway 
and making the capital stock $200,000. 

New York City Railway. — The Guaranty Trust Company, 
of New York, as trustee, has brought suit to compel the 
receivers to pay the taxes on the property of the Fulton 
Street Railroad. The trust company, as trustee under the 
mortgage sharing the issue of $500,000 of 4 per cent bonds, 
stated that there has been default in the payment of inter- 
est and taxes and that the default in the latter resulted in 
a lien prior to the mortgage. Since this suit was started 
the receivers have taken off the equipment from the Fulton 
Street road and have decided to discontinue operation of 
the line. The line is one mile in length and its equipment 
consisted of five cars propelled by horse power. In recent 
years the Fulton company is said to have operated at a loss 
of about $25,000 per annum. It is expected that the claim 
will be made that the rights of the bondholders extend only 
to the two blocks of double track running between Broad- 
way and William Street. — Counsel representing the Morton 
Trust Company, the Guaranty Trust Company and other 
interests opposing the issue of $3,500,000 receivers' certifi- 
cates by the receivers of the New York City and the Metro- 
politan street railway companies, appeared before Judges 
Ward and Holt, of the United States Circuit Court of Ap- 
peals, on May 29. In the argument for the rehearing, coun- 
sel asserted that the Circuit Court had apparently adjudi- 
cated upon points still in dispute, had increased the interest 
on the certificates from 5 per cent to 6 per cent, and to in- 
sure the marketability of the certificates as a guarantee of 
payment, had included, besides the net income of the two 
companies, property owned by the corporations not cov- 
ered by the mortgages, which would in no wise be benefited 
by the proposed improvements. Decision was reserved by 
the judges. — Trial of the suit instituted by the receivers of 
the New York City Railway and the Metropolitan Street 
Railway against the Metropolitan Securities Company to 
recover $4,964,000 as the balance of $8,000,000 advanced 
under agreement by the Metropolitan Street Railway for a 
general rehabilitation of the surface lines of the New York 
City Railway, was begun before Judge Ward in the United 
States Circuit Court June 1. 

New York-Philadelphia Company, Philadelphia. — At a 

meeting of bondholders in Trenton, N. J., on May 29 a pro- 
tective committee was formed, composed of Hugh H. 
Hamill, president of the Trenton Trust & Safe Deposit 
Company; Harmon D. Yerkes, of Philadelphia, and Samuel 
Rice, of New York. 

Orangeburg City Street Railway, Orangeburg, S. C. — 

This company is planning to sell its street railway system. 
J. W. H. Dukes, of Orangeburg, president of the company, 
states that the road has not been operated during the last 
year. The rolling stock consists of six cars and there are 
about two miles of track laid with 30-lb. and 40-lb. T-rails. 

Public Service Corporation, Newark, N. J. — The mortgage 
securing the $50,000,000 of bonds authorized by the stock- 
holders has been recorded. 

Rochester, Charlotte & Manitou Railroad, Rochester, 

N. Y. — W. Butler Crittenden has been appointed receiver 
for this road. 

Tampa (Fla.) Electric Company. — This company pro- 
poses to issue $2,000,000 of 5 per cent 25-year bonds to 
provide funds for improvement of the railway, increasing 
equipment and enlarging the capacity of the power station. 

United Railroads of San Francisco. — Patrick Calhoun, the 

president, has issued a statement for the first three months 
of this year showing gross earnings of $1,522,716, as com- 
pared with $1,606,022 for the corresponding period of 1907. 
Estimates for April and the first half of May indicate that 
by the end of June the company will probably overcome 
this decrease. In 1905 the gross earnings were $7,066,892. 
In. 1906 the total was $5,955,786, and last year it was $4,745,- 
j 16. In March of this year the earnings were $537,700, the 
first month they exceeded the half-million mark since the 
beginning of the strike in May, 1907. Mr. Calhoun has 
closed negotiations for the sale to a syndicate of San Fran- 
cisco and New York capitalists of $500,000 of the bonds 
which have been in the treasury of the company since its 
organization. The proceeds will be used for improvements. 
Practically all of the money derived from the sale of $5,000,- 
000 preferred stock has been used to liquidate a floating 
debt accumulated since the fire of April, 1906. What is left 
of that money, with the proceeds of the bond sale, will go 
mainly toward enlargement of the electric power facilities. 

Washington (D. C.) Railway & Electric Company. — In 
connection with the election of Clarence F. Norment as 
president, talk has been revived of consolidation of the 
property of this company with that of the Capital Traction 

June 6, 1908.] 



Traffic and Transportation 

Changes in Service Orders Requested in New York 

E. P. Bryan, president of the Intcrborough Rapid Transit 
Company, of New York, and Frank Hedley, general manager, 
appeared before the Public Service Commission, First District, 
June I. They asked for a radical modification of the service 
which the company is now required to> give. In explanation, it 
was stated that because of business depression and the de- 
parture of many people from the city the ticket sales on the 
elevated lines and in the subway had fallen off several millions 
a month. Both the representatives of the company said that the 
numbers of passengers now carried by the elevated and subway 
lines did not require the present service, and they wanted per- 
mission to reduce it. Unless this permission was granted, they 
stated, financial trouble was certain to result. The car mileage 
of the Interborough company, they said, had been increased 14 
per cent, while the increase in traffic in the first four months 
of 1908 was only 5 per cent. The matter was referred to Com- 
missioners Maltbie and Eustis, and inspectors will investigate 
the question whether the commission is requiring too many 
trains for this season of the year. Mr. Bryan and Mr. Hedley 
told the commissioners that the company is dissatisfied with 
the amount of business on the Brooklyn extension, and that the 
opening of the line to the Long Island Railroad station had 
resulted in an increase of less than 15 per cent over the traffic 
carried when the line ended at Borough Hall. 

A shuttle service between Bowling Green station and South 
Ferry in the subway and the running of all express trains to 
Brooklyn is recommended by the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company to the Public Service Commission as the best plan of 
operating that part of its system. It would be necessary to 
build an additional platform on the west side of the Bowling 
Green station and a spur track at the cost of $75,000. By this 
means the company would be able to provide a two-minute head- 
way on its Brooklyn trains in the rush hours. 

Hearing in Boston on Increased Suburban Fares 

A hearing upon the recent fare increases from 5 cents to 
6 cents by the Natick & Cochituate Street Railway and 
the Middlesex & Boston Street Railway was held before 
(he Massachusetts Railroad Commission on May 26. Chair- 
man Sweetser, of the Wellesley Board of Selectmen, sub- 
mitted a statement to show that the Natick & Cochituate 
railway could pay 7 per cent dividends on a total capitali- 
zation, including floating debt, of $300,000, if the present 
6-cent fare was reduced to 5 cents, without free transfers 
to and from its Needham branch, and with the present 
reduction of service from four cars to three cars per hour* 
assuming that a 10 per cent loss in traffic follows the ces- 
sation of transfers at Wellesley Square. Mr. Sweetser 
claimed that under present conditions 2,000,000 passengers 
I yearly on the main line of the company are paying 1 cent 
each to carry the 140,000 free transfer passengers to and 
from the Needham branch. Dividing the system into three 
parts, the line from Newton Lower Falls to Natick earned 
in 1907 net, above operating expenses and taxes, $14,172, 
and the Cochituate branch earned net $5,489, while the 
Needham branch failed to meet operating expenses by 
$7,432. Restoration of a full fare on the Needham branch 
in both directions would increase its earnings $7,000 per 
year and remove the tax upon the main-line traffic. Mr. 
Sweetser stated that he felt that a fair return on the invest- 
ment should be allowed and named 7 per cent as a reason- 
able figure. 

The companies were represented by M. C. Brush, gen- 
eral manager, who stated that inside of seven days a brief 
would be filed in reply to the argument of Mr. Sweetser. 
Within seven years the dividend rate on the Natick & 
Cochituate railway has been decreased from 8 per cent 
to 2 per cent, and on the Middlesex line from 5 per cent 
to nothing. For the year ending Sept. 30, 1907, earnings 
were : 

Gross Operating Net Fixed 

earnings. expenses. earnings. charges. 

Natick & Cochituate $100,078 $83,298 $16,780 $14,766 

Middlesex 76,705 55. 069 21,635 26,905 

Earnings Operating Operating Gross earn- 

per car exp. per car per cent of, ings, per 

mile, cts. mile, cts. gross. mile track. 

Natick & Cochituate... 18.95 15-78 83.23 $5,335 

Middlesex 23.12 16.60 71.8 4,774 

Mr. Brush compares earnings of the Natick & Cochituate 
railway for March, April and May, 1907, under the 5-cent 
fare units with the corresponding period of 1908, when the 
unit was 6 cents, as follows: 

March. April. May. 

1907. 1908. 1907. 1908. 1907. 1908. 

Gross pass, receipts. .$7,536 $7,103 $7,664 $7,3oi $5,013 $5,063 

Decrease 433 .... 362 .... 50 

Per cent decrease 5.75 .... 4.73 .... 1.01 

Earnings per car mile, 

cents 16.83 18.52 17.64 18.76 18.21 21.09 

Increase, cents 1.69 .... 1.12 .... 2.88 

Per cent increase 10.04 6-35 15.81 

In March there was a decrease in passenger receipts in 
20 of the 31 days; in April a decrease in 24 days out of 30, 
and in May a decrease in 8 days out of 19. 

Freight Business Conducted for the Accommodation of 
the Public 

The United Traction Company, of Albany, N. Y., has filed an 
answer with the Public Service Commission, Second District, 
concerning the complaint regarding its freight rates. The com- 
pany states : 

"The company alleges that what it really does is to conduct 
an express business at rates which are much less than the 
charges made for like service by other express companies. The 
company has one express or freight depot in Albany, Water- 
vliet, Troy and Cohoes, and after a telephone message from 
merchants in any of these places a package of 100 lb. or less 
will be sent for, obtained at the merchant's place of business 
and carted to an express or freight depot of the company and 
then placed upon its express or freight cars and forwarded to 
the express or freight depot nearest the point of delivery and 
there unloaded, and from thence loaded to another conveyance 
and delivered to the consignee, perhaps miles away from the 
depot, all at a minimum charge of 25 cents, with any package 
over 100 lb. at a cost of 15 cents per 100 lb. 

"It is respectfully submitted that the express or freight 
charges of this company are absolutely fair and reasonable and 
are lower than those of other methods of transportation. 
While it is true that for a time less rates were charged by 
this company than now, it was found that this department 
was conducted at a loss, and for that reason the increase 
was made. Any decrease in the rates now charged will 
result in the company conducting its freight business with- 
out profit or at an actual loss, or compel it to discontinue 
the department. The express or freight department of the 
company at the present rate of charges does not pay any 
more than operating expenses and the proper charges and 
is conducted only for the accommodation of the public and 
not for the profit of the company. 

"The defendant respectfully submits that the charges should 
be withdrawn." 

Milk Train on Worcester Railway. — The Worcester & 
Southbridge Street Railway, Worcester, Mass., has started the 
operation of a milk train between Charlton and Worcester. 

Freight Privilege Desired in Spencer, Mass. — The 

Worcester (Mass.) Consolidated Street Railway has asked the 
Selectmen of Spencer, Mass., for permission to carry news-' 
papers, baggage, express and freight over its line in Spencer. 

Through Trains Between Indianapolis and Fort Wayne, 
Ind. — Five through trains are now operated daily in each 
direction between Ft. Wayne and Indianapolis, Ind., over the 
lines of the Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Compar- 
and the Indiana Union Traction Company. The time required 
for the trip is as follows : Indianapolis to Peru, 76 miles, 2 
hours and 20 minutes ; Peru to Ft. Wayne, 60 miles, 1 hour and 
50 minutes; total, 136 miles, 4 hours and 10 minutes. 

Through Routes Between Indianapolis and Ohio River 
Points. — Arrangements for through transportation of freight 
between Indianapolis and Ohio River points have been made by 
the Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Company. Connection 
will be made by the traction company at New Albany, Ind., 
with the boats of the Louisville & Evansville Packet Company. 
The latter company will connect at Evansville with boats of the 
Evansville & Paducah and the Evansville & Cairo packet lines. 

Criticisms of Service Invited. — The Jacksonville (Fla.) 
Electric Company has published advertisements asking passen- 
gers to report to the office of the company any complaints, 
criticisms or suggestions which it is desired to make. The 
Jacksonville Times-Union says regarding the announcement: 
"It is certainly a plain, frank, straightforward statement, and 
the company is to be commended for its evident desire to get 
into closer touch with its patrons and to render adequate and 
satisfactory service to the public." 

Transfer System of Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. 

— An official of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company writes 
that no change has been made in the form of the transfer 
ticket from that used prior to May 18, when the new order 
governing the use of transfers went into effect. Passengers 
who desire a transfer now must pay the conductor 5 cents in 
cash and secure the transfer at the time of the payment of fare. 


These are practically all of the instructions which have been 
given to the trainmen, who carry out directions rigidly. 

Plans for Handling Coney Island Traffic. — The Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit Company has made its plans for handling the 
summer traffic to Coney Island. The most radical change in 
the summer operation this year will be that the recently recon- 
structed and four-tracked Brighton line becornes an important 
factor in the through express service. The new schedule pro- 
vides for increases in the local service to Coney Island as well 
as the inauguration of the express service. The plan is to keep 
the Brooklyn traffic separated as much as possible from the 
.Manhattan crowds and to run the heavily laden trains from 
Park Row through on the inside express tracks out of the way 
of the Brooklyn trains. In addition to all of this a "short line" 
will be run between Prospect Park and Brighton Beach at such 
limes of day and on such days as traffic warrants. 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis. — This 
company has issued summer timetables and is distributing 
again the circulars entitled "Airship View of Beautiful Big 
Island Park and Lake Minnetonka" and "Twin City Trolley 
Trips." A folder entitled "Best Way to See the Twin 
Cities," issued for the third season, gives details of the 
sightseeing trolley service of the company which was 
started June i. A folding postal card gives views of Lake 
Minnetonka and calls attention to the facilities provided by 
the company for getting to and from the resort and for ac- 
commodating patrons, especially those who desire to spend 
their vacations or the summer at the lake. The folders and 
cards were prepared by A. W. Warnock, general passenger 
agent of the company, who has earned a reputation for his 
publicity work. 

Injunction Against Universal Transfer System Secured 
in Richmond. — Upon petition of the Central Trust Com- 
pany, of New York, Judge Edmund Waddill, Jr., of the United 
States District Court, at Richmond, Va., has issued a temporary 
order restraining the city authorities of Richmond and the 
Virginia Passenger & Power Company from putting intO' effect 
the universal transfer ordinance recently passed by the Council, 
and directing all the parties to appear before him on June 29 to 
'•how cause why a permanent injunction should not be issued. 
The trust company stated in. its petition that, "by reason of the 
transfer points between the lines of the various companies 
operated in the city of Richmond, and the operation of such 
lines thereat, the effect of the provision of the ordinance of 
May, 1908, would be to greatly reduce the receipts of the de- 
fendant Richmond companies, which receipts, under the present 
method of operation and transfer, have proved insufficient to 
pay fixed charges." 

Another Hitch in Chicago Elevated Loop Relief Plans. — 

At a meeting of the Council Committee on Local Transportation 
in Chicago, May 28, George Weston, consulting engineer for the 
committee, presented a preliminary report regarding conferences 
with representatives of the four elevated roads using the loop. 
The South Side Elevated Railroad objected strongly to through 
routing, on the ground that it would add yearly $27,000 to the 
cost of conducting transportation, due to extra car mileage, 
with no proportionate increase in revenue. The Metropolitan 
West Side Elevated Railway also objected to some details of 
the proposed method of through routing. The consensus of 
opinion of the representatives of the four roads was that Mr. 
Weston's plans would increase the present maximum capacity 
of the loop only 33 per cent instead of 43 per cent, as estimated 
in the report. The Council committee requested Mr. Weston 
to reopen the conferences and report a definite plan which the 
committee could approve and seek to have the companies put in 
force immediately. 

Terms of Agreement with Men at Pittsburg. — The Pitts- 
burg Railways Company has posted notices in its car houses 
outlining the regulations and wager schedules that will gov- 
ern motormen and conductors until April 20, 1909. The first 
two years the men are to be paid 24^2 cents an hour, the 
third year 25^2 cents an hour and after the third year 26 l / 2 
cents an hour. The hours of service are to be made as 
near as possible on the basis of 11 hours and a minimum 
of 8 hours, with 10 per cent leeway. The men are to be 
permitted to register for their day off, assignment to be 
made in accordance with priority of registration. There is 
to be no discrimination between union and non-union men, 
and appeals from the decision of the superintendent in 
cases of reprimand are to be heard by the president at 
10 a. m. the first and third Tuesday of each month. All 
men taken off their own run to work on one with not so 
many working hours are to be paid the time called for by 
their run. It is further provided that any employee elected 
to an executive position in the union shall upon his retire- 
ment from the office be reinstated by the company, his 
standing to be the same as when he retired from the com- 

Personal Mention 

Mr. John M. Campbell, of Kingston, Ont., has been ap- 
pointed president of the Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester 
Railway, with offices at Albion, N. Y. The purpose of this 
company is eventually to furnish a high-speed electric serv- 
ice between Buffalo and Rochester in addition to a local 

Mr. Thomas L. Hartigan, president of the Manila (P. I.) 
Electric Railroad & Light Company, has returned to the United 
States. He will spend the summer here and return to Manila 
next autumn. 

Mr. John Blair McAfee, of Philadelphia, has been elected 
president of the Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Company, of 
Norfolk, Va., to succeed Mr. L. Lancaster Williams, who, on ac- 
count of his position as receiver for the Seaboard Air Line 
Railway, was unable to serve. 

Mr. J. P. Tanner, chief accountant in the water-works 
department of the city of Cleveland, Ohio, has taken a posi- 
tion with the Municipal Traction Company. He will sys- 
tematize the work of the accounting department so far as 
the receipts from operation are concerned. It is anticipated 
that the pay-as-you-enter cars will be used altogether later 
and this will necessitate a somewhat different system. Mr. 
E. R. Price, cashier of the company, has resigned, and Mr. 
Tanner will take up this work also. Mr. Tanner was for- 
merly in the employ of Ernst & Ernst, public accountants. 

Mr. F. R. Price has resigned as cashier of the Municipal 

Traction Company, of Cleveland. A few weeks ago he had 
an attack of nervous prostration and was granted a vacation 
with the intention that he should continue in office on his 
return. He has concluded to take a long rest for the benefit 
of his health before going into any other work. Mr. Price 
entered the service of the Cleveland Electric Railway Com- 
pany 10 years ago and served as cashier under both Mr. 
Henry A. Everett and Mr. Horace A. Andrews while they 
were presidents of the company. Mr. J. P. Tanner will 
assume the duties of the office. 

Mr. Clarence F. Norment has been elected president of 
the Washington (D. C.) Railway & Electric Company to 
succeed Mr. Allan L. McDermott, who represented interests 
formerly in control of the property. Mr. McDermott was 
elected special counsel. Mr. Ward Thoron has been elected 
first vice-president, succeeding Mr. Norment in that capac- 
ity. Gen. George H. Harries was continued as second vice- 
president, a position he has held for a number of years. 
Mr. Thoron has been actively identified with the company 
since the beginning of the year and, like the other two 
officers mentioned, represents the change in the ownership 
of the stock which has been in progress of late years. 

Mr. Horace C. Andrews has been elected president of 
the Schenectady (N. Y.) Railway, to succeed Mr. F. A. Har- 
rington, resigned, who has been president of the company since 
the property was taken over by the New York Central Railroad 
and the Delaware & Hudson Railroad interests several years 
ago. Mr. Andrews was president of the Cleveland Electric 
Railway Company until that property was taken over recently 
by the Municipal Traction Company, and as a member of the 
Andrews-Vanderbilt syndicate has been devoting a large part 
of his time to the interests of the syndicate in New York State. 
As president of the Mohawk Valley Company, he is associated 
in the management of the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway, 
Rochester Railway, Oneida Railway, Syracuse Rapid Transit 
Company, Rochester & Sodus Bay Railroad, Canandaigua Gas 
Light Company, Ontario Light & Traction Company and other 
properties controlled by the Mohawk Valley Company. 


Prof. W. A. Anthony, professor emeritus of physics and 
electrical engineering in Cooper Institute, New York, died at his 
home in that city Friday, May 29, of heart disease at the age of 
73 years. Prof. Anthony was born in Coventry, R. I., Nov. 17, 
1835, and was graduated from Yale. He taught physics in 
Iowa Agricultural College and in Cornell for 18 years and then 
went into business for himself as a consulting engineer. In 
1895 he became professor of physics and electrical engineering 
at Cooper Union, and three months ago was retired from the 
faculty and made professor emeritus. Prof. Anthony was a 
member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, the 
Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, and the American Social 
Science Association. He was president of the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers in 1890-1 and always took a deep 
interest in the welfare of the organization. 

June 6, 1908.] ELECTRIC RAILWAY 

Electric Railway Patents 

[This department is conducted by Rosenbaum & Stock- 
bridge, patent attorneys, 140 Nassau Street, New York.] 

Rail Joint, 887,792; William H. Grosse, Green Bay, Wis. 
App. filed Oct. 5, 1907. The ends of the abutting rails each 
have an extension and a recess, the extension upon one rail 
being designed to be received within the recess of the oppo- 
sit rail and the end wall of one of the recesses being cut 
away and the extremity of the corresponding extension be- 
ing notched for engagement with a tool inserted within the 
said cut away portion. 

Passenger Car, 887,804; Joseph H. Herbst, Hyman Fass 
and Maurice Sjank, New York, N. Y. App. filed Dec. 24, 
1907. Adjacent entrance and exit doors are provided, the 
exit door actuating a device for locking the entrance door 
so as to separate passengers boarding and leaving the car. 

Rail Spike Supporter and Protector, 887,830; Jeremiah 
Murray, Utica, N. Y. App. filed July 18, 1906. Plate re- 
cessed at the end and adapted to the tie and to receive and 
engage the spike and flange of the rail at each side of the 
spike. Offset spike openings are provided in the extending 

Double-Necked Rail for Railways, 887,832; John A. Myers, 
Braddock, Pa. App. filed June 29, 1907. The rail has double 
necks spaced apart, a head and a recessed bottom plate, 
one neck being continuous with the bottom plate and head 
and the other extending from the head and adapted to the 
recess of the bottom plate to be compressed therein. 

Cast Iron Axle, 887,848; Elbert R. Robinson, Chicago, 111. 
App. filed Feb. 6, 1907. A cast axle with bearing portions 
chilled- and the intermediate portion annealed to prevent 

Trolley Wire Supporting Device for Bascule Bridges, 

887,868; Joseph B. Strauss, Chicago, 111. App. filed Jan. 28, 
1907. A flexible section kept taut by a weight. 

Electric Railway System, 887,932; Samuel C. Frey. York, 
Pa. App. filed Nov. 28, 1906. A car stop and signaling 
block system adapted for single track roads, having a signal 
system and train stop device whereby the signals are 

Car Fender, 887,939; Edward Hohn and Leopold Hohn, 
Millvale, Pa. App. filed Dec. 28, 1907. The fender has a 
base platform and a supplemental platform spring sup- 
ported thereon. 

Electrically Controlled Switch-operating Mechanism for 
Railways, 887,980; Karel W. G. J. Stoffels and Johannes J. 
H. W. Weenen. Amsterdam, Netherlands. App. filed Jan. 
23, 1907. A track switch with operating magnets selectively 
controlled by a pair of conductors supported adjacent to 
the wire. 

Railway Tie, 887,983; Joseph A. Swope. Hanford, Cal. 
App. filed July 15, 1907. A tie provided with a key-locking 
mechanism to receive the rails. 

Railway Tie and Rail-fastening Device, 888.030; James J. 
O'Donnell, Paducah, Ky. App. filed July 10, 1907. Details. 

Third-rail Electric Railway System, 888.099; Charles Ko- 
zesnik, New York, N. Y. App. filed Oct. 30, 1906. A hollow 
third-rail for electric railways. 

Fluid Pressure Brake, 888,207; Walter V. Turner, Edge- 
wood, Pa. App. filed Oct. 1, 1906. Means for charging 
fluid under pressure from a supplementary source into the 
brake cylinder when the train pipe pressure has been re- 

Trolley Pole, 888,223; George W. Chatmond, Louisville, 
Ky. App. filed Nov. 7, 1907. The pole is pivoted and ar- 
ranged so it can be held in any selected position. 

Railroad Tie, 888.227; Joseph B. Depriest, Manassa, Colo. 
App. filed July 8, 1907. Details. 

Guard Rail Clamp, 888,314; Warner B. Cooke, Jenkins- 
town, Pa. App. filed April 26, 1907. Improvement of guard 
rail clamps made of a single piece of wrought metal. 

Railroad Tie, 888,317; Sylvester H. Deihn, Altoona, Pa. 
App. filed June 28, 1907. Means for attaching the rails to a 
metallic channel-shaped tie. 

Sliding Current Collector, 888,382; H. Armstrong, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. App. filed Aug. 6, 1906. A trolley contact shoe 
consisting of a horizontally supported plate with hooked 
extremities. In order to avoid cutting deep grooves or ruts 
in the shoe, it is made with a plurality of longitudinally ad- 
justable adjacent bars which can be set to new positions 
from time to time. 


Construction News 


Monrovia, Cal. — II. Kirchenschlager has presented a peti- 
tion to the City Trustees asking that franchises for a double- 
track local street railway be advertised for sale. It is stipu- 
lated in the petition that the motive power be electricity, gas 
or gasoline motor ; that construction shall begin within 60 
days from the time the franchise is let, and track laid on 
J. I. C. Avenue from Chestnut Avenue north to city limits, 
within six months thereafter. The balance of the work is 
to be completed in four years. Franchises are desired on 
all the principal thoroughfares that are north of Chestnut 

Grand Junction, Colo. — It is reported that Morris K. 
Devereaux and Eugene S. Sunderlin will apply for a fran- 
chise to construct a street railway in Grand Junction. 

Sandpoint, Idaho.— F. M. Molyneaux, Al Filson, V. M. 
McBride and Earl Farwin, of Sandpoint, and V. M. Smith, 
of New York, have applied for a franchise to construct and 
operate a street railway system in Sandpoint. 

Springfield, 111. — The Springfield, Clear Lake & Rochester 
Interurban Railway has applied to the City Council for a 
franchise to operate cars from the eastern terminal to Sixth 
and Monroe Streets, thence around the loop on Washington 
and Fifth Streets. J. E. Melick is president. 

Windsor, 111. — The City Council has granted a franchise 
to the Mattoon, Shelbyville, Pana & Hillsboro Traction Com- 
pany to construct its line in Windsor. 

Pelham, Mass. — The Holyoke Street Railway has been 
granted a franchise for the extension of the Amherst & Sun- 
derland branch to the Orient Springs Grove. It is said 
that the company will build the extension at once. W. L. 
Loomis, president. 

United Railways, St. Louis, Mo. — This company has ap- 
plied to the County Court at Clayton, Mo., for a franchise 
to double-track the line to St. Charles. 

Asbury Park, N. J. — The Atlantic Coast Electric Railroad 
has made application for a franchise to construct a double- 
track line from Florence Avenue to the Monmouth Beach 
borough line in Long Branch. 

Portland, Ore. — The County Court has granted to the 
United Railways two franchises, one to construct a line along 
the Macadam Road and another to build a line on the St. 
Helens Road. On the latter line the work will be commenced 
within 60 days and be completed in a year. 

Irwin, Pa. — The City Council has granted the Irwin- 
Herminie Electric Railway a franchise for operating cars 
from the west borough line of Pennsylvania Avenue, over 
the tracks of the Pittsburg, McKeesport & Greensburg Rail- 
way and then in Main Street to the north borough line. 
The company is to pay the borough over $8,000 for the 
franchise, one-third in cash and the balance in regular pay- 
ments. The franchise is for 33 1/3 years, with two renewals. 
Work is to be started in 60 days and to be completed in one 

Westerly, R. I. — The Ashaway & Westerly Railway Com- 
pany has been granted a franchise to build an electric rail- 
way in Westerly. It is the intention of this company to 
construct a road from Ashaway to Westerly. Frank Hill 
is secretary and treasurer of the company. 

Walla Walla, Wash.— The Walla Walla Valley Traction 
Company, operating the street railway and the line to Milton, 
Ore., has applied to the County Commissioners for a franchise 
over the county roads from the south limits of the city to the 
north side of the Rensom Clark donation claim. 


Redlands Construction Company, Redlands, Cal. — Incor- 
porated in California, with capital stock of $500,000, to con- 
struct the Redlands & Yucaipa Railroad. Directors: J. M. 
Neeland, M. N. Newmark, A. P. Maginness, M. H. French, 
W. "D. Larrabee, Paul Hirsch, C. S. Chesnut, W. M. Campbell 
and O. M. Miller, of Los Angeles and Redlands. It was de- 
cided at the recent meeting of stockholders of the Redlands & 
Yacaipa Company to organize this company to have charge 
of the construction and also to increase the capital stock 
from $1,000,000 to $2,000,000. A meeting of stockholders 
has been called for July 23 to vote on the increase in stock. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. i. 

Gary-Hobart Electric Railway Company, Gary, Ind. — 

Incorporated in Indiana to construct street and interurban 
railroads in and connecting the towns of Gary, Liverpool, 
Hobart and intervening villages in Lake County. Capital stock 
$10,000. Directors : L. Clark Wood, Samuel A. Mulhauser 
and C. A. Teller, of Chicago. 

Gary & Southern Traction Company, Crown Point, Ind. — 

Incorporated in Indiana, with capital stock of $10,000, tO 1 con- 
struct an electric railroad in Crown Point and Gary and 
through Lake County. Directors: F. M. Clark and H. C. 
Wood, Chicago; H. W. Seaman, Clinton, la., and Warren 
Bicknell, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Indianapolis, Cloverdale & Terre Haute Traction Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, Ind. — Incorporated in Indiana to con- 
struct and operate an electric railway connecting Indianapolis, 
West Newton, Mooresville, Gasburg, Monrovia, Hall, Emi- 
nence, Cloverdale, Poland, Ashville, Brazil and Terre Haute. 
This company was originally incorporated under the Voluntary 
Association Act, but found it could not exercise the right of 
eminent domain. Directors : E. M. Bowman, H. F. Butze, 
Samuel T. Axtell, W. L. Cook and H. C. Sandresky. 

Charleston, Westfield, Marshall & Terre Haute Railway, 
Charleston, 111. — Incorporated in Illinois with a capital stock 
of $50,000 for the purpose of constructing an electric railway 
from Terre Haute, Ind., to Charleston, 111. Directors: W. B. 
Scholfield, Norman Bennett and Seymour Hurst, all of Mar- 
shall, 111.; James W. Dawson, M. L. Briscoe, W. L. Briggs, 
of Westfield, 111.; W. R. Patton, of Charleston. The officers 
are: W. R. Patton, president; J. W. Dawson, vice-president, 
and Seymour Hurst, secretary. 

Charleston & Casey Traction Company, Casey, 111. — 

Incorporated, with a capital stock of $2,500, to construct an 
electric railway from Charleston, 111., to Casey, 111. The 
principal office is at Casey. Among the incorporators are: 
H. R. Patton, Charleston, 111.; William Stull, Charleston, 
111., and S. S. Yanaway, of Casey, 111. 

Keokuk & Columbus Junction Transit Co., Keokuk, Iowa. 

— Incorporated with capital stock of $10,000 to construct and 
operate an electric railway to connect Keokuk, Charleston, 
New Boston, West Point, Lowell, New London, Winfield and 
Columbus Junction. It is estimated that the length of the 
road will be about 75 miles. Officers: J. E. Peterson, New 
London, president ; D. B. Hamill, Keokuk, vice-president ; T. A. 
Craig, Keokuk, secretary ; Ira W. Mills, Keokuk, treasurer. 

Excelsior Springs & Suburban Railway, Excelsior 
Springs, Mo. — Chartered with $50,000 capital stock to build 
a road from a junction of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railroad near Excelsior to a point in the central por- 
tion of Excelsior Springs, a distance of two miles. The 
stockholders are: Allen M. Bates, Hugh Wilhite and W. 
P. Southard, of Excelsior Springs; Henry J. Arnold, of 
Denver, Colo., and John E. Lundstrain, of Colorado 

Columbus, Marion, Upper Sandusky & Toledo Construc- 
tion Company, Upper Sandusky, Ohio. — Incorporated for 
the purpose of building an electric railway to connect the towns 
named in the title. Incorporators : Gen. J. Kent Hamilton, 
George A. Bassett, George P. Kirby, W. L. Rowland and 
W. S. Thurston, Jr., all of Toledo. 

Parkersburg Bridge Company. — Incorporated to build a 
bridge over the Ohio River between Parkersburg, W. Va., and 
Belpre, Ohio. After the bridge has been completed the com- 
pany intends to start preliminary work on the construction of a 
system of interurban railways which will connect Pittsburg, 
Pa., and Cincinnati, Ohio, the first section being from Pomeroy 
to Gallipolis, Collville and Columbus, by way of Logan and 
Lancaster, Ohio. Application has been made to the government 
to build the bridge, and work will be started as soon as per- 
mission is obtained. Capital stock, $400,000. Incorporators : 
J. LI. Brooks, J. G. Lee, S. C. Williams, C. Newell and James 
Newell, of East Liverpool, O. 

Springfield & Washington Railway, Springfield, Ohio. — 

Incorporated to build a line connecting Springfield, Washington 
C. H. and Chillicothe. Incorporators : George W. Baker, 
Hiram C. Baker, Charles Baughton, W. E. Roderick, Ulric 
Sloane and W. W. Keifer. Capital stock, $1,000,000. Mr. 
Baker recently purchased the property of the Washington 
Traction Company, which is in operation between Springfield 
and South Charleston, and the new company has been organ- 
ized to complete the line in accordance with the original plans. 

Guthrie & Interurban Railway, Guthrie, Okla. — Incor- 
porated in Oklahoma, with $100,000 capital stock, to build an 
electric interurban railway from Guthrie to a point on the 
Cimarron River, a distance of five miles. Incorporators: C. R. 

Renfro, F. E. Houghton, G. Crow and R. E. Overton, Guthrie, 
and E. C. Brown, St. Louis. 

Wasco County Electric & Power Company, Portland, 
Ore. — It is announced that this company has been organ- 
ized for the purpose of entering the Deschutes and John 
Day valleys with an electric railway that will be built south 
from Condon. Capital stock of the company is given at 
$3,000,000. It is said that an attempt will be made to place 
$15,000,000 in bonds in the East. Among the incorporators 
are: George S. Carpenter, of Fossil; Mark W. Gill, W. H. 
Grindstaff, Dr. H. I. Kenney, R. L. Donald, H. J. Martin, 
O. B. Flathaway, E. P. Schow, C. D. Charles and F. S. 
Munn, of Portland, and F. T. Hurlburt, of Condon. The 
plan of the new company is to build from Condon south- 
west to Antelope, Madras and Bend. Branches will be 
built to Howard and Dayville. It is expected to construct 
big water power plants that will generate electricity to 
operate the lines constructed. These will be built on the 
Deschutes and John Day rivers. 

Mount Holly & Gettysburg Street Railway, Carlisle, Pa. — 

Chartered, with a capital of $18,000, to build an electric 
railway from Mount Holly Park to the Hunter's Run sta- 
tion of the Hunter's Run & State Belt Railroad Company, 
a distance of three miles. The new line will really be an 
extension of the Carlisle & Mount Holly Electric Railway, 
which now terminates at Mount Holly Park, and there is 
a strong probability of the line being still further extended 
to Gettysburg via Bendersville, Arendtsville and Mummas- 
burg. The directors are: T. M. Nelson, Chambersburg, 
president; A. H. Nelson, W. M. Alexander, C. H. Mullin, 
Wm. McGowan, W. F. Pascoe and Frank A. Zimmermann. 

Alexander & Eastern Railway, Alexander, W. Va. — 

Chartered to build a line from Alexander, W. Va., to El- 
kins, W. Va., 25 miles or 30 miles. The incorporators are: 
John B. Hart and Charles M. Hart, of Clarksburg. The 
authorized capital stock is $100,000. 


Vancouver Island & Eastern Railway, Vancouver, B. C— 

This company is reported to have applied for a charter. 
It was organized last year to build an electric railway from 
Esquimault Harbor, Vancouver Island, north to Seymour's 
Narrows, and from Bute Inlet or Frederick Inlet, on the 
mainland of British Columbia, east via Yellow Head Pass 
to Edmonton. The provisional directors include T. W. 
Paterson, T. J. Jones, R. C. Lowe and H. A. Munn, of 
Victoria, B. C. ; James Smith, of Edmonton, Alta., and M. 
J. Harvey, of Toronto, Ont. 

Redlands Central Railway, Redlands, Cal. — The company 

will award contracts soon for the following material for V/2 
miles of single track : 60 lb. A. S. C. E. T-rail ; 35-ft. poles ; 
4 ft. 8 l A in. and 8-ft. split redwood ties, and No. 0000 trolley 
wire. John H. Fisher, general manager. 

Tampa-Sulphur Springs Traction Company, Tampa, Fla. — 

This company is planning to build a 54-mile extension to its 
system in Ybor City. Contracts for overhead material are to 
be awarded during the next three weeks. The company is 
planning to erect a pier, 27 ft. x 26 ft., for its new bridge, 
which will cross the river to West Tampa. L. Brill is general 

Charleston & Summerville Electric Railway, Charleston, 
111. — This company has applied to the City Council for an 
extension of time for fulfilling the terms of the franchise. 
This road is reported to be under construction and when com- 
pleted will connect Charleston and Summerville. F. S. Wright, 

Mattoon-Shelbyville-Pana & Hillsboro Traction Com- 
pany, Mattoon, 111. — It is said that practically all the neces- 
sary franchises have been secured for this line. Of the 66 
miles proposed, right of way has been secured for about 12 
miles. This company contemplates the building of an electric 
railway to connect Mattoon, Charleston, Shelbyville, Pana and 
Hillsboro. W. R. Patton, of Charleston, is president. 

Quincy Horse Railway & Carrying Company, Quincy, 111. 

— It is announced that this company has made a contract 
with the Pennsylvania Steel Company for special steel rails, 
costing $4,000, to complete a downtown loop. 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, Streator, 111. — It is 

reported that this company has sold a block of bonds and that 
construction work is to be started shortly on the line between 
Streator and Ottawa, 111. Among the directors are : H. E. 
Chubbuck, Ottawa, 111., and George Mattis, Champaign, 111. 

June 6, 1908.] 



Mississippi Valley Interurban Railway, Springfield, 111. — 

It is reported that this company, of which John E. Meliek, 
of Springfield, 111., is president, is preparing to extend its 
lines in Bond, Christian, Montgomery and Sagamon coun- 
ties. It is expected to extend the road to Vandalia, Green- 
ville and Donnellson, and on another section to Bunker 
Hill, Jerseyville, Brussels, Hamburg, Hardin and Belleview. 
B. F. Bond is superintendent of construction, with head- 
quarters at Hillsboro. 

Taylorville (111.) Railway, Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany. — W. B. Adams writes that construction is soon to 
start on this road. It will be a local line, about four miles in 
length. Mr. Adams states that the road has been financed, but 
the contract to build the line has not yet been awarded. The 
power station will be located at Taylorville and current will be 
sold for commercial purposes. Overhead trolley will be used. 
The company expects to operate an amusement park, about one 
mile from the city. Capital stock, $150,000. Officers: James 
Forester, Taylorville, president; Henry Cheney, Taylorville, 
vice-president ; James A. Adams, secretary, and W. B. Adams, 
general manager. 

Indianapolis & South Bend Traction Company, Logans- 
port, Ind. — John EE Kellar, president and general manager, 
writes that the surveys for this road are well under way, and it 
is expected to begin grading immediately after the survey is 
completed. The company is directing the work from its Logans- 
port office and will begin construction from that point. 

Vincennes & Washington Transit Company, Monroe City, 

Ind. — This company has been organized for the purpose of 
building an electric railway from Vincennes, Ind., east through 
Monroe City to Washington, Ind., thence northeast through 
Davies, Greene, Martin and Monroe Counties, to Bloomington ; 
also from a point on this line near Monroe City northeast 
through Sullivan and Greene Counties to Linton, thence east 
through Greene and Monroe Counties to Bloomington. General 
offices of the road will be at Monroe City, Knox County. 
Ind. Capital stock, $60,000. Directors: J. J. Burns, C. F. 
Burns and J. Frank Munroe, Chicago; M. A. Peoples, 
Willis W. Claycomb and Charles S. Nausett, Monroe City ; 
P. M. Davidson, Troy, 111. This road is being built under 
direction of Burns & Company, Chicago. The interurban line 
between Vincennes and Washington, 21 miles, will be con- 
structed first, and work is now under way between Monroe 
City and Wheatland, 4 miles. On this part of the road surveys 
are completed, right of way obtained and about one mile graded. 
Burns & Company will purchase all supplies and materials and 
award all contracts. 

Terre Haute & Merom Traction Company, Terre Haute. 
Ind. — It is stated that the contract for the building of this 
line through Gardentown was recently awarded to Donn 
Roberts, of Terre Haute. L. Brown, president. -_ 

Sioux City, Iowa. — It is stated that F. W. Bisbee, of Cas- 
tana, Iowa, is interested in a plan to build an electric railway 
from Sioux City to Council Bluffs and Omaha and that the 
promoters are prepared to make the preliminary survey. 

Union Traction Company, Independence, Kan. — This 
company has just been voted $20,000 in bonds by Arkansas City 
as aid toward the construction of an electric interurban railway 
between Arkansas City and Winfield. It is said that a vote 
will be taken soon on aid to an equal amount in Winfield. 
D. H. Siggins, of Coffeyville, is president. 

Joplin & Pittsburg Railway, Pittsburg, Kan. — The con- 
tract for the construction of this road has been awarded to 
Smethurst & Allen, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wichita (Kan.) Railroad & Light Company. — It is stated 
that this company contemplates constructing two miles of 
double track. S. L. Nelson, of Peoria, 111., is general manager. 

Lexington (Ky.) Railway. — This company is authorized 
by a city ordinance just approved to extend its lines on East 
Main Street and on East High Street, starting from Clay 
Avenue and running to Hanover Avenue. 'Louis DesCognets is 
vice-president, Lexington, Ky. 

Washington, Frederick & Gettysburg Railway, Frederick, 

Md. — A. C. McBride, general manager, writes that the con- 
tract for extending the railway from Lewiston to the Monocacy 
Valley Railroad has been awarded to J. E. McDonough, of 
Frederick, Md. 

Youghiogheny Light & Power Company, Oakland, Md. — 

It is understood that this company will build a standard- 
gage electric railway to Swallow Falls with branches to 
Uniontown, Pa., and Kingwood, and another branch to 
connect with the railroad of the Jennings Lumber & Coal 
Company. A. C. Sturgis, president; Truman West, vice- 

president; P. A. Chisholm, second vice-president; James D. 
Hamill, treasurer; Bowie Johnson, secretary, and H. P. 
Tasker, general manager. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway — This company has 
asked the Railroad Commission to approve its proposed track 
location in Washington Street, Forest Hills, in connection with 
the elevated terminal station to be built near the Arborway. 
The company desires to build a surface loop track to facilitate 
handling traffic between Hyde Park, West Roxbury, Roslindale 
and other suburbs and the street platforms beneath the elevated 
station. No opposition developed at a hearing on May 27. The 
company has also asked an extension of time for forfeiting or 
constructing trackage in Salem Street, Maiden, in connection 
with the proposed Spot Pond line, and for approval of a con- 
nection between the Boston Elevated and Boston & Northern 
Street Railway tracks in Salem Street, Maiden. The plan is for 
a joint use of tracks in Salem Street, to allow the Elevated 
road to run a new line into Boston via Maiden Square. 

Compania Ferrocarriles Electricos, Chihuahua, Mex. — 

Martin Talonier, managing director, states that actual con- 
struction work on the electric railroad lines through the prin- 
cipal streets of Chihuahua will commence shortly. He expects 
to have the lines ready for opening by Sept. 16. 

St. Paul, Minneapolis & Seattle Electric Railroad, St. Paul, 
Minn. — This company is reported to have entered into a 
contract with A. A. Carlstrom, of Seattle, for the first 10 
miles of grading for its line. J. W. Mossop is vice-presi- 
dent and general manager. 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Railway, Lincoln, Neb. — E. C. 

Hurd, secretary, writes that this company will place contracts 
during the next few weeks for the construction of miles of 
new track, with curves, turn-outs and overhead work. 

Albuquerque, N. Mex. — It is reported that D. K. B. Sellers 
is interested in a project to build an electric railway on the 

Binghamton (N. Y.) Railway. — It is reported that the 
Binghamton Railway will be extended to Owego and Waverly. 

Yarmouth (N. S.) Street Railway. — It is announced that 
this company will place contracts during the next four weeks 
for the construction of an extension. About a mile of new 
track is to be added. B. G. Burrill is president. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — A new traction railway to connect 
Cincinnati with Fort Wayne is being planned by capitalists 
of Dayton, Ohio. The old Gamble road, extending from 
Brighton to Cheviot, will be used as a means of entering 
Cincinnati. Dr. T. H. George, of Dayton, Ohio, is the 

Ohio Electric Railway, Cincinnati, Ohio. — This company 
has been granted an extension of one year's time in which to 
begin the work of electrifying the Columbus & Lake Michigan 
Railroad by the City Council of Defiance, Ohio. 

Ardmore, Okla. — J. D. Conolly, of Titusville, Pa., and E. 
A. Rea, of Corydon, Iowa, are reported to contemplate the 
construction of a street railway in Ardmore. 

Dunnville, Ont. — The rate-payers have approved a by-law 
authorizing the purchase of $30,000 Dunnville, Wellandport & 
Beamsville Electric Railway bonds to assist in construction of 
the road. 

Port Arthur (Ont.) Electric Railway. — The Electric Rail- 
way Commissioners have been authorized to proceed with the 
double-tracking of the electric railway between Current River 
Park and the southern boundary of the city. This road is 
owned and operated by the city. 

Toronto Railway, Toronto, Ont. — The City of West To- 
ronto has applied to the Ontario Railway & Municipal Board 
for an order directing the Toronto Railway to construct new 
tracks and substructures on Dundas Street between the eastern 
limits of the municipality and Keele Street, on the "Y" at the 
corner of these streets, and on Keele Street, North. 

Astoria, Ore. — Preliminary steps have been taken toward 
the organization of the Astoria Seaside & Tillamook Railroad, 
capital stock $2,000,000, which proposes to build an electric rail- 
way from Astoria to Seaside and thence to Tillamook. The 
company is being organized by F. L. Evans. 

Huntingdon, Pa. — It is reported that F. M. Bollinger and 
M. A. Miller will organize a company for the purpose of pro- 
moting the construction of a street railway system in Hunting- 
don and along Stone Creek for a distance of 2Y2 miles, to a 
point where it is the intention to build an amusement park. It 



[Vol. XXXII. No. t. 

is said that application will be made for a charter on June n 
under the name of the Brookside Electric Railway. 

Manor Valley Electric Railway, Manor, Pa. — This com- 
pany has applied for a charter. It is proposed to build an 
electric railway from Manor to Export, seven miles. It is 
said that the surveys are made and the right of way and 
capital for building the line are partly secured. H. A. 
Lauffer is president. 

Stroudsburg & Water Gap Street Railway, Stroudsburg, 

Pa. — This company has been granted the privilege of ex- 
tending its Mountain View line to the Casino, in the center of 
the Delaware Water Gap. It is said that part of the line, from 
the Glenwood House to the Cherry Valley Inn, will be com- 
pleted soon. A. A. Holbrook, general manager. 

Sunbury & Northumberland Electric Railway, Sunbury, 

Pa. — R. West, general manager, informs the Electric Rail- 
way Journal that the Sunbury & Northumberland Electric 
Railway Company is in the market for 6000 ft. standard 
track and overhead material; also for a 60-ft. Ferris wheel. 

Hull (Que.) Electric Railway.— The City Council of Hull 
has received the reply from the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
which owns the Hull Electric Railway, to the proposition for 
double-tracking the railway and the construction of a belt line 
around the city. All the city stipulations were agreed to, save 
the one which required the payment by the company of $7,500 
to assist in lowering street drains. 

Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I. — It is stated 
that this company will begin soon construction work on the 
Promenade Street line to Olneyville. The company will 
strengthen the two highway bridges on Valley Street. A. E. 
Potter is general manager. 

Knoxville, Sevierville & Eastern Railway, Knoxville, 
Tenn. — It is reported that construction on the first section 
of this line will begin before June 14, the bonds voted by 
Sevier County to the amount of $150,000 having been declared 
valid. W. J. Oliver & Company will build the line, which is 
designed to reach ultimately into North Carolina. 

San Angelo (Tex.) Power & Traction Company. — It is re- 
ported that construction work has been begun on this line. The 
first mile of track is to be completed by Sept. 7. The company 
is also reported to be negotiating for rails and other material. 
Directors: J. H. Ransom, W. D. Fuller, T. M. Vaughan, 
E. E. Bailey and John W. Harris. The managing offi- 
cers are: E. E. Bailey, president and general manager; J. H. 
Ransom, vice-president and assistant general manager ; W. D. 
Fuller, general superintendent; T. M. Vaughan, secretary; John 
W. Harris, treasurer; J. Curtys Simmons, general attorney. 

Seattle, Wash. — An extension of time until May 18, 1909, 
has been granted to Edwin S. Gill and John McQuade for 
beginning of construction on an electric railway from 
Seattle to Everett, under the terms of a franchise granted 
by the commissioners on May 17, 1906. 

Wheeling (W. Va.) Traction Company. — It is reported 
that this company contemplates extending its line at Mounds- 
ville this summer. G. O. Nagle is superintendent. Up to the 
present time nothing definite has been decided. 


People's Traction Company, Galesburg, 111. — We are in- 
formed that this company has leased ground for a baseball 
park and erected a grand stand and bleachers. The park 
is situated on the company's line southwest of the city 

Dartmouth & Westport Street Railway, New Bedford, 
Mass. — This company has purchased a tract of land one- 
half mile from Lincoln Park and containing 140 acres. It 
is reported that the company will equip and operate an 
amusement park. 

Palisades Amusement Park. — This park, overlooking the 
Hudson River and Manhattan Island, will be operated by 
the Amusement Securities Company during the summer 
season of 1908. Among the attractions will be the Rustic 
Theater. A broad walk on the edge of the Palisades will 
be one of the features. Bands will play popular and classic 
music in the afternoons and evenings, while free open-air 
vaudeville and specialty acts will be presented. Electric 
lights will be used on the river front and throughout the 
park, and it is expected that a large electric sign will be 
erected just above the Palisades. Subway and surface cars 

will carry people from Manhattan, the Bronx and Brook- 
lyn to the West 130th Street ferries, which cross the river 
to a point near the park gates. This walk will be illumi- 
nated at night. There are five ferries. The electric railway 
which carries passengers to the park entrance may be used 
by those who prefer to ride up the hill. Communications in 
regard to concessions, privileges, construction work, etc., 
should be addressed to A. H. Dexter, general manager, 
Amusement Securities Company, 1402 Broadway, New York. 

Yarmouth (N. S.) Street Railway, Yarmouth, N. S. — This 

company, it is announced, has recently purchased a site for 
a park, but the park will not be equipped until next year. 


United Railroads of San Francisco. — .This company has 
recently purchased the following apparatus for its North 
Beach power station: One 5000-kw Curtis turbo-generator, 
with necessary exciter set, transformers and switchboard; 
3000 hp in boilers consisting of 6 units to be operated in 
batteries of two boilers each, with auxiliaries, consisting of 
condensers, vacuum, oil and centrifugal pumps, accumu- 
lator, etc. The company has also purchased one 4000-kw 
frequency changer. Charles N. Black, general manager. 

De Kalb-Sycamore-Interurban Traction Company, De 
Kalb, 111. — D. Thomson, general manager, writes that this 
company is installing two 400-hp Wickes boilers with 
Murphy automatic stokers. In addition the company is also 
.nstalling the Green Fuel Economizer Company's system of 
exhaust draft and has contracted with the Economical En- 
gineering & Construction Company, of Chicago, for vacuum 
ash and coal handling machinery. 

Yarmouth (N. S.) Street Railway. — B. G. Burill writes 
that this company intends to purchase a 300-kw generator, 
turbines and hydraulic equipments. The specifications for 
this apparatus have not yet been prepared. The company 
has recently purchased a 150-hp Robb Armstrong engine 
and a 100-kw Canadian General Electric alternator. 


Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Railway, Lincoln, Neb. — 

This company is planning to erect a car house and repair 
shop, 33 ft. x 76 ft. 

Third Avenue Railroad, New York. — The company has 
filed plans with the Building Department for razing the 
three towers and central mansard of the old car house at 
Third Avenue and Sixty-fifth Street. 

Yarmouth (N. S.) Street Railway. — This company plans 
to build an addition to its car house. 

Toledo Urban & Interurban Railway Company, Toledo, 
Ohio. — We are advised by Manager Chas. F. Smith that the 
Toledo Urban & Interurban Railway Company expects to 
place contracts during the next two months for the erection 
of a brick waiting station near Toledo. 


Accidents, Their Causes and Remedies, by Thomas D. West. 
The Competent Life Book Agency, Sharpsville, Pa.; 95 
pages; illustrated; paper. Price, 25 cents. 
Mr. West is president of the American Anti-Accident As- 
sociation and his pamphlet is devoted to advocating the 
adoption of provisions in various lines of work to reduce 
accidents, many of which he believes can be avoided by 
care. The book contains many practical suggestions. 

Trolley Wayfinder. Edition for 1908. Boston: New Eng- 
land Street Railway Club; 104 pages. Price, $0.10. 

Since the first edition of this publication appeared several 
years ago it has continued to advance in favor until now it 
has become somewhat of a handbook for residents and trav- 
elers in New England. 

The book is the official publication of the New England 
Street Railway Club, and all the companies in the New 
England States assist in preparation of the material pub- 

The book is as accurate as it is possible to make a pub- 
lication of this character, for railroad schedules are subject 
to frequent revision. The names of cities and towns reached 
by the- electric railways are arranged alphabetically, and the 
distance, fare and time between points are given. Many 
maps of different systems are presented. 

June 6, 1908.] 



Manufactures and Supplies 


Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railroad, Chicago, is in the 

market for 25 sets of double trucks. 

Seattle Electric Company, Seattle, Wash., expects to pur- 
chase 20 cars in the near future. 

Yarmouth Street Railway, Yarmouth, N. S., intends to 
purchase several open cars. B. G. Burrill, president. 

Norfolk City & Suburban Railway, Norfolk, Va., expects 
to purchase soon one two-motor car equipment. 

Marshall F. Tennis, Pittsburg, Pa., is reported to be ask- 
ing prices on five double-truck cars for electric railway 

Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice Railway, Lincoln, Neb., is in 

the market for two 32-ft. motor box cars. E. C. Hurd, sec 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric Railway, 
Baltimore, Md., is reported to be in the market for 10 or 12 
double-truck cars. 

Los Angeles-Pacific Company, Los Angeles, Cal., is re- 
ported to be planning to add to its equipment several oil- 
tank cars. R. P. Sherman is general superintendent. 

Union Traction Company, Sistersville., W. Va., is in the 

market for two second-hand summer cars. This company 
is the successor to the Wetzel & Tyler Railway. E. L. 
Robinson, of New Martinsville, is general manager. 

Rahway Valley Railroad, Kenilworth, N. J., has requested 
the Strang Gas-Electric Car Company to prepare specifica- 
tions for the building of two cars. The Strang new all-steel 
railway motor car Irene was operated over the Rahway 
Valley Railroad on May 9 and 10 in place of the steam trains 
of that road, covering all of the schedule on both days and 
three extra round trips on one day. The patronage during 
the run with the gasoline car was in excess of the regular 
passenger traffic. 


National Railway Materials Company, New York, has 

elected Richard C. Hall secretary of the company. 

Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis., has opened an 
office in the First National Bank Building, Birmingham, 
Ala., in charge of Seldon Jones as district manager. 

W. R. Brixey has removed from 203 Broadway to the 
Hudson Terminal Buildings, 30 Church Street, New York. 
The Watson Insulated Wire Company, Railway Exchange, 
Chicago, is acting as Western representative of Mr. Brixey. 

The Glacier Metal Company is erecting at Manchester, 
Va., a number of molding furnaces and will require a num- 
ber of furnaces for the manufacture of babbitt metal, brass, 
etc. The company expects to employ pots containing from 
1000 lb. to 2000 lb. each. 

Zelnicker Crayon Works, St. Louis, Mo., is offering a new 
crayon, 5 in. long and Y% in. in diameter, made in four colors 
— blue, red, yellow and black. The crayon is waterproof 
and is suitable for general uses, including marking on 
leather, paper, glass, china, tin, castings, boxes, sacks, etc. 
The company has adopted for the crayon the title "Shure- 

Borne-Scrymser Company, New York, after much theo- 
retical and practical demonstration, is prepared to furnish 
an oil especially adapted for the lubrication of high-duty 
gas engine cylinders. The oil is known as "W" gas cylin- 
der oil, gives excellent lubrication with low consumption 
and is very low in the percentage of taint contamination, 
i. e., fixed carbon as directly due to the oil itself or other 
than the mixture of the gases. This oil is in general use in 
some of the largest gas-engine units in operation and is 
giving satisfaction. 

Paul B. Patten Company, Salem, Mass., reports that after 
trial orders had been given by a number of roads in the 
United States and Canada which had never used the Patten 
ticket destroyer, its value had been recognized and repeat 
orders have been received. From time to time improve- 
ments of the machine have been made. Roads which follow 
the custom of burning their tickets and transfers before 

they are ground and destroyed take chances in having them 
duplicated or used again. Neither of these contingencies 
can occur if tickets and transfers are run through a Patten 
destroyer. Its utility to railroads is therefore obvious. 

Charles N. Wood Electric Company, Boston, announces 
that John F. Stout, for more than 15 years with Wm. Hall 
& Company, of Boston, has joined the sales force of the 
Wood Company. Mr. Hall made many friends during his 
connection with the supply business and his acquaintance 
should assure his success with the Wood Company. 

Bird-Archer Company, New York, announces that Col. Nat 
T. Lane has severed connection with the Geo. W. Lord 
Company, Philadelphia, and joined the sales organization of 
the Bird-Archer Company. The Bird-Archer Company, 
manufacturing chemist, is well known to steam engineers 
through its boiler compound. Colonel Lane has recently 
returned from an extended trip to Cuba, Central America 
and Mexico in the interest of the company. Agencies have 
been established in the principal cities visited in those coun- 
tries in charge of active representatives. Colonel Lane was 
formerly connected with electric railroad work, and his 
wide acquaintance should be valuable to the company with 
which he is now associated. 

Thomas F. Carey, Boston, announces that he has removed 
to 141 Milk Street, Boston, and that his business will here- 
after be known as Thomas F. Carey Company. The com- 
pany will have traveling representatives in New York, Phila- 
delphia, Cleveland, Chicago and on the Pacific Coast and in 
Southern States. The company plans to handle a complete 
line of railroad equipment and supplies for street and in- 
terurban railways and steam and electrical machinery for 
railway and power service. The company has for sale now 
40 new Brill semi-convertible easy access cars fully equipped 
with 4 GE-90 railway motors, 150-10-9-8 bench open cars. 
50 20-ft. closed cars fully equipped if desired and a number 
of combination and express cars. The Carey Company will 
furnish details regarding the equipment it has for sale and 
it will purchase, sell on commission basis or exchange 
equipment and machinery. 


Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio. — The bulletin of 
this company for May contains a number of readable little 
jokes under the head "Clippings." For serious thought a 
description of the Tomlinson automatic radial car coupler 
is presented. The bulletin is illustrated with half-tones and 
line cuts. 

American Carbon & Battery Company, East St. Louis, 111. 

— "Brush History" and "Do You Know?" are the titles of 
folders just issued which deal with carbon brushes. In 
"Brush History" the development of the American brush 
is briefly reviewed, while in "Do You Know?" there are 
some pertinent reasons for using American brushes. 

Crocker- Wheeler Company, Ampere, N. J. — Under date of 
May the company has issued Bulletins Nos. 102. 103 and 104. 
No. 102 has for its subject A C Switchboard Panels, Type 
12, for 1 150-2300 volts. No. 103 is entitled "The Sanitary 
District of Chicago's Hydro-electric Development on the 
Chicago Drainage Canal." Bulletin No. 104, which has for 
its subject "Direct Current Railway Generators," describes 
the details of the machines and is illustrated with half-tones 
of parts of machines and of generators in power-station 
service. Among the plants shown are the New Haven sta- 
tion of the Connecticut Company, Hampton station of the 
Hampton Roads Traction Company, Kennett Square sta- 
tion of the West Chester. Kennett Square & Wilmington 
Railway. West Somerville station of the Boston Elevated 
Railway. The booklet concludes with a list of dimensions 
of railway generators for different capacities. 

Electrical Testing Laboratories, New York, N. Y. — A 

paper on the work of the laboratories prepared by Wilson 
S. Howell and read at the annual meeting of the Asso- 
ciation of Edison Illuminating Companies at Hot Springs, 
Va., Sept. 10, 11, 12, 1907, has been reprinted for distribution 
by the Electrical Testing Laboratories. As an introductory 
the reason for establishing the association is stated briefly. 
The work of the laboratories is divided into two general 
classes, viz., Edison association contract work and general 
testing, part of which is done at the laboratory and part out- 
side. The Electrical Testing Laboratories act for clients all 
over the country, among them being the Washington Water 
Power Company, Niagara Falls Power Company, Georgia 
Railway & Electric Company, Standard Varnish Works 
and many other large public service and industrial com- 
panies. Equipment is rented in cases where clients wish 
to conduct tests and experiments in private. 


Notice. — These statistics will be carefully revised from month to month, upon information received from the companies direct, or from official sources. The table 
should be used in connection with our Financial Supplement, "American Street Railway Investments," which contains the annual operating reports to the ends of the 
various financial years. Similar statistics in regard to roads not reportinu are solicited by the editors. * Including taxes, t Deficit, J Including Rapid Railway system, Sand- 
wich, Windsor & Amhertburg Railway, and Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Railway. 


Northern OhioTr. 
Light Co. 

WASH. Whatcom 
Co. Ry. & Lt. Co. 

Illinois Traction Co. 

Charleston Con.Ry., 
Gas & Elec. Co. 

Aurora.Elgin & Chi= 
cago Ry. Co. 

Cleveland, Paines= 
ville & Eastern R.R 

Lake Shore Elec. Ry 

Columbus Elec. Co. 

Dallas Elec. Corp'n. 

t Detroit United Ry. 

Duluth St. Ry. Co. 

East St. Louis & 
Suburban Co. 

El Paso Cos. 

Ft. Wayne & Wa- 
bash Valley Tr. Co. 

Northern Texas Tr. 

Elec. Co. 

Houghton a County 
St. Ry.Co. 

FLA. Jacksonville 
Elec. Co. 




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Kansas City Ry. & 
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Knoxville Rv. & Lt. 

Lexington & Inter- 
urban Rys. Co. 

Little Rock Ry. & 
Elec. Co. 

Milwaukee Elec. Rv 
& Lt. Co. 

Milwaukee Lt., Ht. & 
Tr. Co. 

MINN. Twin City 
R.T. Co. 

Montreal St. Ry. 

Norfolk & Ports, 
mouth Tr. Co. 

Pensacola Elec. Co. 


American Rys. Co. 

Brockton & Plym= 
outh St. Ry. Co. 

United Railways Co. 
of St. Louis. 

Savannah Electric 

Seattle Elec. Co. 

Puget Sound Elec. 
Ry. Co. 

Tampa Elec. Co. 

Toledo Rys. & Ltl 


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Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 



No. 2 

Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, President J. M. Wakeman, ist Vice-president. 

A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-president. C. E. Whittlesey, Sec. and Treas. 

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Frederic Nicholas, Associate Editor. 

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Code Used. 

Copyright, 1908, by the McGraw Publishing Co. 


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DATE ON WRAPPER shows the month at the end of which the 
subscription expires. The sending of remittances for renewal prior to 
that date will be much appreciated by the publishers. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9500 
copies are printed. 

The Convention Daily 

The Electric Railway Journal takes pleasure in an- 
nouncing that it will issue four dailies at the next conven- 
tion of the American Street & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion. They will be published on Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday and Friday of the convention week and will con- 
tain all the news of the convention and other features which 
have proved so successful in the dailies issued in previous 
years by the Electric Railway Review. The plan of 

publishing a "Convention Number" prior to the convention, 
followed by the Street Railway Journal for many years, 
will also be continued this year, so that the consolidation 
of the Street Railway Journal and the Electric Rail- 
way Review will result in the continuance of the conven- 
tion features of bdth> pape{=k. 


The Motor Bus Craze 

For the past two or three years the London electric 
transportation enterprises, particularly the underground 
railway companies, have suffered severely from motor- 
bus competition. Present indications point to the prac- 
tical cessation of danger from this competition on account 
of the high rate of depreciation on motor-buses, the ex- 
istence of which will be appreciated by owners of automo- 
biles. Although the prospectuses of many of the motor-bus 
companies nominally provided for considerable deprecia- 
tion in their accounts, the results indicate that the allowance 
was not sufficient and it is now said that most if not all of 
the companies are losing money. Although the laws in 
England regulating franchises are very liberal to bus com- 
panies, and quite the opposite to railways of all kinds, this 
advantage does not seem to have overcome the physical 
handicaps. Motor-buses have their places, and in New York, 
where a 10-cent fare is charged and the cars run over 
asphalt pavements, there may be a profit, but as a direct 
competitor to a good car service on rails there is nothing 
in auto-buses. 

Branch Line Rates in Massachusetts 

In the investigation of the Massachusetts Board of Rail- 
road Commissioners into the fares of the Natick & 
Cochituate Street Railway, the question has arisen of the 
right of a company to make an unprofitable branch line 
charge a higher rate of fare than a more profitable main 
line. The petitioners in the suit against the company as- 
serted that 2,000,000 passengers on the main line through 
Wellesley and Natick were paying an extra cent each per 
annum to support the service on the unprofitable Needham 
branch, and argued that a higher rate of fare would be 
justified on the branch on the principle of the greatest good 
to the greatest number. In opposing this view representa- 
tives of the company declared that it was not feasible to 
determine the capitalization of a branch line with reason- 
able accuracy, because of the existence of a large amount 
of fixed property of the company which is in general use 
over the entire system. It is impossible to determine with 
accuracy the exact operating expenses on a branch line. 
The riding public prefers a uniform rate in street railway 
service, and if the branch lines of an established system 
should have to bear their own burdens the extension of 
systems and decentralization of population, which are 
essential to public welfare, would be seriously retarded. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

The New York Situation 

The announcement last week that the operation of the 
Fulton Street line in New York would be abandoned and 
the report that two other subsidiary companies would be 
segregated from the Metropolitan system, give an intima- 
tion of a possible solution of the New York City prob- 
lem. If the operating conditions were different, other reme- 
dies might be possible, but under existing conditions of 
transfers and motive power none other seems available. 
As the receiver of one of the lines has sagely remarked : 
"There is no profit in carrying people for nothing." The 
Fulton Street line was a horse-car line and presumably the 
other lines which will first be separated from the main 
stem will also be divisions using animal power, because 
such roads, under the conditions existing in New York, 
cannot be made profitable. 

In reviewing the obstacles to an improvement of the 
New York situation two points stand out with especial 
prominence. One involves motive power, the other the 
issue of transfers. New York was the last of the large 
cities to maintain a large number of independent companies, 
as it was also the last to retain horse-power on many of 
its important lines. The origin of the two questions which 
are now before the company for solution date from the time 
when these companies were brought together to form the 
Metropolitan system. This was 16 years ago, when the 
large holding companies in other cities were being formed 
and when the possibilities of improved motive power in 
street railway operation were becoming apparent. If 
animal power was retained few economies could be made. 
But if more powerful means for car propulsion were avail- 
able it was believed that the history of the transportation 
system in New York should be the same as that indicated 
to be possible elsewhere, with the added advantage of the 
greater field which only a metropolitan city could afford. 
The story of the attempts to secure a satisfactory power is 
well known. Other cities introduced the trolley, but it 
was forbidden in New York ; not by law, but through local 
sentiment, which prevented the local authorities from giving 
the necessary permission. Broadway, and later Columbus 
and Lexington Avenues, were cabled at great expense, only 
to have their apparatus scrapped after a few years' use. A 
refuge was finally found for the lines of greatest traffic in 
the underground conduit system, which proved enormously 
expensive in both construction and operation. Many at- 
tempts were made to secure an independent motive power 
for the cross-town lines, but without success. Even on the 
conduit lines the speed expected was not obtained, on ac- 
count of the congestion on the streets. On many lines the 
cars run but slightly, if at all, faster than the horse cars, 
yet a difference of 1 m. p. h. in speed in New York corre- 
sponds to half a million dollars annually in operating ex- 

The second and perhaps the most serious of all the ob- 
stacles with which the company has had to contend lay in 
the transfer requirements of the State law, the actual ex- 
tent of which have become apparent only through rulings of 
the courts during the last 10 years. Cases upon cases 
coming under this enactment have been carried by the com- 
pany to the highest tribunals, only to meet defeat, since 
each decision up to within, the last few months, has ex- 

tended the length of ride allowed on the transfer. This 
has cut down the average fare paid per passenger until it is 
barely over 3 cents, while there has been an actual decrease 
in the gross receipts during the past five years. The future 
of the company is still to be determined, but this much is 
certain, no satisfactory system of urban transportation in 
New York can be established until conditions of operation 
liave greatly changed from those at present in effect. 

Water Powers 

At the conference of governors in the White House last 
month, especial attention was directed to the rapid decrease 
in the supply of fuel. It is estimated that even at only the 
present rate of consumption the amount of anthracite coal 
in this country will be exhausted during the life time of 
some of those now living, while the quantity of bituminous 
coal will last for only a few hundred years at best. Statis- 
tics also indicate that of the 30,000,000 hp annually gen- 
erated in this country for manufacturing, railroad and other 
power services, 9,000,000 hp is utilized electrically. Elec- 
trical development is thus directly responsible for a large 
and increasing part of the present consumption of coal, 
but it also supplies an agent by which this drain upon an 
exhaustible supply of energy may be reduced. This phase 
of the subject was discussed at the conference of governors 
by H. S. Putnam, whose paper has recently been published 
in pamphlet form, with the other papers at the meeting, by 
the Inland Waterways Commission, which had charge of 
the arrangements at the conference. 

The proportion of water power to the total commercial 
power development of the country has shown noteworthy 
fluctuations. In 1870 48.3 per cent of all the power used 
in the country was obtained hydraulically, but this ratio 
had fallen in 1905 to 11.2 per cent. Conditions have now 
changed and indicate a renewed interest in hydraulic de- 
velopment. The preservation of the available water powers 
of the nation is dependent in no slight degree upon the 
maintenance of the forests, which tend to equalize the flow 
of water in the streams throughout the year, but with 
proper safeguards it is estimated that the total amount can 
be increased over that now available. In citing instances 
of individual places or districts, Mr. Putnam estimates the 
power of Niagara to be 7,000,000 hp; the upper Mississippi 
River and its tributaries at 2,000,000 hp, the southern Ap- 
palachian regions at 3,000,000 hp, while the State of Wash- 
ington has 3,000,000 hp and northern California 5,000,000 
hp available. Altogether the water power in the United 
States exceeds 30,000,000 hp, and under certain assumptions 
as to storage reservoirs this amount could be increased to 
150,000,000 hp or possibly more. Even at the smaller figure, 
the power would represent the consumption, based on the 
economy of the average steam engine plant, of 650,000,000 
tons of coal, or 50 per cent in excess of the total coal pro- 
duction of the country in 1906. 

The conference of governors will prove a benefit to the 
country if it results in calling greater attention to this im- 
portant asset in the nation's wealth. Water powers have 
been looked upon askance to some extent in the past by 
power users on account of fluctuation in the amount of 
current flow. In denuding the land of its forests, the 
country has been prodigal of the timber, the soil which was 

June 13, 1908.] 



protected by the roots and has now been washed into the 
rivers and harbors to form obstacles to navigation, and the 
water power itself. 

The other papers at the conference of governors called 
attention to an alarming condition of affairs. Mr. Putnam's 
paper is of a constructive type and points the direction to 
the importance of preserving and increasing an important 
source of national wealth. 

The Question of Direct-Current Feeders 

A chance for the exercise of engineering ability that is 
frequently neglected is in the proportioning of the direct- 
current feeder system -and the maintenance of a proper 
relation of the losses therein to the load from year to year. 
On many roads the cost of power at the station busbars is 
known to the thousandth of a cent each day, and every 
effort is made to keep this cost to an absolute minimum by 
the introduction of every efficiency-building factor. On the 
same road the efficiency of the direct-current distribution 
system will not only be surprisingly small, but the subject 
is apparently absolutely neglected except when the operat- 
ing superintendent complains of the low voltage, yet no 
attempt is made to ascertain the possibilities in earning 
power of some money spent in copper. 

It is sometimes difficult to realize why the apathy on the 
subject which is so clear should exist. It may be due 
to the apparent difficulty in getting a comparative view of 
the situation. Recording wattmeters on station load panels 
are quite common, and the coal bill is a reminder in an 
insistent way of the amount of fuel consumed. Figures on 
coal per kilowatt-hour and labor per kilowatt-hour for 
various sizes and classes of stations are available with a 
fair amount of ease so that the comparison of one's cost 
of power per kilowatt-hour with that of another is not a 
difficult matter. Every possible economical method conse- 
quently is practised in the endeavor to produce a greater 
power output per dollar expended in the power" station. 

As meters are commonly installed and records usually 
kept, however, it is not so easy to determine how much of 
the output is dissipated in feeder losses. From station 
wattmeter readings and car-mile records we can get at the 
power consumption per car-mile, but as this value is so 
dependent on weight of equipment, schedule requirements 
and conditions of grade and alignment of tracks, it is diffi- 
cult to secure any light on copper losses by comparison with 
the same figure from other roads. If all of the cars were 
equipped with car wattmeters, these losses could be quite 
easily determined as an aggregate or for individual feeders 
by proper reading of the instruments. A complete equip- 
ment of car wattmeters would operate to great advantage 
in giving this sort of information, as well as being a check 
on the performance of individual car equipments and motor- 
men, but few roads are so equipped. 

The difficulty of the determination of these losses does 
not entirely explain the frequent indifference to them, how- 
ever, as they may be measured much more easily than by 
the method outlined above. A combination of wattmeter 
at the station and portable recording voltmeter at the de- 
livery end of the feeder, for instance, will give the informa- 
tion at a minimum of expense and in sufficient detail. The 
subject is so important that it should receive much more 

attention than it evidently does. Frequently large sums 
are expended to better the station economy 2 or 3 per cent, 
while the same amount would reduce copper losses to a 
much greater aggregate saving. How many managers 
know, or have an engineer who knows, the amount of power 
which is being dissipated as losses in the distribution system, 
and what investment would be necessary to reduce these 
losses to an economic figure? Why are more and larger 
cars constantly added with no thought of additional copper 
losses? In considering the purchase of more or larger 
equipment it is necessary to consider power station capa- 
city ; why not consider feeder capacity ? Why is there 
absolute aversion to the expenditure of a dollar for copper 
which may save 10 or 15 cents a year in losses? Why not 
spend something to save some more in feeder losses as well 
as in other parts of the system? Copper has one advantage 
— its depreciation item is smaller than that of perhaps any 
other part of the equipment. 

While the subject is in mind, it may be well to ascertain 
whether or not the copper already in service is being em- 
ployed to the best advantage. In passing under a trolley 
section insulator at night, a considerable change in the 
brilliancy of the lights in the car is frequently noticed. 
This is usually a good indication of a defect in the copper 
layout. The original distribution may have been designed 
correctly, but natural changes in conditions of schedule or 
other factors may not have been accompanied by corre- 
sponding proper changes in feeder taps, section insulators, 
etc.. so that an unequal distribution of the load on feeders, 
and consequent inefficiency, has resulted. 

State Commissions on the Accounting System 

A tendency to postpone the introduction of the new classi- 
fication of accounts for electric railways until 1909 is indi- 
cated in the replies of two State commissions to inquiries 
of the Electric Railway Journal, published in another 
part of this issue. The great majority of the electric roads 
are, of course, intrastate and substantial uniformity will not 
be secured unless the State commissions follow the action 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission. While it appears 
that some of the States have accepted or will adopt the 
interstate classification, commissions of other States will 
hold hearings on the subject before taking action. Massa- 
chusetts and Virginia will postpone promulgation of any 
change from the present prescribed classification. The com- 
missions of Michigan and Kansas will hold hearings before 
any decision is reached. As action taken by State commis- 
sions independent of the interstate commission will de- 
termine the procedure of all railways not engaged in inter- 
state commerce, it is important for them to be fully repre- 
sented at any meetings which they are asked to attend in 
order to present the point of view of the railways. Various 
meetings of this character will be held in the future, and the 
officials of electric railways should be represented at them. 
In attending such meetings, executive and accounting- 
officials should be prepared to present the facts about 
operation or accounting methods which will assist the rep- 
resentatives of the public to remember that fairness re- 
quires that the standpoint of the corporations and holders 
of their securities shall receive as much consideration as 
the standpoint of the traveling public. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 



The Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad will extend, 
when completed, from Salem to East Liverpool, Ohio, a 
35 miles. Its location and connections are 

distance of 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad— Track and Roadway 

shown on the accompanying map. It is notable that this line 
completes electric railway communication between Cleveland 
and the Ohio River, across the eastern part of Ohio. The 
tracks of the Northern Ohio Traction Company, the Stark 
Electric Railway and the Youngstown & Ohio River Rail- 
road are so connected that cars can be run through from 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Power Station 

Lake Erie to the Ohio River. Connection is made with the 
Youngstown & Southern at Leetonia and arrangements 
have been made with that road for through service be- 
tween Youngstown and East Liverpool and between 
Youngstown and Salem. At Youngstown connection is 

made with the Mahoning Valley Railway which reaches 
Warren, Sharon and New Castle. 

At East Liverpool, the Youngstown & Ohio River Rail- 
road connects with the Ohio Valley Traction Company, the 
lines of which, together with those of the Wheeling Trac- 
tion Company and the Pittsburg Railways Company, extend 
along the Ohio River from Wheeling, W. Va., to Pitts- 

The Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad is now giving 
regular hourly service between Salem and Lisbon connect- 
ing with the Youngstown & Southern at Leetonia and the 
Stark Electric at Salem, the latter of which in turn con- 
nects with the Cleveland service of the Northern Ohio 
Railway at Canton. 


Work is now in progress upon the roadbed and track of 
the Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad and it is expected 
that the line will be completed to East Liverpool this sea- 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Route and Connec- 
tions Between Cleveland and the Ohio River 

son. At present the permanent way, though in use, is far 
from finished. The country through which the line is be- 
ing built is very rough and the problem of location was 
unusually hard. Some idea of the difficulties encountered 
may be gathered from the following facts : The line must 
pass over four summits, two about 500 ft. and two about 
400 ft. higher than the southern end. Between these sum- 
mits the valleys reach down to within 200 ft. of the lowest 
level. About 47 per cent of the line will be on curves and 
over 12,000 ft. will be on trestles, some of these being more 
than 75 ft. high. The constructional difficulties of this 
route also may serve to account for the rather heavy power 
equipment which has been provided. 


Only the trouble and expense of building such a line can 
explain the paucity of means of transportation in this 
region. Columbiana County, within which the new line is 

June 13, 1908.] 



located, had, in 1900, about 70,000 inhabitants, of which 
41,000 lived directly along the line of this railway and there 
has been a large increase in population since the census of 
1900. The industries are coal mining and manufactures of 

, Youngstown & Ohio River , Railroad — Power Station 

iron and porcelain. The county seat is Lisbon, which is 
reached by two steam roads, each of which runs only two 
passenger trains on week days and none on Sunday. 
Neither of these steam roads runs to the principal cities 
in the county — Salem on the north and East Liverpool and 

business at the county seat. Travel between any other 
two of the cities in the county was almost equally difficult 
and expensive. Communication with the towns in neigh- 
boring counties was not much better until the partial opera- 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Exciter Units 

tion of the new road was begun during the past winter. 
Then by setting up a temporary power plant, traffic was 
started over as much of the Youngstown & Ohio River and 
Youngstown & Southern roads as could be used. 

That portion of the road between Salem and Washing- 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Interior View of Power Station Taken from Crane 

Wellsville close together in the south. To go from East 
Liverpool to Lisbon, a distance of about 18 miles, one 
had to travel 63 miles over three different railroads 
with two or three changes of cars and by thus spending 
an entire day one could get two and one-half hours for 

tonville, about 8 miles long, was originally constructed and 
operated as a steam railroad, serving a number of coal 
mines along its line and connecting with the Erie Railroad 
at Washingtonville. Freight service over this section is 
still carried on with steam locomotives. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Longitudinal Section of Power Station Showing Arrangement of Boilers on 

First Floor and Turbines on Second Floor 

June 13, 1908.] 


Of the engineering features of the equipment of this line, 
the most novel are exhibited in the power station. This 
station is situated on the line of the new railway at Beaver 
Creek, about 7 miles south of Lisbon, in the hamlet of West 
Point. The stream furnishes a fair supply of water fit for 
use in boilers and the entire, surrounding country, compris- 
ing several thousand acres, is underlaid with bituminous 
coal of good quality. In the immediate neighborhood of 
the power station are outcroppings of No. 6 Appalachian 
series coal in veins of 4 ft. and greater thickness. 

The generating equipment now installed in this power 
house consists of two 1000-kw turbo-generators with 
the necessary apparatus for their operation and control. 
The building and foundations are large enough to enclose 
a third unit of 2000-kw capacity. 

The buildinp- foundations consist of concrete laid on a 

were accordingly made very substantial. The large bricks 
lay up rapidly and make a very economical wall. 

The ground floor was laid out only large enough to ac- 
commodate the boiler plant and a moderate amount of coal 
storage in front of the furnaces. A projecting bay, added 
to the middle of the building behind the boilers, accommo- 
dates the pumps. The room over the boilers affords a 
rather liberal space for the turbo-generators, exciters and 
rotary converters and the space over the pump-room is used 
for the step-up transformers, the high-tension busbars and 
the switching apparatus. This high-tension room is sepa- 
rated from the turbine room by the operating switchboard. 
Each main floor is about 115 ft. x 45 ft. in area, and the 
bay containing the pump-room and high-tension room i^ 
about 50 ft. x 20 ft. in size. 

The turbine room floor is of concrete with expanded 






Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Plan of Second Floor of Power Station Showing Location of Ducts 

ledge of moderately hard shaley sandstone about 10 ft. 
below the surface of the ground. The concrete piers were 
continued upward to ground level and on them was erected 
a complete framework of structural steel after the usual 
manner of steel building construction. The columns in the 
first story are built up of two 10-in., 15-lb. channels and 
two 12 in. x % i n - cover plates. As shown in one of the 
illustrations, this frame was erected, the roof made ready 
for the covering and the traveling crane in the turbine 
room was set before the brickwork was begun. The walls 
are self-sustaining from the ground and enclose the side 
columns. They are built of 4-in. x 5-in. x 9-in. dark colored 
shale paving brick laid in cement mortar. While these 
walls do not carry any of the weight of the machinery, 
they were expected to assist in steadying the structure and 

metal and twisted rods for reinforcement. It is 12 in. 
thick, of which yjA in. is above the upper flanges of the 
floor beams. In this upper section of the floor are laid 
vitrified tile conduit to receive the cable leads between the 
various electrical machines and the switchboard. The de- 
tail arrangement of these ducts is shown. The tile ducts 
run in straight lines with large shallow openings molded 
in the floor wherever the direction of the ducts changes. 
The cables are racked across these junction boxes which 
are covered with removable slabs of reinforced concrete. 
The ducts are drained by small holes through the floor, to 
prevent any possible accumulation of water. 


Each turbine unit is supported on four columns con- 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

nected at the top by 36-in. plate girders. The generators 
were placed, as nearly as practicable, symmetrically over 
one pair of columns, while the turbines overhang slightly 
at the end. In this respect the drawing of the cross-section 

built under the exciters. The foundation bolts extend 
through the floor with anchor plates underneath. The no- 
taries were set on insulating wood base frames about 12 in. 

Drain Uok in 

Section D-D; Typical Junction Box. 

24 I at 
83 Lbs. 

Duct Showing Elbows for Opening 
Section on B-B. 

Section A- A; Typical Duct Detail. 

Section on C-C. 

24 I at 
80 Lbs. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Details of Ducts in 


of the building which is reproduced is slightly in error as 
the turbo-generators have been moved about 10 in. nearer 
the switchboard side of the building. The bed plates of 
the turbo-generators were set on the upper flanges of the 
36-in. girders with a i-in. space between for leveling. This 
space was afterward about half filled with lead, melted and 
poured in. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Steel Framing Under 

high, bolted to the floor, and are secured to the base frames 
by short bolts through the timbers, the heads of which are 
countersunk in the under side of the frames and separated 
from the floor by wood blocks. 

Because of the lack of experience in this form of power 
station construction, some apprehension was felt regarding 
the steadiness of the building and machinery. The interior 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — General Plan of Steam and Water Piping 

The exciters and rotary converters were set on the fin- 
ished concrete floor without special arrangement of columns 
or bracing under them. Small concrete pedestals were 

view of the turbine room was taken at night by the ordi- 
nary station lighting with exposures of ij6 to 2 minutes 
and the distinctness of the detail in them shows clearly the 

June 13, 1908.] 



absence of serious vibration. This absence of vibration is 
particularly emphasized, because the camera stood on the 
crane where the maximum disturbance would be felt. At 
the time these photographs were 
made one turbine and one exciter 
were running. 

In arranging the columns in the 
first story of the station all of those 
which support the turbo-generators 
were kept clear of contact with the 
boiler settings as shown in the lon- 
gitudinal section and in the plan of 
steam piping. Two intermediate 
columns, however, one of which 
stands between the exciters and the 
other between the rotary converters, 
had to pass through the middle 
wall of a battery. To guard against 
overheating, an air space of from 
2 in. to 4 in. was left between the 
brick work and the column, open at 
the top and ventilated by two 2-in. 
pipes built in the boiler walls. In 
addition, the column was calked 
water tight and a connection from 
the elevated tank that supplies water 
for the turbine glands was made 
into the bottom of the column with 

temperature of the water can be watched. In case the wall 
between the furnace and a column were broken through so 
as to expose the column to the fire, a cloud of steam would 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Sectional Elevation of Power Station 

be blown into the boiler room directly in front of the fire- 
man before the iron could become dangerously hot. 

The principal 
follows : 


pieces of power-station apparatus are as 

400-hp Stirling water tube for 200 lb. per 

ft. per 
4 «. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Elevation of Piping 

an overflow from above the boilers to the nearest hot well. 
In the overflow close to the condenser tail pipe is placed a 
tell-tale like those used in the gland water lines so that the 

Four boilers 
square inch. 

Four furnaces — Stirling rocking grates, 75 sq. 
boiler, with fire-brick arches. 

One smoke flue — Sheet iron, connecting all boilers 
x 15 ft. at the chimney. 

One chimney — Self-supporting lined steel, 8 ft. internal 
diameter, 130 ft. high, set on a concrete stubj 32 ft. high. 
The height above the grates is 154 ft. 

Two turbo-generators — Westinghouse-Parsons, 1500 
r.p.m. turbines coupled to 1000-kw, 25-cycle, 3-phase, 400- 
volt enclosed generators, with separate water-cooled oil- 
circulating systems. 

Two exciters — Westinghouse standard engines, coupled 
to 55-kw, 125-volt compound generators. 

Six transformers — 357-kw Westinghouse oil-insulated 
water-cooled, 400 volts to 22,000 volts. 

Two rotaries — 300-kw Westinghouse, compound-wound, 
with starting motors. 

Two condensers — 30-in. Worthington barometric, with 
Keilholtz air ejectors and separate 12-in. centrifugal cir- 
culating pumps, direct connected to Blake vertical engines, 



250 r.p.m. to 350 
r.p.m., with adjustable 
speed-throttling gov- 
ernors and safety 

One heater — 
Hoppes open type ex- 
haust steam feed 
water heater with 500 
sq. ft. of tray surface. 

Two pumps — Boiler 
feed pumps, 18 in. and 
io 1 /, in. x 16 in. out- 
side end-packed plun- 
ger, pot-valve, single- 
cylinder, direct-act- 
ing, and two piston 
type single-cylinder 
hot well pumps of 
similar capacity; also 
one tank pump, 6 in. 
and 8 in. x 10 in., to 
supply water for tur- 
bine glands, oil cool- 
ers, transformers, ash 
wetting, etc. 

One water tank — 
Cylindrical steel, 
1500-gal, capacity in 
the turbine room, 
about 20 ft. above the 
floor, connected to the 
piping system sup- 
plied by the tank 

One crane — Hand 
power traveling crane, 
of 20 tons capacity, 
spanning the turbine 


The condensers are 
attached directly to 
the exhaust flanges 
of the turbines with- 
out intermediate pip- 
ing except a special 
cast T for the at- 
tachment of the at- 
mospheric exhaust 
pipe. The condenser 
and tail pipe are sus- 
pended from the 
36-in. girders that 
support the turbines 
and extend down into 
the hot wells between 
the boilers, without 
other support. This 
suspension provides 
for a vertical adjust- 
ment so that the joint 
between the conden- 
ser and the turbine 
can be opened for re- 
packing if necessary. 

The cooling water 
lines are as direct as 
possible and the two 
pumps are cross con- 
nected so that either 
can supply either con- 

1—- -tHHM- 





-CI — 



t— jStt— 


I 1 

- jjij- 









•fin 1.)' 9 

June 13, ujo8.] 



denser. As no foot valves are used on these pumps, 
they are started, with the valve just above the discharge 
flange closed, by priming the pumps through a suction 
connection from the hot well pumps; then the impeller 
is started and the discharge valve opened, when the pump 
immediately throws water over into the 
condenser. Steam ejectors were first 
used for priming the centrifugal pumps, 
but the reciprocating pumps proved 
quicker and more convenient. 

Foot valves were omitted from the suc- 
tion pipes of the centrifugals to save the 
difficulty and annoyance of cleaning 
them. The suction pipes of the recipro- 
cating pumps have foot valves with 
strainers that can be lifted up around 
the pipe to above the surface for clean- 
ing. To regulate the water level and get 
a storage and cooling basin for security 
in case of low water supply, a dam was 
built across the creek. The condenser 
overflow is discharged about 300 ft. up 
stream and can easily be extended sev- 
eral hundred feet further if found de- 

The boiler feed and hot well pumps 
are in duplicate and one of each can 
supply the present boiler capacity at 
about 35 ft. per minute, leaving a safe margin for increase 
of boiler plant. The tank pump is cross connected with the 
hot well pumps so one of these can act as a relay for it. 


The steam piping was' proportioned for a mean velocity 
between 3000 ft. and 4000 ft. per minute at full rated load 
of the equipment and is arranged in sections or panels sepa- 

traps arc all fitted up with unions exactly alike, and one- 
spare trap is kept similarly fitted ready to take the place 
of any one of them. 


Opposite the power station the main track is about 15 ft. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Interior of Leetonia Substation 

higher than the boiler room floor. A trestle at the same 
level about 500 ft. long and connecting with the main line 
is extended clear through the boiler room in front of the 
boilers, so coal cars can be run in and dumped. The trestle 
at both ends of the building affords a large emergency stor- 
age and 500 to 750 tons can be stored in the boiler room. 
Arrangements will probably be made to mine coal in the 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Interior of Machine Shop Showing Tools 

rated by valves. An 8-in. equalizer receives all the boiler 
and apparatus connections. The connections are shown in 
the engravings. All the separators and the three sections 
of the equalizer header are connected separately into a 
2-in. drainage header which is divided by valves into sec- 
tions corresponding approximately to those of the equalizer 
header. This header drains into five i l / 2 -'m. Squire's steam 
traps which discharge into the feed water heater. These 

immediate neighborhood of the plant. In making the cut 
near the front of the station a vein of coal 3V2 ft. to 4 ft. 
thick was uncovered. 

The boiler ash pits are molded of mass concrete and a 
tunnel extends under them the whole length of the station, 
in which a track is so laid that a steel hopper car can be 
run under the ash pits. An electric platform lift is now- 
being installed to raise the car to an elevated track run- 

7 6 


[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

ning over the coal trestle, from which the ashes can be 
dumped into railroad cars. 


The raising transformers are mounted on roller bases 
and set on short tracks which lead to a lengthwise de- 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Standard Passenger Car 

pressed track in which runs a transfer car. Thus trans- 
formers may be rolled upon this car and carried to a track 
at one end of the alcove, which extends into the turbine 
room under the crane. 

The raising transformers are connected in delta on both 
sides with disconnecting switches in the high-tension leads 
of each transformer and bolted connections in each low- 
tension lead. There are two sets of high-tension busbars 
provided with double throw disconnecting switches so that 
either transformer bank can be connected to either bus and 
either bus to either of the two outgoing feeders. 

rent directly from the low-tension station busbars. 

The operating switchboard consists of 10 vertical panels 
of gray marble containing the usual equipment with a few 
instruments not always found in stations of this size. 
Each generator panel contains a polyphase integrating 

wattmeter, an indicating watt- 
meter, one a.c. ammeter, a 
field ammeter and a power 
factor meter. On swinging 
brackets at the end of the 
board are two a.c. voltmeters 
and one synchronoscope. This 
equipment is still incomplete 
and a frequency meter is to 
be placed beside the switch- 
board synchronoscope and a 
station synchronoscope visible 
from any part of the floor is 
to be placed on the column in 
the middle of the switchboard. 

The generator field switches 
have an automatic device that 
will open them in case of- a short circuit in the distributing 
system, causing a flow greater than the sustained short- 
circuit current of the generators. 

Each rotary converter in the power station and in the 
substations is supplied with a power factor meter and it 
is proposed to operate the system at something approxi- 
mating unity power factor by adjusting the series fields of 
the rotary converters to sustain the power factor as well as 
practicable in the load conditions. All rotary converters 
have reverse current relays. 

The general lighting is furnished by Cooper Hewitt mer-. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Substation and Office Building at Leetonia 

Along the wall behind the transformers are the fuse 
type circuit breakers, low equivalent lightning arresters 
and oil insulated choke coils. The high-tension leads pass 
through the building wall in 12-in. tiles, both ends of which 
are closed by polished glass plates with small holes drilled 
through the centers. Space is left on the wall and tiles 
are installed for a third high-tension lead. The rotary 
converters in the power station are supplied with cur- 

cury arc lamps. The turbine room has three 45-in. tubes 
hung above the crane, about 28 ft. from the floor, which 
light 5200 sq. ft. The high-tension room and the pump 
room each have one 21-in. tube for an area of 1000 sq. ft. 
and the boiler room has two 45-in. tubes, all hung at about 
the same height. In the turbine room the illumination has 
proved rather greater than necessary. In such circum- 
stances one Type K lamp will light 2500 sq. ft. well enough. 

June 13, 1908.] 



No incandescent lamps are used for general illumination, 
but 20 receptacles are distributed on the walls and columns 
where they are likely to be needed for attachment of ex- 
tension lamps. The total power used for lighting during 
the dark hours is about 3700 watts for a total area of 13,000 

is metered and the line is controlled by fuse type circuit 

Each substation contains two 300-kw rotary converters 
like those in the power station, save that at Salem, which 
has only one. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Floor Plan of Passenger Car 

sq. ft., including the ash tunnel, an average of about 0.28 
watt per square foot. The illumination is liberal and permits 
any ordinary work to be done as easily as by daylight. In- 
deed the instruments and water columns can all be read 
by the general lighting and the special lamps are provided 
only for safety in case of a reduction of the exciter voltage 
great enough to put out the Cooper Hewitt lamps. All 
wiring to the station lighting is in enameled iron conduit 
with all fuses and switches on the main switchboard. 


The transmission line is run on the poles that carry the 
trolley construction. The general form is shown in one of 
the illustrations. The line is built of 
No. 4 B. & S. medium drawn wire. The 
pole spacing is 100 ft. on tangents with 
shorter spacing on curves so that the de- 
flection per pole is 2 deg. The line insu- 
lators are 7-in. Muncie pattern glass. 

The two leads out of the power sta- 
tion are to run north and south respec- 
tively. The southerly line will run to a 

The substation transformers are of 150-kw capacity and 
of the oil-insulated, self-cooled type, connected in open 
delta with one extra transformer at Leetonia. The trans- 
former banks are not parallel on the low-tension side, but 
the leads and double-throw switches are arranged so that 
either rotary can be supplied from either bank. The high- 
tension leads of the transformers c'ontain disconnecting 
switches and the low-tension leads have bolted connections. 
The rotary converters are set on insulating wood bases. 
The frames are grounded through small copper fuses which 
serve to conduct away the static and give warning in case 
the insulation should break down. The fuses will burn out 
before the machine becomes damaged. 

_ T^^j^ajl_ Inj;epai_r_shop t __ 

,\ dia.plpe or rod 20 lone built into 

walls of conduit at intervals of in' 

for supporting pipp. 

Bottom of conduit and supports sloped 
'towards tlie boiler room at the 

rate of }<"in 10 ' 

Second Floor Plan. 

Youngstown & Ohio River Railroad — Tracks and Buildings at Leetonia Junction 

substation near East Liverpool, about 9 miles. The north 
line runs to a substation at Leetonia, about 15 miles, thence 
to another substation at Salem, about 9 miles. At Lee- 
tonia the line is connected to the transmission line of the 
Youngstown & Southern road, through which it supplies 
power for the operation of that road to Youngstown, about 
22 miles. The Youngstown & Southern transmission line 
branches out of the Leetonia substation, where the energy 


The car-shop building, while it serves to house all the 
motor cars of the initial equipment, is intended for a work- 
shop rather than for storage, as it is expected that the 
amount of rolling stock will have to be materially increased 
when the road is completed. The illustrations show the 
arrangement of tracks and details of the working and in- 
spection pits which explain themselves. The following list 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

of shop tools which have been installed may be of interest, 
as it illustrates an effort to keep down the maintenance 
charges of a rather hard service. There is one each of the 
following : 

Two and one-half inch bolt-cutting machine, 44-in. Buf- 
falo forge with hood and power blower, 17-in. power hack- 
saw., 12-in. emery grinder, 26-in. drill press, 24-in. shaper, 
26-in. machine lathe, 22-in. and 48-in. double-spindle back- 
geared machine lathe, suitable for turning car wheels; 200- 
ton hydraulic wheel press, band saw, swinging table rip- 
saw, hydraulic motor lift to run on track in the repair pit 
and 5000-lb. chain hoist. A temporary gas-heated oven 
for baking coils is now in use, but will be replaced by one 
of brick about 7 ft. x 6 ft. x 5 ft. 

The car shop and adjoining buildings are heated by 
steam from a plant in one corner of the shop. The entire 
shop building is warmed and coils are run along both sides 
in the repair pit. 


The initial equipment consists of six passenger cars and 
one express, all built by the Niles Car & Manufacturing 
Company. Three of the cars have baggage compartments, 
while all have smoking rooms. All the cars are 50 ft. long- 
over the bumpers and are equipped with Baldwin heavy 
M. C. B. trucks with 36-in. rolled steel wheels. The car 
bodies are of wood with composite wood and steel floors. 

The power equipment consists of four Westinghouse 
No. 112-B motors with a gear ratio 22:67 and L-4 con- 
trollers. The passenger cars are single ended and have 
straight air brakes, while the express car is double ended 
and has Westinghouse, Schedule AMM automatic ait- 

Each passenger car contains 24 fixed 36-in. cross seats, 
all facing forward, and one side seat, with a center aisle 
22 in. wide. The seats have high backs and full railroad 
outside arms and are upholstered in dark green leather. 
The interior finish is natural cherry and the outside color 
is Pullman green. In the combination cars, the baggage 
compartment occupies the space of six cross seats and is 
separated from the motorman's cab By a railing. All pas- 
senger cars as furnished, with live load, weigh about 33 
tons each. 


The location, engineering and construction of this road 
have been carried out by the Cleveland Construction Coni- 


The index to Volume XXXI of the Street Railway 
Journal is mailed with this issue of the Electric Railway 
Journal. As already announced, Volume XXXI ended 
with the issue of May 30 in order that it might end with 
the concluding issue of the Street Railway Journal. 
Volume XXXII began June 6, with the new name. 

The report for 1907 of the General Omnibus Company of 
Berlin, the largest undertaking of its kind in Germany, 
shows that the company carried 133,800,000 passengers in 
1907 as against 128,000,000 in 1906. Owing to the greater 
increase in expenses than in receipts, and after allowing 
for depreciation, there was a deficit of about $130,000 for 
the year. The directors' report states that the cost of 
maintaining and improving the motor omnibuses reached 
nearly 50 per cent of the original cost of purchase. 



In spite of the complexity of its electrical reactions the 
operation of a rotary converter is such a simple matter as 
compared, for example, with that of steam apparatus or 
air-brake equipments that definite instructions for the oper- 
ation of converter substations are often neglected alto- 
gether or are made too general or incomplete, many points 
being left to the discretion of the operator. The writer has 
known of substations left in the charge of country boys, 
whose training consisted of one or two attempts to start 
up the machines, with no knowledge whatever, for example, 
of the meaning of reversed polarity or of the purpose of an 
adjustable rocker arm or an equalizer switch. While such 
operation has given surprisingly little trouble, a more inti- 
mate knowledge of the equipment and more explicit instruc- 
tions for its proper use would undoubtedly be beneficial in 
a large majority of substations. 

The following text will give a few hints that have oc- 
curred to the writer concerning the best manipulation of the 
apparatus under normal and emergency conditions, with as 
definite instructions as it is possible to give for equipments 
as varied in character and service as those used in railway 
converter substations. 

switching of high-tension circuits 

For the purpose of making these instructions more spe- 
cific it will be assumed that the substation in question has 
duplicate incoming high-tension lines and one or more out- 
going lines fed from the substation busbars and supplying 
other outlying substations. Instructions for the switching 
of such circuits on starting up for the day (if the power 
is turned off at night) are best governed by local conditions 
and should be, in general, to close no line switch without 
telephonic communication from the other end of the line 
or all other substations fed by it without intermediate 
switches, that the line is, so far as the operators are aware, 
clear. Provision should, of course, be made for the pro- 
tection of linemen should they be working on a line at night. 

In case a high-tension short circuit occurs during opera- 
tion, the usual result is the automatic opening of many or 
all high-tension oil switches on incoming or outgoing feeder 
and converter equipments. If power goes off and all oil 
switches do not operate automatically in such a case, as may 
happen on a fault not constituting a solid short circuit, the 
operator should at once open the oil switches not brought 
out automatically, noting which they are, and beginning 
with those of the substation machines. After a suitable 
length of time to allow the substation attendants to clear 
their oil switches the main station attendant should close in 
the line (or lines successively) to the first substation. It 
will be assumed that means are provided for indicating at 
the substation end when the power is restored. In substa- 
tions receiving 20,000 volts or more the hissing of lightning 
arresters of the multigap type is usually sufficient notifica- 
tion if the machines are shut down, providing the lightning 
arresters are in or near the operating room. In stations 
where this observation cannot be made some form of poten- 
tial indicators should be provided on each incoming line 

After receiving power from the generating station via 
both lines the substation operator should close his incom- 
ing line switches and then proceed to close switches sup- 
plying the outgoing lines to outlying substations, one at a 

June 13, 1908.] 



time. If, as is usually the case, the short circuit is on a 
line and has not cleared itself, power will vanish at the 
instant of closing one of the outgoing line switches in one 
of the substations. Usually 'this will again clear out all 
switches back to the generating station if the short circuit 
is solid or practically so. The generating station attendant 
should then at once restore power and the substation atten- 
dants should pass it on as before, of course, leaving the 
faulty line open, and reporting the same to the generating 
station as soon as all apparatus is in motion. 

To avoid confusion in the case of duplicate lines, an 
operator in a substation so supplied should not pass on 
power to outlying substations until both incoming lines are 
alive or he has received notice from the generating station 
that one is faulty. Otherwise an outgoing line from the sub- 
station mav be thrown on at almost the same - instant as 
the duplicate line from the generating station, thus leading 
to mistakes as to which line is at fault. In case there are 
several outgoing lines in different directions from the main 
station to substations, or groups of substations not other- 
wise interconnected, a short circuit on one division of the 
network may bring out the lines to other divisions, owing to 
the kick back of power from the converters. On hooking 
up the lines after such a shutdown, the fault, if it remains, 
will only bring out the lines to the group of substations to 
which it belongs, as converters will not be running on the 
other divisions to give a kick back. For this reason there 
is no need of telephonic communication to get the lines 
hooked up consecutively on the several divisions from the 
power house. Each division can go ahead independently, 
joining up lines as fast as power reaches each point until 
the faulty line is reached, when the whole division will 
probably come out, but other divisions will not be affected. 


With air-blast step-down transformers care should be 
taken to open the dampers when the transformers are put 
in service and to keep the air-blast chamber door closed 
as well as the dampers under blowers not running. Such 
transformers will, of course, run safely for a time without 
blast, but prolonged operation without blast will injure the 
insulation. Such transformers should also be cleaned by a 
high-pressure (about 40 lb. per square inch) jet of air at 
least once per month. This jet should be blown into all 
passages between the coils accessible both at the top and 
bottom of the transformer. In small substations, where the 
cost of an air compressor for this work is not warranted, 
a car with air-brake equipment should be stopped once a 
month and connected by means of a hose to the substation 
for the blowing out of transformers and converters. Owing 
to the limited tank capacity on cars with straight-air equip- 
ment this blowing-out process may have to be rather inter- 
mittent, but the greater cleanliness obtained with this ap- 
paratus compared with any other method of cleaning will 
be found to pay. 

Faults in transformers, such as breakdowns between coils 
or turns, usually result in considerable smoke before the 
fault becomes sufficiently heavy to bring out an automatic 
switch. Smoking transformers should, of course, be cut 
out at once to avoid further damage. If fire is ever started 
in an air-blast transformer the dampers should be closed 
after filling the top of the transformer with sand. Water 
should not be used, as it will injure other coils which may 
be saved. It is hardly necessary to state that several bucket- 
fuls of sand, for fire use only, should be kept in any sub- 
station. Oil-cooled transformers require little attention 
other than an occasional glance at the oil level. 


Much more attention should be paid to the cleaning of the 
internal passages of these machines than is customarily 
the case. Operators who have run converters for months 
with nothing more than external dusting would be dumb- 
founded at the amount of thick black dirt that is blown out 
of such a machine by a good air jet. Ventilating passages 
through the armature core, between field windings, etc., 
eventually fill with grease and dust which cannot be reached 
except by means of compressed air. With an air com- 
pressor in the station each converter should be blown out 
once a week. Care should be taken not to use too high a 
pressure back of the nozzle; 60 lb. or 80 lb. per square inch 
may strip insulation around armature end connections; 40 
lb. is usually ample. Particular attention should be paid to 
the hub, studs and insulation under the collector rings if 
these are of the open ventilated type. Accumulation of 
copper cuttings and grease around these parts occasionally 
leads to bad shorts to the frame of the machine. Without 
compressed air these parts must be cleaned by thorough 
and careful wiping at regular intervals of not more than 
one week. Bolts and nuts on such parts, particularly as 
brush-holder studs, terminal blocks, pole face winding, etc., 
should be tightened from time to time. A little experience 
indicates what nuts are likely to slack off. Bolts in the 
commutator clamp ring should not be touched except as 
per instructions given below. 

Speed-limit devices, if provided, should be tested from 
time to time by cutting off the machine from the a.c. supply 
and weakening the shunt field until the speed rises to 15 
per cent or 20 per cent above normal; if the device does 
not then operate it should be made to do so. 


The writer hesitates to give any instructions on this 
point owing to the disparity of opinions, due to equally 
good or bad results obtained by various experts with differ- 
ent methods, which are undoubtedly as successful with a 
good commutator as unsuccessful with a bad one. In com- 
mutator maintenance more than in any other branch of elec- 
trical engineering, it is probably true that what is helpful in 
one case is harmful in another and yet strong prejudices 
as to what is proper or improper general practice are 
formed from a limited experience with one type of com- 
mutator or at most .with one make of machine. In general, 
however, it may be said that more commutators are injured 
by over than under attention. Oil should be used very 
sparingly, especially with self-lubricating brushes, particu- 
larly when these are new. Sandpaper should also be used 
rather more sparingly than it is, and it is hardly necessary 
to state that emery paper should not be used at all. The 
best treatment of a moderately rough commutator, where 
possible, is to nurse it along without turning' or sand- 
papering, taking care to avoid overheating, where possible, 
by shirking the load onto other machines. Sparking is 
more often a fault of the brushes than of the commutator. 
Brushes should slide freely in the boxes, should be trimmed 
to show evidences of a bearing over the whole brush face 
and should not be pressed down too hard, particularly when 
the commutator is in bad shape. If conditions allow shirk- 
ing of the load to other machines a gradual improvement 
of the commutator condition can be obtained by nothing 
more than operation under light load and light brush pres- 
sure. In general the commutator, especially of a large ma- 
chine, has to go through a series of infantile ailments while 
new. No matter how fine it may look when first started, it 



is likely to rough up, but may, as a rule, be brought to the 
fine glass-like polish characteristic of a well-kept machine 
by plain running and brush friction, provided it does not 
have to carry heavy overloads while ailing and does not 
get too many bad shorts. Occasionally, sparking not other- 
wise curable may be remedied by respacing the brushes. 
Such sparking is usually noticeable at certain brush holders, 
while others are running black. More accurate spacing to 
exact polar pitch between brushes or more accurate align- 
ment of the brush-holder studs in parallelism with the shaft 
may cure chronic sparking of this kind. Like generators, 
rotary converters require a certain amount of brush lead, 
but that of a converter is much less than that of a gen- 
erator, as a rule, owing to the fact that a converter has 
practically no field distortion, the lead required being only 
sufficient to give a commutating counter e.m.f. under the 

The end-play devices should be kept in continuous opera- 

Positive Bus 

Main Buses 

Circuit C/osing Stv/tcA 
I o, A/arm Be// 

Ground Bus . 

loiv Vo/tage Co// 


— o-^/wv— 



Trip Co// < 

Current Transformer 

Afain Transformer 

Afo/n Tr&nsfor/Trer 

fteoct/ve Co/7 

Speec/L /m/'t/r>£ Dev/ce 

Rotary Converter 

£quo'/izer Bus 
/Vegative Bus 

Fig. i. — Converter Substations — Connections 
of Rotary Converter Transformer Unit 
Arranged for A.C. Self Starting 

tion, and some experts advise staggering of positive brushes 
into two tracks and of negative brushes into two tracks, 
which may or may not be the same as those of the positive 
brushes, rather than staggering positive brushes relative 
to negative. It may be of interest to give a few more 
definite instructions regarding the end-play devices. If 
these operate satisfactorily when the machine is switched 
off and the field is opened, leaving it free to spin without 
field, and do not operate satisfactorily, either bumping too 
hard on the end play or not coming forward against it at 
all when the machine is running with field, the field struc- 
ture should be shifted (by moving the dowels) either 
toward the front or back pillow block until equally satis- 
factory operation is obtained with or without the field 
excited.. If the end-play device does not operate without 
field the trouble may be corrected by shifting the field until 
the required endwise pull is obtained on the armature, but 
the operation will then vary with the voltage and it is 

preferable where possible to shim up one end of the base 
and regrout it to give a gravity component which will slide 
the armature gently against the end play with field un- 


Turning, reclamping or even sand-papering of commu- 
tators, should not be left to the usual substation operator, 
but should be decided upon and preferably done by the 
superintendent of substations or the electrical engineer of 
the system. One treatment of the commutators, however, 
which the writer has seen used with good success might 
be left to the operators in that it is probably harmless in 
any case and extremely tedious. This is the use of a 
straight piece of good soapstone clear of grit pressed 
against the commutator by hand for at least one hour per 
day. This, serves to polish off slight pits or burns caused 
by overloads or short circuits and to reduce copper and 
mica to one uniform level. While it is a tiresome process, 
the usual operator has .considerable spare time on his 
hands, and if he takes proper pride in the condition of his 
apparatus he will not shirk this duty. 


This depends so much upon the design of the converter 
and particularly of the switching equipment that no general 
instructions of value can be given. The following detail 
instructions apply to the standard switchboard equipment 
provided by the General Electric Company for 25-cycle 
compound - wound railway converters. 
This equipment is shown diagrammati- 
cally in the two accompanying cuts, of 
which Fig. 1 shows all switching de- 
vices of a three-phase converter between 
the high-tension a.c. busbars and the 
d.c. busbars, while Fig. 2 shows the 
modifications of Fig. 1 for the case of a 
six-phase converter. Assuming that 
there is power on the a.c. and d.c. bus- 
bars and that all switches of the con- 
verter to be started are open, with the 
exception of the potential plug, which 
should be inserted on the d.c. converter 
panel to give a connection to the volt- 
meter, the proper sequence of events is 
as follows : 

First — Close main high-tension switch 

Second — Close starting switch B up- 
ward. (For six-phase machines with 
tandem switches both switches B and BB 
should be closed upward.) Machine will then run up to 
speed and lock in step, which will be indicated by cessation 
of beats of d.c. voltmeter. 

Third — Close equalizer switch G and series shunt 
switch F. 

Fourth — Close field break-up and reversing switch E 
into top position. 

Fifth — Throw starting switch B quickly from top to bot- 
tom contacts. With six-phase machines then throw start- 
ing switch BB quickly from top to bottom contacts. 

Sixth — Adjust d.c. voltage to approximately that of bus- 

Seventh — Push up low-voltage release of circuit breaker 
and close circuit breaker C. 
Eighth — Close main switch D. 

Ninth — Adjust division of load between machines if more 
than one are in service by means of field rheostats. 

Note. — If other machine or machines are carrying load 

Potary Converter 

Fig. 2. — Modification of 
Fig. 1 for Six-phase 

June 13, 1908.] 



when a compound-wound converter is started correct polar- 
ity may be insured by closing equalizer switch G when ma- 
chine locks in step. By watching the swings of the d.c. 
voltmeter as the machine approaches synchronism switch 
G may be closed just previous to the last two or three 
swings, thus insuring proper locking on the first trial if 
there is current for the series field from other machines. 
If machine locks with wrong polarity as indicated by d.c. 
voltmeter needle going down off scale, field switch E must 
be closed first into down position, which will cause volt- 
meter to return above zero when switch E must be pulled 
out and closed into top position. 

To shut down rotary converter open circuit breaker C, 
pull out and turn circuit-closing auxiliary switch to stop 
ringing of alarm bell; open main switch D; open high-ten- 
sion a.c. oil switch A; allow machine to run down in speed 
until volts fall off to about 100 before opening field switch 
E or starting switch B ; open field switch E, equalizer switch 
G, series shunt switch F and starting switch B. 


Don't open field switch E until machine voltage has run 
down, otherwise arc of opening inductive field circuit may 
be blown by armature blast from point to point, giving a 

Fig. 3.— Converter Substations— Typical Arrangement of 

short circuit, or strain may injure insulation of field 

Don't open starting switches until machine voltage has 
run down to zero. This leaves transformers without heavy 
residual magnetism, which tends to cause extra rush of 
current when subsequently thrown into circuit. 

Don't open oil switch with converter on starting tap and 
field closed. Under this condition converter tends to build 
up to full voltage, tending to run up transformers to con- 
siderably above normal voltage. 

Don't parallel machines on d.c. side without closing 
equalizer switches. 

Don't start converters with field switch E closed either 
in up or down position, or with series shunt switch closed. 

Don't close a.c. starting switch slowly into top contacts, 
for if this is done, rush of current may pit tips of clips 
and prevent switch blades from going in. 

Don't close any switch slowly. 

Dcn't close circuit breaker with main switch D closed. 

Don't close circuit breaker after a heavy short without 
plugging voltmeter to converter to make sure that polarity 
is not reversed. 


Practically all converters in this country are compound 
wound, the compounding being obtained, as is well known, 
by variation of the power factor, and the use of reactance in 
the circuit. The commonly accepted impression, therefore, 
that the power factor can be kept at unity is wrong. It 
can be brought to unity at one load only. Below that load 
the power factor will be lagging. Above it the power factor 
will be leading. It is obvious that if the impressed voltage 

Apparatus in Substation with Distributed Switching 

upon the converter is at all times a little low, due to wrong 
choice of transformer ratios, proper d.c. voltage can be 
obtained by increased shunt field excitation. On the other 
hand, if the impressed voltage is high, proper d.c. voltage 
can be obtained by reduced shunt field excitation. This will 
change the load at which unity power factor is obtained. 
Unfortunately ratios are usually so chosen as to give unity 
power factor at no load when it is not needed, which gives 
a low power factor leading on load, when unity is badly 
needed. Regrettably, most operators run their converters 
above rated voltage by increasing the excitation and thereby 
the leading currents. This results in a still poorer power 
factor at full load. 

The heating of converter armature conductors is greatly 
increased by the presence of leading or lagging currents 
which are set up by improper field excitation. The series 
field coils of compound-wound converters considerably in- 
crease the excitation at full load over that at no load. For 
this reason compound-wound converters should take a con- 



siderable lagging current at no load, which will be cut out 
by the action of the series field at normal load, thus giving 
unity power factor and cool running when loaded. For in- 
terurban service with low-load factors the converter should 
take one-fourth full-load current at no load and this cur- 
rent should be lagging. This feature of the current can be 
determined by adjustment of the field rheostat. If weak- 
ening of the field by cutting in more of the resistance in- 
creases the a.c. input current is lagging. If it diminishes 
the a.c. current input the current is leading. If the con- 
verter does not give desired d.c. volts with this adjustment 
of field rheostat the a.c. impressed voltage should be altered 
by adjustment at the power house, if possible, or by altera- 
tion of the primary taps of the step-down transformers 
feeding the converter. For converters on steadier loads 
having a high average load factor the a.c. lagging current 
on no load should be greater than 25 per cent of rated full- 

one point to avoid running about, and large substations are 
still laid out the same way, but modern small substation 
practice tends to distribution of the switchboard apparatus 
to the points most convenient for the connections, since the 
few steps from one switch to another are probably more 
beneficial than harmful, in that they give a hasty or nervous 
man a second or so to think between operations. Fig. 3 
shows the design of a small substation along these lines 
and Fig. 4 gives a view of such a substation, in this case 
the Taunton substation of the Old Colony Street Railway 
Company. In these stations the high-tension panels are 
located in front of the transformers and opposite their re- 
spective converters, the low-tension a.c. starting switches 
are just alongside, on top of the reactive coils, the field 
break-up and equalizer switches (those next used in the 
normal course of starting) are mounted on the machine 
frames just across the operating passageway. Care should 

be taken to get the field 
break-up, equalizing 
and series shunt 
switches on the side of 
the converter frame to- 
ward the switchboard, 
so that the position of 
the equalizer switch, 
etc., can be seen when 
paralleling machines. 
The d.c. voltmeter 
should also be visible 
from a position by any 
equalizer switch. 
Other points of con- 
venience will also be 
noted in these layouts. 
For example, the blow- 
ers are located at the 
switchboard end so 
that if shut down by 
the shutting down of 
one transformer bank 
the absence of their 
hum will be noticeable. 
It will also be noted 
that the air-blast 
chamber is of sufficient 
depth for a man to 
work in conveniently 
with an air hose. In general, if points of this kind are con- 
sidered in the design of the substations, better operation 
will be obtained than if a complicated mass of switching 
apparatus is concentrated in one mess, and the cost of the 
equipment will be materially less. 

Fig. 4. — Converter Substations — Interior of Taunton Substation of Old Colony Street Railway 


load current, approaching 35 per cent to 50 per cent. Care 
should be taken that this point is looked after with the 
converter equalizer switch open if other converters are in 
operation in the same station, otherwise the current from 
the other machines will affect the excitation of the machine 
under investigation. 

Machines must not be run above their rated voltage 
without proper adjustment of taps and a.c. voltage, etc., 
which should be taken up with the manufacturers. Over- 
heating of armatures is almost certain to occur with com- 
pound-converters run above normal d.c. voltage if a high 
average load is placed upon them. It should be noted in 
this connection that power factor indicators connected on 
the line or supply side of the reactive coils often used with 
compound-wound converters do not give the power factor 
of the converter. Unless the operator understands this he 
may be greatly mislead. 


Early substations concentrated all switching equipment at 

Representatives of a number of Canadian street railways 
unanimously declared their opposition before the Ontario 
Railway & Municipal Board, on June 5, to the proposal of 
that body that passengers be prohibited from riding on the 
front seat of open cars. The order was the indirect result 
of a recent collision in Ottawa which Engineer Wyse, who 
made an investigation on behalf of the Railway Board, 
reported to have been caused by passengers on the front 
seat distracting the attention of the motorman. W. A. 
Burrows, secretary-treasurer of the Canadian Street Rail- 
way Association* voiced the objection of that body to the 
proposal. Other representatives also objected. The board 
reserved its decision. 

June 13, 1908.] 




The Toledo Urban & Interurban Railway has completed 
the construction of a freight house at Toledo, Ohio. The 
company started to build a small freight house, but before 
it was finished the amount of business offered was so en- 
couraging it was evident larger quarters would soon be 
required. The original plans were therefore altered to 
provide for the more extensive building shown in the ac- 
companying illustrations. The freight house is located at 
154 South St. Clair Street on part of a lot which has a 

Interior of Freight House at Toledo 

frontage of 200 ft. and a depth of 400 ft. The building 
faces east. On the north side there are seven doors for 
drivers of wagons, and on the south side are four doors at 
the proper level to permit entrance from the freight house 
to cars, which are switched from the tracks of the Toledo 
Railways & Light Company in the street on which the 

cars are operated between the two roads. The Toledo 
Urban & Interurban Railway sends four trains of mer- 
chandise daily from Toledo, leaving at 9:30 a. m. and 2, 8 
and 10 p. m., respectively. The latter two trains consist of 
two cars. One motor car and both trailers are operated to 
points on the Western Ohio road. The car that leaves To- 
ledo at 8 p. m. runs to Wapakoneta, a distance of 97 miles, 
without a stop. The four freight trains that enter Toledo 
daily are due at 6:30 and 10:30 a. m. and 3 and 6 p. m., 
respectively. The afternoon train is run through with a 
trailer from points on the Western Ohio line. As an illus- 
tration of the prompt character of the service furnished it 
may be stated that goods received at the freight house at 
Toledo by 5 p. m. reach Dayton, a distance of 160 miles, at 
9:30 o'clock the next morning. The freight is shipped via 
the Western Ohio Railway to Piqua, and from there to 
Dayton over the Dayton & Troy Electric Railway. Freight 
is shipped also to Ft. Wayne, Ind., a distance of 148 miles, 
reaching there, if left at the Toledo freight house before 
5 p. m., by noon of the following day. This freight is 
shipped via the Toledo Urban & Interurban Railway and the 
Western Ohio Railway to Lima, and from there to Ft. 
Wayne via the Ohio Electric Railway. From Ft. Wayne 
shipments are made to points on the Ft. Wayne & Spring- 
field Railway, giving the latter company the benefit of a 
through freight arrangement between Toledo and Decatur, 
Ind., and the other places which it reaches. 

The average amount of outgoing freight handled at the 
Toledo freight house is about 75 tons a day, and the incom- 
ing freight averages about 50 tons daily. 



The Electric Traction Department of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad has been studying for a long time the relative 
merits of the various systems of traction available for the 
operation of the New York terminal and tunnels. To ob- 
tain more extensive information of the value of high-volt- 

Exterior of Freight House at Toledo 

building fronts. The freight house is of pressed brick with 
concrete foundation and covers an area 25 ft. x 170 ft. In 
addition to the main floor on which the goods are handled 
between the wagons and cars there is a basement which is 
used for storing freight that it is necessary to hold for any 
material length of time. An elevator is used between the 
basement and main floor. The basement is 11 ft. in height 
and the main floor is 14 ft. high. An office is located at 
the front of the main floor. 

The rapid service offered by the Toledo Urban & Inter- 
urban Railway and its connections has made possible the de- 
velopment of its freight business to the present point. By 
traffic agreement with the Western Ohio Railway, through 

age single-phase overhead trolley construction under its 
special conditions, the Pennsylvania Railroad has deter- 
mined to equip electrically about 5 miles of one of the out- 
lying lines of the Long Island Railroad east of Garden 
City, where experimental work will not interfere with the 
traffic. This branch line is practically straight and of low 
gradients (not exceeding 1 per cent), and suitable for run- 
ning at speeds up to at least 65 m.p.h. 

Several types of overhead catenary trolley construction, 
both for tunnel and open line conditions, will be installed 
and tested for both locomotive and multiple unit train 
operation. The tests will be conducted during the summer 
and early fall. 









This Ticket entitles the Holder to 
a Yellow Transfer. 

Good only for date and to destinatioi 
munched, within the t,.ne limit Nottrane 
erable. Subject to of the Company 

Transfer with Clock 

The transfer system of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Com- 
pany is the outcome of an experience of about 13 years. 
The system limits the number of changes to connecting lines 
to two for each passenger and includes provision for an 
excellent emergency service in case of accidents. Since its 
introduction on May 9, 1907, the 
operation of the transfer sys- 
tem has been highly satisfactory. 
In order to appreciate the con- 
ditions in Brooklyn, it is neces- 
sary to understand the distribu- 
tion of traffic within the city. In 
general, all lines except those 
that are purely crosstown lead 
to New York. The consequence 
is that a network of lines extends 
from the ferries and bridges over 
the East River to all parts of 
Brooklyn, and these lines connect 
with others in such a way as to 
make possible a complete loop by 
means of the different roads. 
For instance, a person crossing 
the Brooklyn Bridge may trans- 
fer in Brooklyn to a line connect- 
i n g with the Williamsburg 
Bridge, cross that structure and 
return for one fare to almost the 
place in New York from which 
he started. In other words, there 
are not, as in New York and many other cities, two general 
directions of travel, east or west and north or south. Under 
previous systems of the Brooklyn company where unlimited 
transfers prevailed, the general abuse of the transfer privi- 
lege through loop trips became a matter of civic shame. 
While loop trips are not prevented entirely by the present 
system, the number is greatly reduced. The number of dif- 
ferent lines on which a person may ride for one fare is lim- 
ited to three by the present system, except in special cases. 
A feature of the present system is the number of emer- 

f ncy transfers provided. This is due to the operation by 
e company of both surface and elevated lines, and the 
limitations imposed by operation over 
the Brooklyn Bridge. An accident on 
either the surface or the elevated tracks 
crossing that structure throws the bur- 
den of traffic on the other at once, and 
njeans must be provided to meet the situ- 
ation. Another point where an accident 
means immediate congestion is between 
the Brooklyn Bridge and Navy Street 
on Myrtle Avenue, where three of the 
four elevated lines of the company 
operate over one structure. The sur- 
face lines on lower Fulton Street make 
service conditions severe, but the new line between Court 
Street and Flatbush Avenue on Livingston Street, which 
parallels Fulton Street, furnishes a route to which all cars 
regularly operated on Fulton Street may be diverted easily 
in the event of a blockade on Fulton Street. 

The general use of transfers in Brooklyn dates from the 
organization of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company in 
1895. Prior to that time there were six transfer points on 
the lines that were combined in the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
system. Before the consolidation square tickets dated each 

day were used, and were distributed by transfer agents at 
the intersection of transfer lines. The form of these tickets 
was continued in use by the new company for a short time 
only, until separate tickets issued by conductors were 
adopted for each line. These tickets were punched for the 
day of the month, the time and the direction of travel and 
were used until 1900. 

The system now in use had its beginning in 1900, when a 
long ticket dated each day was adopted. This ticket had a 
clock face similar to the present "continuing" trip ticket and 
was punched for the hour and minute. It contained the 
name of the issuing line and all lines on which it was good 
for a ride. In May, 1905, separate tickets for a. m. and 
p. m. were adopted in different colors, requiring a punch for 
the time only. These tickets gave the name of the issuing 
and the connecting lines. The present form was adopted in 
May, 1907. 

From 1895 to 1907, the method of issuing transfers was. 
changed from time to time in an effort to facilitate the 
movement of traffic. From 1895 to 1897 all tickets were 
issued by conductors. In May,||||97, 10 agents were used 
on the southern division, and irt^July of that year agents 
were introduced on the eastern division also. In 1903 these 
agents were discontinued except at points where transfers 
are issued from short lines to trough cars. About two 
years ago agents were stationed^Kring the summer at sev- 
eral important transfer points, but after a short trial it was 
found that the transfers could be issued as satisfactorily 
and with less confusion by the conductors. 

The present system includes a conductor's continuing trip 
ticket, a transfer agent's continuing trip ticket, two con- 
ductor's transfers of different colors, a conductor's special 
ticket, a transfer agent's special ticket, an elevated transfer 
agent's ticket, a bridge transfer, a car to car transfer, a 
bridge emergency ticket and an elevated emergency ticket. 
Specimens of several different types are illustrated here- 

The conductor's continuing trip ticket is on white paper 
and is issued by feeder lines. It is honored on the connect- 
ing line as a cash fare, the holder being entitled to a yellow 
transfer on which in turn a green slip may be issued. The 
transfer agent's continuing trip ticket, which is on white 
paper and entitles the holder to a yellow transfer, is issued 
only where there are short spur lines. Instead of the name 


Valid for one rid© on all line* of the Brooklyn Union 
Elevated Railroad Co., the Brooklyn Heights Railroad Co., 
or the Naenau Electric Rdllroad Co., operated ovex or irom 
the Brooklyn Bridge or from Fulton Ferry, 

Good only on date punched and next connecting car. Not 
transferable. Subject to the rules of the Companies named. 

_j CO c_ t— 

The Brooklyn Heights Railroad Comp'y EMERGENCY 


This Ticket Is valid only during tl 
of blockade on E levated Lines* and 1 
then be received as a Continuing Trip 
Ticket on any of the Elevated 
face LlneB of this Company, 
event of both Elevated and Surface 
Linen being blocked, this ticket will be 
redeemable, within five days, at the 
office of the Cashier, No. 168 Montague 
Street, when presented by the Individ* 
ualto whom Issued. 




Sample Emergency Transfers 

of the line this transfer contains the number of a transfer 
station. The time is punched in fractions of the hour. 

Except in a few special cases all regular yellow and green 
transfers issued by conductors are good in either direction 
on the connecting line. The yellow transfer is issued on 
payment of a cash fare or on a white continuing trip ticket 
and the green ticket is issued on presentation by the passen- 
ger of a yellow ticket. The efficient working of the system 
largely depends upon the strict observance of this order. 
Each yellow and green transfer bears the name of the 

Junk 13, 1908.] 



issuing line. At the top of a yellow transfer there are 
printed, in alphabetical order, the names and numbers of 
the lines to which the issuing line transfers directly. Oppo- 
site the names of the lines, under the heading "Second trans- 
fer lines," are printed the number or numbers of the "direct 
transfer lines," to one of which the passenger must first 
transfer by yellow ticket, and then with green ticket to the 
line on which he desires to travel'." If the desired line is not 
in the list of direct transfer lines, second transfer lines or 
under the heading "Important" the line is not operated by 
the company receiving the fare and the passenger is not 
entitled to a transfer. 

The green transfer differs slightly from that printed on 
yellow paper except that the smaller number of names of 
other transfer lines required on the list permits a more 
orderly display of the names of the different lines with 
their numbers. The same method of dating and of divi- 
sions for a. m. and p. m. is followed with both the yellow 
and the green slips. On the yellow transfer the time of the 
nearest hour only is punched, but on the green transfer 
and all special transfers the number of the line which issued 
the yellow ticket is punched also, preventing the passenger 
from re-transferring to the line from which he came. To 
insure compliance with the rule regarding the punching on 
the green transfer of the number of the line which issued 
the yellow transfer, a penalty is imposed on a conductor of 
5 cents for turning in a green transfer without the original 
line number punched thereon. 

The conductor's special ticket, which is issued only to 
feeder lines and in exchange for a green transfer, contains 
the name of the issuing line and is punched at the nearest 
hour. The transfer agent's special ticket differs from the 
conductor's special ticket in having the station number in 
place of the name of the issuing line and in having places 
provided for punching the quarter hours. 

The transfer ticket issued from the elevated division by 
transfer agents is on yellow paper, provides for the continu- 
ation by surface car of a journey begun on the elevated line, 
and is punched for the quarter hours. 

The bridge "Buffalo" transfer is good on any" surface or 
elevated line eastbound in Brooklyn and is dated daily. 
This transfer is simply a precautionary transfer to provide 
for the ready transfer of passengers from the elevated to 
surface lines, or vice versa, on account of some special 
contingency on the bridge. 

The "car to car" transfer is intended as a general emer- 
gency ticket and is accepted at all points by surface and 
elevated lines. It retains the clock-face of the old style 
transfer. As this transfer is punched for the month, day, 
hour and minute, it affords a quick method of relieving a 
blockade that fully protects the company from abuse. The 
ticket that provides for an emergency transfer of a passen- 
ger from the surface to the elevated line crossing the bridge, 
or vice versa, is punched for the month and day and is good 
only on the next connecting car. 

The elevated emergency ticket provides for a transfer of 
a passenger during a blockade on an elevated road to the 
surface lines or to another elevated line. This ticket is 
honored by the surface lines as a cash fare, but is valid 
during the time of the blockade only; if not used for trans- 
portation it is redeemable, within five days, at the office of 
the company. The surface emergency ticket, good on all 
surface lines from Brooklyn to Park Row, Manhattan, pro- 
vides for the transfer of a passenger from the elevated lines 
crossing the Brooklyn Bridge to a surface line in the event 
of a blockade. 

The transfers are delivered by the printer to the stock 

room two days in advance of the day they are dated. One 
day before the transfers are to be used they are delivered 
to the depots by special car and receipts are taken from the 
depot masters. Transfers are given to conductors when 
they report for work about 10 minutes before they take out 
cars. This allows very little time for conversation between 
the train men after they receive the transfers and reduces 
to a minimum the temptation for men to traffic in the slips 
if they work on different lines starting from the same car 
house. Conductors on lines passing the car house are given 
only one pad of each kind of transfers at a time, while men 
on lines that do not pass the car house receive a supply of 
tickets for the day. The practice of registering all transfer 
tickets on separate clocks has been followed since Feb. II, 
1907. Between that date and Aug. 1, 1900, both cash fares 
and transfers were registered on one clock, and between 
1900 and 1903 all fares were registered as passengers 
boarded the car. 

The following table shows the increases in cash and trans- 
fer passengers on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit system : 

Per cent. 

Number Number transfer to 

Passenger Passengers Transfers cash pas- 

Year. Receipts. at 5c. each. Received. sengers. 

J 899 $10,058,343.83 20I,l66,8/6 41,893,744 20.82 

1900 II,206,/l6.0I 224,134,320 42,051,904 18.7 

1 90 1 11,718,942.39 234,378,848 56,140,101 23.95 

1902 12,321,264.60 246,425,292 50,883,702 20.65 

1903 13,086,840.14 261,736,802 53,436,921 20.41 

1904 14,429,546.04 288,590,920 56,804,382 19.68 

1905 15,649,400.80 312,988,016 70,073,877 22.38 

1906 17,586,721.57 35I.734430 96,455,314 27.4 

1907 18,401,174.96 368,023,498 136,240,669 37. 


The Rochester (N. Y.) Railway Company has made a 
change in its excursion rate policy on the Rochester to 
Sodus Bay and other interurban lines. At the terminal of 
the Sodus Bay line, which is 41 miles long, there is a popu- 
lar water resort which induces quite a traffic from lovers of 
boating and fishing. Last year the regular rate to Sodus 
Bay was 90 cents for the round trip, but the company also 
offered an excursion rate of 75 cents, effective from May 1 
to October 1. The latter ticket was supposed, to be limited 
to the day of sale except that it was also good from Fridays 
to Mondays. The result was that the majority of the pas- 
sengers took advantage of the 75-cent rate for week-end 
travel. On Sundays the business was too large to handle, 
while through the week the equipment was idle. This year 
excursion trips to Sodus Bay are limited to $1, while the 
regular rate is $1.16 under the new tariff. One way tickets 
figure out 1.75 cents per mile, excursion 1.5 cents and cash 
fare 2.1 cents. The ticket sales now amount to 90 per cent 
of the total business and the collection and accounting prob- 
lems are therefore simplified materially for the departments 
which are responsible for that part of the business. 

Special one-day excursion tickets are sold for $1 during 
June, July, August and September, except Satuidays, Sun- 
days and holidays. The company believes it the wrong 
policy to give the cheapest rate on Sundays and holidays. 
Passengers should be tempted to ride on the light days of 
the week when they can travel in greater comfort. This 
policy also pleases the regular riders, who do not enjoy being 
crowded on days of heavy traffic by those who take advan- 
tage of excursion rates. . 

All interstate traffic agreements with steamboat and rail- 
road companies for passenger and freight business have 
been revoked by the Rochester Railway Company. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 


Some of the State commissions which have jurisdiction 
over electric railways have already taken action on the re- 
vised classification of accounts suggested by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. 

Announcement has been made of a conference of the 
State railroad commissioners of Wisconsin, Illinois, In- 
diana, Ohio, Second District of New York, and Michigan, at 
the offices of the Illinois Railroad and Warehouse Commis- 
sion in Chicago on June 12. In a letter regarding this meet- 
ing Louis C. Cramton, secretary Michigan Railroad Com- 
mission, says: "It is probable that the tentative Interstate 
Commerce Commission classification of accounts for electric 
railways will have some consideration. The meeting, how- 
ever, was not called primarily for that purpose, the primary 
object being to promote a better understanding among the 
commissions of the states that will deal largely with the 
same lines and the same problems. It is probable that the 
discussion at the proposed meeting, which will be informal, 
will cover a wide range of topics." 

Letters to the Electric Railway Journal from State 
commissions give the following information on the subject: 

H. D. Manington, Secretary Railroad Commission of 
Ohio — This commission has adopted the revised classifica- 
tion of accounts for electric railways prepared by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 

Harry S. Calvert, Secretary Pennsylvania State Rail- 
road Commission — Up to this time the commission has not 
taken up the subject. An investigation of the matter is 
being made now. 

Charles E. Mann, Clerk Board of Railroad Commis- 
sioners, Massachusetts — The board after a careful consid 
eration of present unsettled conditions in regard to railroad 
and street railway accounting has decided that for the com- 
ing fiscal years, commencing June 30 and Sept. 30, respect- 
ively, it will require returns from railroads and street rail- 
ways on the same form of blank as now used, hoping that 
before another season matters will have been formulated in 
such a way as to enable the board to settle upon some defin- 
ite plan for the future. 

Dwight N. Lewis, Secretary Board of Railroad Com- 
missioners, Iowa — Under the laws of this State, this board 
has no power to supervise street railways, the only electric 
railways over which this board has jurisdiction being the 
interurban lines. I have not, as yet, had time to examine 
the proposed classification of accounts for electric railways, 
so am unable at this time to advise you what action the 
board will take. 

Charles B. Riley, Secretary Railroad Commission of 
Indiana — This commission has not yet taken action on the 

H. C. Brown, Clerk North Carolina Corporation Commis- 
sion — Our commission advised the statistician of the Intet- 
state Commerce Commission that it would adopt the classi- 
fication as proposed or adopted by that commission. 

D. B. Cornett, Secretary Kentucky Railroad Commis- 
sion — This commission has taken no action yet in this 

William H. Stanley, Secretary South Dakota Board of 
Railroad Commissioners — Inasmuch as this commission has 
no jurisdiction in matters affecting electric railways it was 
thought best not to offer any criticisms or suggestions in 
regard to the matter and Prof. H. C. Adams was so advised. 
I might say in this connection that this commission is dis- 

posed to accept and adopt the accounting systems proposed 
by Professor Adams, so far as they relate to matters within 
the jurisdiction of this commission, believing that they are 
most carefully prepared by Professor Adams with the as- 
sistance of numerous other experts of the first class after 
a most thorough and exhaustive investigation. 

E. C. Shiner, Secretary Board of Railroad Commis- 
sioners of Kansas — The board has had considerable corre- 
spondence with Prof. H. C. Adams, in charge of statistics 
and accounts, Interstate Commerce Commission, regarding 
the system of accounts for electric railways, and has advised 
Professor Adams that the board desires the use of such 
classification of accounts by Kansas electric lines and that 
such accounting system be inaugurated, to commence with 
the fiscal year. It is, however, the intention of the board, 
before any formal action is taken in the premises, to advise 
the Kansas electric lines interested and give their repre- 
sentatives an opportunity to appear and be heard in respect 
to the adoption of such accounting system. 

Louis C. Cramton, Secretary Michigan Railroad Com- 
mission. — The revised classification submitted by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission is now under consideration by 
this commission. No final action will be taken prior to a 
conference with representatives of the electric railway 
companies of this State, which will be held with the com- 
mission at its office at Lansing at an early date. 

Richard T. Wilson, Clerk Virginia State Corporation 
Commission. — It is the policy of this commission to follow, 
as far as possible, the system of accounting adopted by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission for all public service 
corporations, and it is our purpose to do so in the case of 
electric railways. In view of the fact, however, that the 
proposed system will not be made effective by the Interstate 
Commission until Oct. 1, 1908, this commission has con- 
cluded that it will be best to continue under its present 
system of accounting until July 1, 1909, as we desire to 
avoid two systems of accounting during the fiscal year. 
— ♦•• 


The works of Franco Tosi, Legnano, near Milan, Italy, 
have under construction for a Buenos Ayres central sta- 
tion a steam turbine which will develop 12,000 hp at nor- 
mal load and 14,200 hp for two hours. The steam pressure 
required is 12 atmospheres (176.4 lb. per sq. in.) and the 
steam is superheated to 300 deg. C. The speed is 760 r.p.m. 
The turbine is direct connected to a Brown-Boveri three- 
phase, 25-cycle, 12,000-volt alternator, which receives a 220- 
volt current from a shaft-coupled exciter. A surface con- 
denser is provided and the steam consumption is about 
j 4. 1 lb. per kw-hour. The combined weight of turbine, 
alternator and condenser is about 369 tons. 

The steam turbine is of the Parsons type, with a Fulla- 
gar low-pressure balancer. Its designs, however, were 
got out in the Tosi works. The cylinder is of cast iron and 
is divided into two parts horizontally, and each of these 
parts consists in turn of two others. The shaft is of forged 
steel. A valve body fitted laterally in the cylinder contains 
the main steam valve, which is operated by hand, while 
the throttle valve is controlled by a valve gear which regu- 
lates the quantity of steam admitted into the turbine. The 
turbine shaft is carried in two spherical bearings arranged 
for forced lubrication. It is connected with the alternator 
shaft by a flexible joint which allows of small displace- 
ments. Where the shaft emerges from the casing at both 
ends the joints are made steam-tight by packed grooves. 

June 13, ti;o8.] 



At the high-pressure end a worm is fitted on the shaft to 
transmit movement by gearing to two vertical shafts run- 
ning at 175 r.p.m., to each of which is fitted a rotary pump 
which takes oil by suction from a plate tank under one of 
the ends of the casings and delivers it at a pressure of 1.5 
atmospheres. The two pumps work in parallel and send oil 
into a single pressure pipe from which it is forced through 
a cooler to the bearings. An auxiliary steam pump is em- 
ployed to force the lubricant into the bearings at the start, 
because the main oil pumps only begin to suck oil after a 
speed of one-quarter of the normal number of revolutions 
has been reached. One of the above 175-r.p.m. shafts car- 
ries a speed governor which controls the distributing gear 
slide valve and a safety governor which acts on the hand 
shut-off of the main steam valve of the turbine, closing it 
instantaneously should the speed exceed the normal by 15 
per cent. A thrust block fitted at the head of the turbine 
serves to prevent axial movements of the shaft and to take 
up the axial thrust. 

The cylinder is constructed to resemble a tube as closely 
as possible. There are no steam ways cast solid, these be- 
ing replaced by tubes and expansion joints to avoid all 

cylinder as far as possible. It is of considerable width, 
however, and attains almost the diameter of the condenser 
in order that the steam may pass without eddy into the con- 
denser, being distributed uniformly over the entire surface 
of the tubes which are to condense it. 

The rotor drum is made of steel, forged in one piece. 
On the low-pressure side the drum is connected by a cast- 
steel head to the forged steel shaft by force fit when hot. 
On the high-pressure side the shaft is likewise fitted hot 
into the drum, and the end is provided with a steam cham- 
ber in order that the shaft head and drum may expand 
equally. The usual practice of this firm with other tur- 
bines is to have screw flange connections between these 
pieces, but it always uses the steam .chamber. 

The distributing valve gear controlling the steam inlet 
valve is not worked by steam as in the Parsons turbine, 
but by oil at atmospheres pressure, supplied by the main 
pumps already mentioned. The use of steam requires a 
very accurate adjustment and maintenance of the various 
parts, especially in plants in which the steam is not clean. 
By the use of oil this disadvantage is removed, because all 
the parts are at a low temperature and are well lubricated. 

Fig. 1. — Cross-section of 12,000-hp Steam Turbine for Buenos Ayres. (Dimensions are given in millimeters.) 

twist, and leave the case free to expand. The main valve 
body is independent of the cylinder, and rests on the foun- 
dation plate. The steam reaching it from the main pipe 
passes through the throttle valve and is conducted to the 
cylinder by a U-shaped tube to allow expansion. 

The number of rows of blades is such as to allow but a 
small difference of pressure between them, and, therefore, 
a limited velocity of the steam. It is asserted that the 
steam thus yields up its energy to the wheels of the rotor 
under the best possible conditions, because the reduced 
velocity places the losses by leakage and friction at a 
minimum. The lowest radial clearance above the blade 
ends is 1.8 mm (0.7 in.), which is more than sufficient to 
prevent grazing, while it is small relatively to the length of 
the blades, so that the loss owing to escape of steam at the 
periphery of the wheel is very little. On the other hand, 
this loss is not considered detrimental to efficiency, because 
as the steam escapes through the clearance at the per- 
iphery it is sharply throttled, and the velocity which it ac- 
quires generates heat. This causes the superheating of 
the steam, or at least tends to dry it before it acts upon the 
following blades, thus diminishing the loss by friction. 

The exhaust chamber of the turbine is rectangular and 
of limited axial dimensions to reduce the length of the 

The turbine cannot run if the engineer forgets to start the 
small auxiliary pump already described, because steam can- 
not be admitted to the turbine. This prevents injury to the 
bearings, which are completely dry of oil before starting. 
Moreover, the turbine stops if, for any reason, the oil under 
pressure supplied by the pumps should fail. 

The speed of the turbine is but very little influenced by 
the pressure of steam, while it is extremely sensitive to the 
steam distribution. This, it is pointed out, is of great im- 
portance, because the pressure in the boilers continually 
fluctuates and drops at the moment of maximum load, and 
in ordinary cases causes a noticeable diminution of speed 
in the turbine. 

The valve gear is composed of the following parts : The 
inlet valve A is balanced, has a double seat, and is con- 
nected by a joint, which leaves it free to rotate, with the 
road of a piston B sliding in a cylinder C, into the lower 
part of which the oil under pressure is admitted or dis- 
charged by means of a rotary distributor D. The latter 
is controlled by a centrifugal governor. The pressure of 
the oil driven by the piston is counterbalanced by a 
spring L. 

In the valve D are provided four longitudinal channels, 
which serve for the passage of the oil under pressure to 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

the cylinder C, when the piston B is to be raised; and as 
many others which discharge the oil from C when B is to 
be lowered. 

These channels correspond to the ports made in the 
valve M, Fig. 2, which rotates about D, and which, 
by means of the lever P Q, is actuated by the rod of the 
piston B. The slide valves D and M turn in a chamber N 
which terminates in a tube containing oil under pressure, 
and from which a discharge pipe branches off. When cor- 
rectly adjusted, the slide valves D and M are in such a 
position that the admission and discharge channels for oil 
are closed. When the load varies, by an increase, for in- 
stance, the centrifugal governor drops and causes D to 
turn to open the channels so that the pressure oil enters the 
cylinder C, the piston B rises, opens the valve A, and causes 
the valve M to turn so as once more to close the channels 
opened by D. The valve thus closes in a position corre- 
sponding to the fresh load, and when adjustment has ef- 
fected itself, the two distributors D and M are found in 
the same relative position as previously ; that is, as though 
they formed together a single rigid pin, and the governor 

Fig. 2. — 12,000-hp Turbine, Details of Valve Gear 

rotating this pin had directly transferred the valve to its 
new position. 

The regulation, the maker claims, is, therefore, rapid 
because the valve D opens a large admission or discharge 
port for oil so as rapidly to raise or lower the piston B 
and the valve A. It is stable because the valve D, drawing 
after it the valve M, rapidly closes the port previously 
opened, thus preventing over-regulation ; it is sensitive be- 
cause the slide D is perfectly balanced by the special dis- 
position of its channels, and it is energetic in view of the 
abundant dimensions of the oil piston B, which are such 
as to have a great power available to overcome any friction 
which may develop in the valve gear. 

The cylinder has a non-conducting layer placed beneath 
its outside lagging, which is easily dismounted and re- 
mounted without injury. In this way the outside losses of 
heat are limited; greater uniformity of temperature be- 
tween the inner and outer parts of the walls of the cylinder 
is secured, and the outside temperature of the engine is 
kept at a low point. 

The surface condenser was constructed by the firm of 
Tosi in accordance with its own designs. It consists of the 
condensation chamber placed directly beneath the turbine, 

a submerged air pump, and two centrifugal pumps for the 
water circulation. The condenser body is cylindrical and is 
made of sheets hydraulically riveted. The steam enters 
from an upper rectangular port, subdivided into two cur- 
rents by passages ; the steam passing through each of 
these makes three turns round the brass tubes, in the in- 
terior of which the circulation water flows, the latter like- 
wise making three turns. 

The gaseous products and the condensed steam are made 
almost as cool as the temperature of the cold circulation 
water, which allows of extracting them by one wet air 
pump. The inside of the condenser body is designed in 
such a way as to avoid noticeable resistances to the cur- 
rents of steam, and to utilize the entire surface of the 
tubes. The condenser body does not rest rigidly on the 
flooring, but is supported by three balancing appliances, each 
of them capable of balancing, in addition to its weight, 
that of a part of the tubing and the circulating water. 
This arrangement, however, completely relieves the turbine 
cylinder from the considerable load due to the atmospheric 
pressure on the area corresponding to the exhaust, which 
is about 68,324 lb., while leaving the various parts complete 
freedom to expand. Naturally this load always exists, but 
its action is only to compress the connecting flanges between 
the turbine and the condenser. If, however, it had been 
decided — in order to leave the expansion free — to interpose 
an expansion joint of the sliding or flexible type between 
the turbine and the condenser, the action of the atmos- 
pheric pressure would, on the one hand, have counter- 
balanced the weight of the condenser body, but, on the 
other, have stressed the turbine casing, producing a de- 
formation in the latter. 

The air pump consists of two double-acting cylinders 
with vertical axes which work in parallel. The operation 
is as follows : The piston, in rising, effects suction from 
below ; not through valves which would produce resist- 
ances, but through an annular aperture which it opens. In 
descending it compresses below and sucks above ; again 
rising, it compresses above and forces the air and water 
out through the valve plate into the chamber above the pis- 
ton. The clearance is small in volume, and even at a very 
low pressure, i. e., about that of the condenser, the yield 
in volume is said to be excellent. The tightness between 
the suction chambers and the corresponding compression 
chambers, as likewise the piston guide, is secured by means 
of the water itself, which is sucked up. This is found to be 
good enough without having recourse to spring packings^ 
The maker points out that the wear and tear of the pistons 
is very small, owing to their vertical arrangement, and 
claims that the obtainable vacuum is invariable even after 
lengthy running. It is also claimed that this type of pump 
presents the advantages possessed by dry pumps with slide 
valve distribution and equilibrium channels, but that it is 
much more simple and accessible, and always remains at a 
low temperature ; while in dry pumps, notwithstanding the 
circulation around the cylinders, such high temperatures are 
reached as to render lubrication difficult. 

The double compression arrangement allows a siphon 
system to be maintained in the circulation water pipes, so 
that the two resistances overcome by the centrifugal pump 
are limited to the internal friction of the pipes and the dif- 
ference of head. It is necessary to extract the air ac- 
cumulating in the higher part of this system, as it would 
increase the resistance to be overcome by the centrifugal 
pump. This air is extracted by a pump and an ejector 
connected with the second compression chamber of the air 

June 13, 1908.] 



pump, and this, in the maker's experience, in no wise di- 
minishes the vacuum obtained in the condenser. The pump 
is driven by a 440-volt, 80-hp, 145 r.p.m. d.c. motor. 

The volumetric displacement of the pump is, further- 
more, abundant for rapidly exhausting the air contained 
in the condenser and turbine at the start and of obtaining 
a good vacuum even in the event of infiltrations of air 
through the stuffing-boxes of the turbine flanges, the suc- 
tion tubes of the boiler feed pipes, etc. 

The centrifugal circulating pumps work in parallel. 
They are constructed for a lift of 32.8 ft., and to each is 
coupled up a 440-volt, 90-hp, 496 r.p.m. d.c. motor. 

The circulation system works, as already stated, by 
siphonic action. At its highest point a chamber is fitted in 
which accumulates the air extracted by the second chamber 
of the air pump, a small non-return valve being inter- 
posed. Connection may be interrupted by a valve operated 
by a float, which prevents circulation water unadapted for 
feeding, and which would afterward mingle with the con- 
densed steam, from entering the air pump. To the con- 
denser a valve is attached to turn the exhaust to atmosphere 
in the event of stoppage of the condenser motors. 


.P. J. Pringle, manager of the Burton-on-Trent (Eng- 
land) Tramways, has invented an emergency track brake 
which has been applied to six cars on that system. The 
operative part consists of a steel or iron shoe, with its base 
shaped to engage the rail head and its top provided with a 
flange and inclined groove to engage the car wheel. Each 
shoe is hung close to the wheel by a slotted link under pres- 
sure from a compression spring so that when free the shoe 
drops into the rail groove, while the wheel flange mounts 
the shoe, thereby converting the weight on the wheel into 
braking effort. The shoe is held off the rail by a wire cable 
connected to a platform lever and is put on by pressing a 

Braking" and the back one "Backward Braking," so that 
in a backward runaway the motorman brakes the wheels 
which normally would be in front. This emergency brake 
can be applied from either end. It is reported that Moun- 
tain & Gibson, Ltd., have taken the manufacturing rights. 


The Danville Car Company has recently delivered to the 
Gary Interurban Railway, Gary, 111., several semi-steel, 
semi-convertible cars mounted on Brill No. 27-G1 trucks, 
ready for operation. The bodies are 30 ft. long; the length 
over vestibules is 40 ft. ; the length over bumpers, 42 ft. ; the 
width over sills, 8 ft. % in. ; the width over the belt rail, 8 ft. 
2 in.; the extreme width over all, 8 ft. 4 in.; the height 

Interurban Car for Gary & Interurban Railway, Gary, 111. 

from under side of sill to top of roof, 9 ft. 1% in. The 
bottom framing consists of two center 6-in. I-beams with 
wood fillers. The outside sills are double, with 7-in. x }^-m. 
steel plate between. The end and cross sills are braced with 
iron brackets and tie rods at suitable intervals, which ex- 
tend across the bottom framing. The 10-in. steel body 

Application of Track and Wheel Brake for Emergencies Handles and Levers Controlling the Emergency Brake 

second lever, which lifts a detent out of the first lever to 
free the shoes. The arrangement of these levers is shown 
in one of the illustrations. An advantageous feature is 
that the breakage of the cable applies the brake, since the 
function of the wire is really a negative one. 

As arranged at present on a single truck car, only the two 
rear wheels are braked, but the operating platform lever 
has two knobs, the front one being marked "Forward 

bolsters are inserted and bolted to longitudinal sills and a 
conduit is arranged between the center sills for carrying 
the cables, etc. The under-truss rods are in. in diam- 
eter. The outside and ends are sheathed with tongue-and- 
groove yellow pine and plated with sheet steel. The in- 
terior is also covered with sheet steel below the arm rail, 
but there is a 2-in. opening at the bottom to enable the win- 
dow pockets to be cleaned. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 


The American Locomotive Company has recently com- 
pleted an order for four motor trucks for the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad. These trucks are de- 
signed for service on the New Canaan branch of the road. 

Truck Carrying Two 125-hp Single-phase Motors 

load 15,000 lb. The cars will have two GE-603-A, 125-hp 
single-phase motors per truck and will be operated at a 
maximum speed of 50 m.p.h. 

The trucks, which are of the builder's type B592, while 
presenting no unusual features of construction, are inter- 
esting as indicating the design considered by the manufac- 
turer and railroad company as desirable for heavy high 
speed service. The top frames are made of wrought iron 
side bars 2% in. thick and 454 in- wide, tied together at the 
ends by angle iron end frames reinforced by steel plate 
corner gussets. The swinging bolsters are built up of 12 in. 
x 1 in. wrought iron bars. The 10-in. steel channel tran- 
soms are carried on lips on the frame center braces, thus 
reducing the shear on the bolts through brace and transom. 
The cast steel transom gussets make a very rigid connection 
between transoms and side frames. These gussets include 
bearings for swing link pins, brake hanger lugs and brake 
release spring brackets and thereby eliminate a number of 

Construction Details of Truck for Two 125-hp Single-phase Motors 

running from New Canaan to Stamford, a distance of 8 small parts usually bolted or riveted to the frame and tran- 
miles. This branch is at present a steam road, but is being som. The wear or rubbing pieces between the bolster and 
electrified and will act as a feeder for the main line. transom prevent the bolster from cramping in starting or 

Combination Passenger and Baggage Car for the Electrified Branch of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 

Between New Canaan and Stamford 

The trucks will be used under 68-ft. combination baggage 
and passenger cars, having a seating capacity of 51. The 
total weight of the equipment complete without passenger 
or freight load is approximately 160,000 lb.; the maximum 

stopping. The wrought iron pedestals have steel plate wear 
pieces covering all wearing surfaces and are tied together 
at the bottom by large bolts through the pedestal, legs and 
cast iron thimble or spreader. Safety straps are provided 

passenger load will be approximately 8000 lb. and the freight under the spring plank, over the top of the bolster and under 

Junk 13, 1908.] 



the brake bottom connections. All the brake lever holes and 
hanger pins are designed for large bearing surfaces and are 
case hardened. 

The principal dimensions and weights are as follows : 
Wheel base, 92 in. ; total length, 11 ft. 8 in. ; transverse cen- 
ters of frames, 6 ft. 5 in. ; height from top of rail to truck 
center plate, 30% in. (with light car body) ; maximum load 
at center plate, 53,250 lb.; wheels, 36 in. diameter; axles. 
6^2 in. diameter; journals, 5^2 in. x 10 in.; weight without 
motors, wheels or axles, 8600 lb. ; weight complete without 
motors, 14,900 lb. 


The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company is now experi- 
menting with a gasoline emergency wagon and if satisfac- 
tory will adopt gasoline motor wagons in its emergency 
service and substitute them for the horse-drawn revenue 
collection wagons. The chassis and running gear were pur- 
chased, but the body was taken from one of the regular 
emergency wagons of the company. 

To test the vehicle, it was placed in Crew House No. 2 
on Herkimer Street, the territory of which includes the 
Bedford and East New York sections and such remote 
suburban places as Carnarsie, Bergen Beach and Jamaica. 
Crews are instructed to report by telephone with their sta- 
tions as soon as a job is finished so they may be assigned 
again if necessary, but frequently on the runs to remote 
places a return had to be made to the crew station for new 
horses before a second call could be answered. This, of 
course, is unnecessary with the motor truck. During three 
very warm days last month the wagon ran more than 120 
miles on emergency calls. 

The wagon is equipped with a two-cylinder 20-hp air- 
cooled engine with direct drive, the engine shaft being con- 

Brooklyn Gasoline Emergency Wagon 

nected to the differential and the differential to the rear 
wheels. The speed is 14 m.p.h. The tires are solid rubber 
and are expected to have a life of 20,000 miles. At an aver- 
age run of 30 miles per day this would make them last two 
years. The consumption of gasoline is 1 gal. for 9 miles, 
so that at 14 cents a gallon the average daily cost for fuel 
is about 50 cents. In addition 50 cents a day is allowed for 
lubrication, making the operating cost, exclusive of repairs, 
$1 a day. Besides the regular side lamps the motor wagon 

carries an acetylene searchlight which is mounted on the 
dash and can be trained on the work under way. The pur- 
pose is later to mount a tower at the rear of the wagon. At 
present ladders are used, but they are not satisfactory, as a 
man has to be at the foot of the ladder to divert wagons 
to insure the safety of the man at work and the crew is 
reduced by one man on this account. 

The body of the wagon is painted the standard B. R. T. 
colors. The wagon is manned by the regular emergency 
wagon crew, and no additional expense has been entailed 
for labor. 


The accompanying illustration shows a simple and inex- 
pensive gas burner for heating tires which has been de- 
signed and built at the shops of the Aurora, Elgin & "Chi- 
cago Railroad Company at Wheaton, 111. A gasolene 
burner was formerly used for this purpose, but it was ex- 
pensive to operate and dangerous as well. A high-proof 
gasolene was required and it was found to be impossible 

Gas Burner for Expanding Tires 

to store it even in tightly closed metal casks without a loss 
from evaporation greater than the amount actually burned 
during the comparatively infrequent use of the burner. 
Some time was necessary to start the burner and it fre- 
quently flooded so that the fire had to be put out and the 
tire allowed to cool down before starting up again. The 
burner shown was built and, after several experiments 
were made to determine the proper size and location of 
the air nozzle, it was made to work with complete success 
at the surprisingly low consumption of 4 cu. ft. of gas per 
minute. It requires at the most 25 minutes to expand a 
tire sufficiently to remove it from the center, and with 
illuminating gas at $1 per 1000 cu. ft., the cost is only 10 
cents. Tires have been removed in 15 minutes at a cost of 
6 cents. 

The burner is made of i-in. iron pipe with i-in. pipe con- 
nections for gas and yi-in. pipe connections for air. The 
air and gas pipes are attached by unions to mains run 
under the floor. The risers divide at the top and join the 
two halves of the burner which are made separate and over- 
lap at their ends. The air pipes have small thumb cocks 
inserted in them to regulate the intensity of the blast, but 
the gas is turned into the burner at the full service pres- 
sure of 3 oz. The air pipes are led into the vertical legs 
of the gas pipe connections through a reducing T, which 
is used instead of an ordinary elbow at the upper bend. 
They are carried down inside of the vertical legs and are 
bent outward at the bottom to discharge the air directly into 
the burner pipe. The burners have 3/16-in. holes drilled 
in them spaced ^2 in. apart. 

One of these burners with holes on the inside is used 
for removing tires, and an exactly similar burner of smaller 
diameter and with holes on the side is used for expanding 
tires before shrinking them on centers. The cost is trifling 
and the burners can be made in any shop equipped with 
pipe-fitting tools. 

9 2 


[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 



Alabama. — Carriers — Injury to Passenger — Contributory 
Negligence — Stepping from Moving Car. 
It not being necessarily negligence for a passenger to 
alight from a moving car, even by stepping in the opposite 
direction to the movement of the car, a plea of contributory 
negligence in so doing, which does not show the speed of 
the car, is insufficient. — (Birmingham Ry., Light & Power 
Co. v. Dickerson, 45 S. Rep., 659.) 

Alabama. — Carriers — Charges — Reasonableness of Rules — 
Knowledge of Rules. 
The rule of a street railway company that when a train 
consists of several cars, each one having a separate con- 
ductor, a person who takes passage in one car and pays 
his fare must remain on that car until his trip is completed, 
and if he changes to another car must again pay a fare, is 

Where a passenger goes from one street car to another 
after paying his fare, he may be ejected from the second 
car for refusing to again pay a fare, though when he en- 
tered the second car he did not know of the rule of the 
company requiring such payment, it being sufficient if he 
is informed of such rule and given an opportunity to pay 
the fare before being ejected. — (Birmingham Ry., Light & 
Power Co. v. Stallings, 45 S. Rep., 650.) 

Alabama. — Carriers — Passengers — When Relation Termi- 
nates — Alighting Passenger — Negligence — Evidence — 

The relation of a street car passenger does not end when 
he leaves the car, but continues until he has reasonable 
opportunity to leave the carrier's roadway, after the car 
reaches the place to which he is entitled to be carried. 

Where a street car passenger on a dark night signaled 
the conductor to let her off at a regular stopping place, and 
the conductor understood, but failed to let her off there, 
and let her off beyond, where the track was very rough, 
and while attempting to cross the track fell and was in- 
jured, the company was negligent, entitling her to recover, 
unless she was guilty of contributory negligence in cross- 
ing the track, or unless she assumed the risk. 

In an action for injury to a street car passenger, a plea 
that she assumed the risk by voluntary and knowingly 
alighting between stations, appreciating the danger of do- 
ing so, was unsupported, where the evidence showed that 
the passenger, with the conductor's assistance, alighted 
from the car before she knew she was beyond her destina- 
tion, or between that station and the next one. — (Melton v. 
Birmingham Ry., Light & Power Co., 45 S. Rep., 151.) 

Alabama. — Carriers — Street Railways — Action by Ejected 
Passenger — Complaint — Sufficiency — Negligence ■ — ■ 
Transfers — Burden of Proof — Serviceable Transfer — 
Failure to Issue — Effect — Objections to Testimony — 
Time for Making — Carriers — Ejection of Passenger- — 
Damages Recoverable — Recovery Not Excessive. 

A complaint against a street railway company, averring 
that plaintiff was ejected from a car through a conductor's 
negligence in incorrectly punching a transfer given plain- 
tiff to show his right to ride on the car from which he was 
ejected, sufficiently avers the negligence charged. 

In an action against a street railway company for eject- 
ing a passenger who presented an improperly punched 
transfer, the burden was on him to show that the conductor 
on the first car was bound to issue a transfer to him to the 
car from which he was ejected. 

A street railway conductor's failure to issue a serviceable 
transfer, when bound to do so, makes the company liable 
for injuries suffered by a passenger in consequence. 

An objection to a question asked a witness, made after 
answer, is too late, where the answer is not made so quickly 
as to preclude a prior objection. 

One wrongfully ejected from a street car may recover 
damages arising from his weak physical condition, drawn 
to the conductor's attention, and other damages proxi- 
mately resulting from the wrong, including the expense 
and inconvenience to which he was put, and humiliation 
and indignity suffered. 

Two hundred and eighty-seven dollars was not an exces- 
sive recovery against a street railway company for wrong- 
fully ejecting a passenger weakened by typhoid fever and 
compelled to walk home. — (Birmingham Ry., Light & 
Power Co. v. Turner, 45 S. Rep., 671.) 

Georgia. — Carriers — Carriage of Passengers — Management 
of Conveyances — Sudden Jerks — Trial — Instructions — 
Expression of Opinion. 
In a suit to recover damages against a street car com- 

pany, where the allegation of negligence is the negligent 
movement of the car of the defendant, causing a sudden, 
violent and unusual jerk which threw the plaintiff across 
the seat of the car, it was erroneous to give in charge to 
the jury the following instructions: "If, in reviewing the 
testimony, you are satisfied that plaintiff was injured by a 
sudden, violent and unusual jerk, and that he could not, by 
the exercise of ordinary care and diligence, have protected 
himself against the consequences of this negligent act. then 
he would be entitled to recover." The error in this instruc- 
tion is twofold: First, that a recovery could be predicated on 
proof of a sudden, violent and unusual jerk. To make a 
jerk an act of culpable negligence it must have been un- 
necessary at the time and place where it occurred as well 
as violent and unusual. Second, that the charge contained 
an assumption by the judge and an instruction to the jury 
that the act mentioned constituted negligence; and that 
"this negligent act" had in fact been proved. — (Augusta 
Ry. & Electric Co. v. Lyle, 60 S. E. Rep., 1075.) 

Georgia. — Master and Servant — Injury to Employee — 
Promise to Repair. 
In an action for damages against an electric street rail- 
way company by a motorman on account of personal in- 
juries, the petition alleged as follows: While operating a 
car of the defendant, he discovered that the brake was out 
of order and would not catch. He telephoned to the day 
foreman to furnish him with another car, stating the de- 
fective condition of the one in use. The foreman promised 
to immediately substitute another car for the one which 
the plaintiff was operating; but three and one-half hours 
elapsed before this was done. In consequence of the de- 
fective condition mentioned, the plaintiff was compelled to- 
exert all of his strength and to throw his weight upon the 
brake in order to stop the car. As a result of this over- 
exertion he was afflicted with a hernia. Held, that the 
petition was properly dismissed on general demurrer. — 
(Freeman v. Savannah Electric Co., 60 S. E. Rep., 1042.) 

Idaho. — Trial — Motion for Nonsuit — Effect of Motion — 
Street Railroads — Injuries to Perso'ns on Track — Con- 
tributory Negligence — Burden of Proof — Failure to- 
Look and Listen — Reciprocal Right and Duty — Duty 
of Keeping Car Under Control at Crossing. 

In an action to recover damages for the injury or death 
of a person, by reason of being run against and over by a 
street car, a motion for a nonsuit at the close of the plain- 
tiff's evidence should not be granted, unless the facts pre- 
sented by the evidence are such that but one conclusion 
could reasonably be drawn from them, and that conclusion 
is that no recovery can be had under the evidence. 

In this class of cases the burden of proving contributory 
negligence is with the defendant. 

Failure to look and listen before crossing a street car 
track at a public street crossing is not, as a matter of law,, 
negligence per se. 

The right and duty of pedestrians, and the right and duty 
of the person in charge of the motive power of a street car 
when crossing streets, are reciprocal, and each is bound to 
use equal diligence to avoid collision. 

A street car should be kept under the reasonable control 
of the motorman when crossing a street, and persons with 
or without vehicles, passing over the track at street cross- 
ings, may assume that care will be used to reduce the speed' 
at such crossings. — (Pilmer v. Boise Traction Co., Ltd., 94 
Pac. Rep., 432.) 

Illinois. — Limitation of Actions — Amending Pleading — Ef- 
fect — Carriers — Street Railway — Collision — Injury to 
Passenger — Question for Jury — -Instructions — Negli- 
gence — Trial — Cure of Error — Instructions. 

Where the original declaration in a personal injury action 
against a street railway company stated a good cause of 
action defectively, alleging that the company so carelessly 
"propelled" its car that a collision occurred, an amended 
declaration, filed after two years from the injury, alleging 
that the company so carelessly "conducted and managed" 
its car as to cause a collision, did not state a new cause of 
action as affected by limitations. 

In an action against a street railway for injury to a pas- 
senger caused by a collision, held, under the evidence, 
proper to refuse to direct a verdict for the company. 

An instruction, in a personal injury action against a 
street railway company, that, if it could have avoided the 
collision by exercising the highest degree of care consistent 
with the practical operation of the road, plaintiff could re- 
cover, was erroneous for not limiting the company's negli- 
gence to that charged in the declaration. 

An instruction, in a personal injury action against a. 
street railway company, that, if it could have avoided the 
collision by exercising the highest degree of care consis- 
tent with the practical operation of the road, plaintiff could 

June 13, 1908.] 



recover, being erroneous as authorizing recovery on negli- 
gence not pleaded, the error was not cured by other in- 
structions fully covering the question. 

Each instruction must state the law correctly as far as 
it goes, and, in a personal injury action against a street 
railway company, an instruction that carriers are required 
to exercise extraordinary care in carrying their passengers 
was reversible error, for not limiting the duty to care con- 
sistent with the mode of conveyance and the practical 
operation of the road, though other instructions stated the 
limitation. — (Ratner v. Chicago City Ry. Co. et al., 84 N. E. 
Rep., 201.) 

Illinois. — Negligence — Imputed Negligence — Driver and 
Passenger — Evidence. 

In an action against a street railway company for injuries 
received by a person in a wagon which collided with a 
street car, evidence examined, and held to show that the 
driver of the wagon was in sole charge thereof, and that 
the person injured had no control whatever over the driver 
or the movement of the wagon. 

In order that the negligence of one person may be prop- 
erly imputed to another, they must stand in such relation 
of privity that the maxim, "Qui facit per alium facit per se," 
directly applies. 

Where a person who while riding on a wagon the driver 
of which he had no control over was injured by a collision 
between the wagon and a street car without fault on his 
part, the negligence of the driver could not be imputed to 
him so as to defeat a recovery against the street railway 
company for injuries caused by the concurring negligence 
of th'^driver and the company. — (Nonn v. Chicago City Ry. 
Co., lj| N. E. Rep., 924.) 

Indiana. — Carriers — Injuries to Passengers — Street Rail- 
ways — Actions for Injuries — Pleading — Proximate 
use of Injury — Questions for Jury — Contributory 
gligence — Witnesses — Examination — Answers — Re- 
&Dnsiveness — Testimony. 
A complaint alleged in one paragraph that plaintiff was a 
passenger on defendant's street car; that a trailer was at- 
tached thereto; that plaintiff notified the conductor of his 
desire to alight at a certain crossing; that the car stopped 
at the crossing, and he attempted to alight, but, while de- 
scending, the car negligently started with a sudden jerk, 
the force of which threw plaintiff down with one foot upon 
the rail, and while in this position the rear car passed over 
his foot, causing the injury complained of. A second para- 
graph charged the same facts down to the allegation as to 
stopping the car at the crossing, but charged that, when 
the crossing was reached, the speed was slackened so that 
the car was moving not faster than two miles an hour; 
that the step of the car projected within a foot of the 
ground; that the conductor instructed plaintiff to alight 
while the car was moving at that rate, and that plaintiff 
attempted to do so, and while he had one foot on the 
ground alongside and underneath the step the conductor 
negligently, and with knowledge of plaintiff's position, in- 
creased the speed of the car with a sudden jerk, and by 
such jerk threw plaintiff to the ground underneath the rear 
car, and that, while in that position, before he could remove 
his body, the car wheels ran over his leg, causing the injury 
complained of. Held, that both paragraphs sufficiently 
showed that the alleged negligent acts complained of were 
the proximate cause of the injury, and it was unnecessary 
to formally charge that such was the fact. 

Whether one incumbered with bundles was negligent in 
alighting, from a street car moving at the rate of three 
miles an hour held for the jury. 

Where plaintiff, in an action for personal injuries, when 
asked, with reference to his wounded leg, "When does it 
hurt you?" replied. "Hurts me nearly all the time, and 
there is a big hole in there yet, in the bottom," a motion to 
strike out all after "time," as not responsive, and because 
there was no claim for damages for such injury, was prop- 
erly overruled, as the words were descriptive of the injury, 
and explanatory of the cause of the pain. — (Hammond, W. 
& E. C. Electric Ry. Co. v. Antonia, 83 N. E. Rep., 766.) 

Indiana. — Street Railroads — Operation — Negligence — Colli- 
sions — Negligence. 
The placing of an inexperienced motorman in charge of a 
car, accompanied by a skilled motorman to teach him the 
work, and to see that no harm will come from his inexperi- 
ence, is not negligence on the part of the street railway 

In an action for injuries in a collision between a street 
car and a wagon, evidence held insufficient to show negli- 
gence of the street railway company proximately causing 
the collision. 

A motorman seeing a horse and wagon standing beside 
the track, and out of danger, may assume that he can safely 

pass without slacking the speed of his car, and that either 
the horse is properly secured or that it will not be fright- 
ened at the car. — (Columbus St. Ry. & Light Co. v. Reap, 
82 N. E. Rep., 977.) 

Indiana. — Master and Servant — Fellow Servants — Electric 
Railroads — Employees. 
A checkman on an interurban electric road, employed to 
look after the reception and discharge of freight and ex- 
press matter, is a fellow servant of a general trainmaster, 
as affecting the company's liability to the checkman for in- 
juries caused by the trainmaster's negligence in running a 
car against one on which the checkman was employed. — 
(Indiana Union Traction Co. v. Pring, 83 N. E. Rep., 733.) 

Indiana. — Carriers — Carriage of Passengers — Performance 
of Contract of Transportation — Transfers to Connect- 
ing Lines. 

Where plaintiff received a passenger's transfer slip from 
a conductor on one of defendant's street car lines and 
entered the first car leaving the point of transfer within the 
time required by the company's rules, but was ejected from 
that car because the conductor on the other car had incor- 
rectly punched the transfer slip so as to entitle plaintiff to 
a transfer only on an earlier car, he may recover for his 
unlawful ejection and his right of recovery is not affected 
by the fact that he left the car without compelling the con- 
ductor to resort to force to expel him. — (Indiana Ry. Co. v 
Orr, 84 N. E. Rep., 32.) 

Indiana. — Separate Causes of Action — Street Railroads — 
Negligent Equipment of Cars — Evidence — Questions for 
Jury — Negligence — Operating Cars Without Fenders — 
Street Railroads — Accident to Pedestrian — Contribu- 
tory Negligence. 
The acts of negligence not being dependent on one an- 
other, separate causes of action are set up by a complaint 
alleging the circumstances of the killing by a street car of 
a child while crossing a street, and averring that the car 
was run at a dangerous and unreasonable speed, and a 
greater rate than allowed by ordinance; that the only means 
of stopping the car was a hand brake, which was insuffi- 
cient for such purpose; that while the street was straight 
and level a long distance, and the child was in plain view 
of the motorman, the car was run to within 50 feet of the 
child at said high rate of speed, and till it was too late to 
stop it; that no warning signal was given; that there was 
no guard or fender on the front of the car, and that its 
vestibule did not afford the motorman a proper lookout. 

The complaint for the killing of a child by a street car, 
alleging acts of negligence not dependent on each other, 
need not allege the separate causes of negligence in sepa- 
rate paragraphs. 

That a street car runs 150 feet after the brakes are set 
is evidence that the car's equipment for stopping was in- 

It being a question of fact whether the conditions were 
such as to render the omission of the motorman of a street 
car to sound the gong between street crossings negligence, 
it is properly left to the jury. 

Whether it is negligent to operate a street car without a 
fender is a question for the jury. 

An adult, much less a child, is not necessarily negligent 
in failing to anticipate negligent operation of a street car.— 
(Louisville & S. I. Traction Co. v. Short, 83 N. E. Rep., 

Indiana. — Street Railroads — Collisions with Vehicles — Neg- 
ligence of Servants — Pleading — Proximate Cause of 
Injury — Pleading — Pleading — City Ordinance — Munici- 
pal Corporations — Ordinances — Repeal — Statutory Pro- 
visions — Master and Servant — Injury to Servant — As- 
sumption of Risk — Negligence of Co-employee — Negli- 
gence of Master — Operation of Railroad — Pleading — 
Injury to Servant — Assumption of Risk — Employer's 
Liability Act — Construction — Railroads — Accidents at 
Crossings — Proximate Cause of Injury — Trial — Special 
Findings — Street Railroads — Collisions — Negligence — 
Evidence — Evidence — Best and Secondary — Collateral 
Matter — Railroads — Operation — Municipal Regulation — 
Speed Ordinance — Validity — Street Railroads — Colli- 
sions — Negligence — Crossing Railroad Track — Street 
Railroads — -Collision — Action. 

In an action against a street railway company for wrong- 
ful death through a collision between the locomotive on 
which decedent was riding and defendant's street car, a 
paragraph of the complaint directly charging defendant 
with negligence, and charging that decedent met his death 
by reason of the negligence of defendant as therein alleged, 
was sufficient, though it did not allege that defendant's 
servants were at the time in the line of their duty. 

In an action for wrongful death, the complaint alleged 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

that while one of defendant railroad company's locomo- 
tives, on which decedent, an employee, was riding westerly, 
was approaching a street crossing, defendant street rail- 
way company, whose tracks crossed the railroad tracks, 
negligently ran its car upon the crossing without sending 
its conductor ahead as required by a city ordinance to as- 
certain whether locomotives or cars were approaching; 
that a collision ensued, and, to escape injury, decedent 
jumped from the locomotive; that at the same time another 
of defendant railroad company's locomotives, which was 
running easterly on a parallel track at a speed in violation 
of a city ordinance, struck the street car, and decedent was 
killed. Held, that these averments did not show that the 
first collision was a remote, rather than a proximate, cause 
of the injury, in view of a direct averment of negligence of 
the street railway company as the cause of the accident. 

In an action for wrongful death of an employee of de- 
fendant railroad company, an averment that its locomotive 
was being run at the time at an unlawful speed, in violation 
of a city ordinance "which is and was at the time of the 
injury as follows" (setting it out), sufficiently alleged that 
the ordinance was in force at the time of the injury. 

Act March 6, 1891, governing cities of more than 100,000 
inhabitants, gave the right to regulate the speed of cars and 
locomotives, and also to secure the safety of citizens and 
others in the running of trains through the city, and pro- 
vided that all ordinances, etc., not inconsistent with the act 
should remain in force until repealed by the Common 
Council, etc. Held, that the act did not repeal an ordinance 
passed in 1866, under authority of Acts Sp. Sess. 1865, p. 3, 
c. 1, limiting the speed of locomotives and cars. 

A railroad employee does not assume the risk of injury 
resulting from the violation by a co-employee of a city 
ordinance limiting the speed of locomotives and cars. 

In an action against a railroad company for wrongful 
death of an employee, the company alleged that, while a 
street car was standing across defendant's tracks, one of 
defendant's engines negligently ran against the car and 
threw it from the tracks, etc.. whereby decedent was in- 
jured. Held, that the allegation of negligence was suffi- 
cient on demurrer. 

Employer's Liability Act, section 1, makes every rail- 
road or other corporation liable for personal injury suf- 
fered by any employee while in its service "(4) where such 
injury was caused by the negligence of any person in the 
service of such corporation who has charge of any . 
locomotive engine or train upon a railway, or where such 
injury was caused by the negligence of any person, co- 
employee or fellow servant engaged in the same common 
service in any of the several departments of the service of 
any such corporation, and said person, co-employee or fel- 
low servant at the time acting in the place and performing 
the duty of the corporation in that behalf, and the person 
so injured, obeying the order of some superior at the time 
of such injury, having authority to direct." Held, that the 
doctrine of assumed risk is not applicable to cases arising 
under such fourth subdivision. 

In an action for wrongful death, the complaint alleged 
that while one of defendant railroad company's locomo- 
tives, on which decedent, an employee, was riding westerly, 
was approaching a street crossing, defendant street rail- 
way company whose tracks crossed the railroad tracks 
negligently ran its car upon the crossing without sending 
its conductor ahead, as required by a city ordinance, to see 
whether locomotives or cars were approaching; that a col- 
lision ensued between the locomotive and the car, and that, 
to escape injury, decedent jumped to the ground; that at 
the same time another of defendant railroad company's 
locomotives, which was running easterly on a parallel track 
at a speed, in violation of a city ordinance limiting the 
speed to 4 miles an hour, struck the street car, and dece- 
dent was killed. It was also alleged that the brake on the 
street car was defective. The answers of the jury to inter- 
rogatories stated, in substance, that the first collision was a 
slight one; that the eastbound locomotive was running at 
the rate of 12 miles per hour at the time of the first colli- 
sion; that it was then 250 feet away, and could not have 
been stopped in time to avoid the collision, though it could 
have been stopped if running at the rate of 4 miles per 
hour; that the brake on the street car did not fail to work; 
and that the failure of the engineer of the eastbound loco- 
motive to begin to stop his train promptly when he saw 
the first collision was not the sole and proximate cause of 
the second collision. In answer to the question: "What, if 
any, careless or negligent act of any person engaged in 
running said street car caused, or helped to cause, said 
first collision?" the jury answered: "The act of the con- 
ductor in beckoning the motorman to come on." Held, 
that there was nothing in the answers to show that the 
negligence of each defendant in approaching the crossing 
was not a proximate cause of the injury. 

In an action against a street railway company and a rail- 

road company for wrongful death from a collision, evidence 
held not to show freedom of street railway from negligence 
proximately contributing to the injury. 

In an action against a railroad company for wrongful 
death from an accident at a street crossing, oral evidence 
that the crossing was within the corporate limits of a city 
was admissible. 

A city ordinance limiting the speed for locomotives while 
passing through the city did not become invalid from a 
failure to afterward limit the speed of electric cars; the 
fact that such cars are more readily controlled than steam 
cars affording just ground for distinguishing between them 
in respect to speed. 

The attempt of those in charge of a southbound street 
car to cross a double railroad track when a westbound 
train was almost on the car, and an eastbound locomotive 
was but a few hundred feet away, with the bell ringing and 
having whistled for the crossing, was gross negligence. 

In an action against a street railway company for wrong- 
ful death in a collision between a street car and a loco- 
motive at a crossing, plaintiff alleged that defendant's car 
proceeded to cross the railroad track without sending some 
one ahead, as required by a city ordinance, to look for ap- 
proaching trains, and the complaint contained an indepen- 
dent charge that defendant negligently failed to make 
proper investigation to ascertain whether trains were ap- 
proaching, and negligently ran its car in front of the loco- 
motive. Held, that proof of a violation of the ordinance 
was not essential to plaintiff's recovery. — (Indianapolis 
Union Ry. Co. et al. v. Waddington, 82 N. E. Rep., 1030.) 
Indiana. — Master and Servant — Existence of Relation — Lia- 
bility for Injury. 

Where defendant's agent, who solicited and looked after 
the transportation of freight, agreed to attend to the load- 
ing of plaintiff's racing mare into defendant's car, where- 
upon plaintiff instructed him to "go to the boys and get 
the mare," and the agent directed the boys where to take 
her, and was present at the loading, and pushed a chute out 
of the car and helped place it in position, and the boys, 
plaintiff's employees, protested that the chute was too 
pliant, to which the agent replied, "I will stand it if she 
hurts herself," and thereupon the boys under the agent's 
supervision attempted to load the mare into the car, during 
which, on account of the chute's unfitness, she fell, and was 
permanently injured, defendant is liable for such injury; 
plaintiff's employees in loading the mare being servants of 
the defendant, and acting under orders of defendant's agent, 
whose duty it was to control the loading of the animal, so 
that any negligence on their part was negligence of de- 
fendant, and not contributory negligence of plaintiff. — 
(Indiana Union Traction Co. v. Benadum, 83 N. E. Rep., 

Iowa. — Street Railroads — Operation — Injuries to Persons — 
Contributory Negligence — Crossing Street — Contribu- 
tory Negligence — Evidence — Question for Jury — Peti- 
tion — Negligence — Injury Avoidable Notwithstanding 
Contributory Negligence. 

A person crossing a street has a right to assume that an 
approaching street car a block away is running at a lawful 
rate of speed, and if he could cross in safety before the 
car running at that speed could reach him he is not charge- 
able with contributory negligence in crossing without stop- 
ping to look just before reaching the track, unless he be- 
comes aware that the car is running at a greater speed. 

A traveler in crossing a street was struck by a street car 
running at an unlawful rate of speed, which he had seen 
approaching when a block distant. Held that, in the ab- 
sence of any direct evidence as to whether he knew 'the 
speed of the car, the fact that he was struck was not con- 
clusive evidence of contributory negligence, as the pre- 
sumption that he would exercise care for his safety would 
negative any knowledge on his part of the speed at which 
the car was coming. 

Evidence in an action against a street railroad company 
by one who was struck by a car while crossing the track 
considered, and held to make the question of contributory 
negligence one for the jury. 

The petition in an action against a street railroad com- 
pany by one who was struck by a car while crossing the 
track alleged that defendant was negligent in not stopping 
the car before striking plaintiff. Held, that this was a suffi- 
cient allegation to raise the question whether defendant, 
with knowledge of plaintiff's danger due to his own negli- 
gence, used reasonable precautions to avoid injuring him. 

A street railroad company is liable for striking a person 
with a car if the motorman knew of his danger, in time to 
have avoided injuring him in the exercise of reasonable 
care, even though he was negligent in putting himself in a 
place of danger and continued to be negligent in not look- 
ing out for his own safety. — (Powers v. Des Moines City 
Ry. Co., 115 N. W. Rep., 494.) 


News of Electric Railways 

Electric Railway Contracts of the Galena Signal Oil 

At a hearing in New York on June 3 before Franklin 
Ferriss, special examiner for the United States Government, 
some interesting facts about the electric railway work of 
the Galena Signal Oil Company were presented by C. C. 
Steinbrenncr, auditor of the company's railway department. 

The witness submitted in evidence the standard car lubri- 
cating form of contract used, the exhibit being a copy of the 
second annual agreement with the Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit Company dated May 31, 1907, and covering the period of 
June 1, 1907, to June 1, 1908. The standard contract pro- 
vides for the sale of the different oils at established prices 
and is followed by a guarantee that the cost shall be a cer- 
tain percentage less than during the time preceding contract 
with the Galena Company, or that the cost shall not exceed 
a certain flat rate. 

The Philadelphia contract specifies that oil for car jour- 
nals and bearings shall be priced at 20 cents a gallon and 
that the guaranteed cost shall not exceed 12.06 cents per 
1000 miles. The guaranteed figure was 90 per cent of what 
lubrication had cost the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Com- 
pany with the preceding contractor. 

Section 5 of the Philadelphia contract provides that the 
railway company will pay for delivered material within 60 
days from date of invoice and an amount up to what the 
guaranteed cost would be based on the monthly mileage 
record of the railway. Final settlement under the guar- 
anteed clause is made at the end of the year. 

The second contract submitted was one with the Pitts- 
burg Railways Company covering both cars and power 
houses. In this contract car lubrication is on the basis of 
30 cents per icoo car-miles and machinery lubrication for 
power houses and substations on the basis of 15 cents per 
1000 kw-hours output. 

The third contract exhibited was with the Metropolitan 
Street Railway Company, of Kansas City. This calls for 
car lubrication at 20 cents per 1000 car-miles and 12 cents 
per engine-hour, or 1000 kw-hours output. The Kansas City 
contract also contained a clause headed "Oil cups to be 
leased at 25 cents." This related to a patented oil cup for 
motor journal bearings leased at this price if Galena oil is 
used for these bearings. Prior to taking up this branch of 
lubrication it was the universal custom to use grease for 
lubricating motor journals. The rental charged was stated 
to be absolute cost, but the use of the cup is optional with 
the railways under contract. 

Mr. Steinbrenner then identified an exhibit which showed 
the total mileage of all companies in the United States and 
Canada to be 41,350. This figure was secured by taking the 
1906 mileage of these companies as reported by the Street 
Railway Journal and then adding an amount equal to the 
average annual increase for the two or three preceding 
years. In 1907 the total mileage of the electric railways 
under Galena guarantee contracts was 10,974, or about 26.7 
per cent of all the electric railway mileage in the United 
States and Canada. The total mileage of the 29 companies 
that simply buy Galena oil outright was given at 1024, or 
2.4 per cent of the total mileage. From this it appears that 
during the five years the Galena Company has been in the 
electric railway field it has secured 29.1 per cent of the total 

Taking again the Street Railway Journal's figures as a 
basis, Mr. Steinbrenner said that of 93,200 cars in the United 
States and Canada 31,559 cars, or 35 per cent of the total, 
are under guarantee contracts and 1072 cars (1.1 per cent) 
under gallonage contracts. The number of companies hold- 
ing Galena contracts is now 151. Among these companies 
are the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Railway; Birmingham 
Railway & Light Company; Boston Elevated Railway; 
Illinois Traction System; Consolidated Railways of Connec- 
ticut; Georgia Railway & Electric Company; International 
Railway Company, of Buffalo; the Interborough Rapid Tran- 
sit Company, of New York; the New York surface lines, 
■and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, of Brooklyn. 

Asked regarding lubricating conditions on different roads, 
the witness said there was a wide variation in cost owing 
to variety of equipment and the degree of acquaintance 
with modern lubricating methods. Consequently, as the 
Galena Company usually guarantees to do the lubricating 
for 10 per cent less, it follows that there must be correspond- 
ingly wide difference in its contract rates. 

At the afternoon session on June 3 Mr. Steinbrenner 
identified an exhibit showing the guaranteed cost per 1000 
car-miles to the Helena (Mont.) Light & Railway Com- 

pany to be 58.28 cents and to the Butler Passenger Railway 
Company 15 cents. These differences were explained as 
being due to local conditions. The Helena price was the 
guaranteed 10 per cent reduction of the previous cost. 
Power house lubrication costs per 1000 kw-hours range from 
2J4 cents to 40 cents in different parts of the country. In 
the case of the Rochester Railway & Light Company, it ap- 
pears that the cost of lubricating the steam machinery is 
15 cents per 1000 kw-hours and for the hydro-electric units 
only 2 cents on the same unit basis. 

Program of Annual Meeting of New York State Association 

The program has been announced of the 26th annual 
meeting of the Street Railway Association of the State of 
New York, at the Clifton Hotel, Niagara Falls, Ont., June 30 
and July 1. The program for the morning session on 
Tuesday, June 30, includes the reports of committees as 
follows: Classification of accounts, electric express and 
freight service, height of car step and repair shop. The 
following will take part in the discussion on the report of 
the committee on standard repair shop: W. W. Cole, vice- 
president and general manager of the Elmira Water, Light 
& Railroad Company; R. A. Dyer, Jr., assistant general 
manager of the Rochester, Syracuse & Eastern Railroad; 
F. P. Maize, master mechanic of the Rochester Railway; 
W. H. Collins, general superintendent of the Fonda, Johns- 
town & Gloversville Railroad. At the afternoon session 
the following papers will be read: "Commutating Pole 
Railway Motors," by E. A. Anderson, of the railway depart- 
ment, General Electric Company; "Observations on Pay- 
as-You-Enter Cars by the Mechanical Man," by W. H. 
Evans, master mechanic of the International Railway, 
Buffalo; "The Pay-as-You-Enter Car from an Operating 
Standpoint," by C. A. Coons, superintendent of transporta- 
tion of the International Railway, Buffalo. The session 
will be concluded by the appointment of the nominating 

The session Wednesday morning, July 1, will be taken 
up largely by a paper on "Signals for Interurban and Local 
Traffic," by F. B. Harrington, superintendent of signals of 
the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad. The 
following subjects suggested by C. R. Barnes, of the New 
York Public Service Commission, Second District, will 
be discussed under miscellaneous business at convenient 
times during the sessions: "The Use of Curtains on the 
Front End of Suburban Cars During the Daytime," "Some 
Practical Means to Enable Passengers Desiring to Board 
Trains to Stop Them at Flag Stations," "The Equipping 
of City Cars with Red Flags and Lanterns on Lines Which 
Cross Steam Tracks at Grade," "The Practice of Carrying 
Musical Instruments on City Cars." 

The entertainments will include a banquet on the eve- 
ning of June 30, a trip through the power house on the 
Canadian side, a drive through the park and a bridge-whist 
tournament for the ladies and a trip through the gorge. 

Accommodations at the Clifton Hotel can be arranged 
directly with the hotel manager. No arrangements have 
been made for exhibits, but exhibitors will be welcomed 
and arrangements may be made for them with the hotel 
management. The usual full fare will be made by the 
railways one way, with a special one-third returning fare. 

June Outing of New England Street Railway Club 

The June outing of the New England Street Railway 
Club will be held at Portland, Maine, June 25. A very 
interesting itinerary has been arranged and the event prom- 
ises to be one of the most successful in the history of the 
club. Included as a feature of the outing is a trip by 
steamer from Boston to Portland. The plan is to sail from 
Boston Wednesday, June 24, on the Governor Dine/ley and 
return from Portland Thursday evening, June 25, by boat, 
arriving in Boston Friday, June 26. The program for the 
day at Portland includes a steamboat ride down the harbor, 
a trolley ride to Old Orchard or Underwood Park for a 
ball game, a shore dinner at Cape Cottage, the theater at 
Cape Cottage or outdoor vaudeville at Riverton. E. A. 
Newman, general manager of the Portland Railroad, will 
arrange all the details. The price of a ticket, including 
berth in outside stateroom on the steamer, is $3.50. It is 
requested that all who desire to go write at once to John 
J. Lane, secretary of the club, Boston, so that proper 
reservation may be made. 

9 6 

Program of the Master Car Builders' Convention at 
Atlantic City June 17-19 

The forty-second annual convention of the Master Car 
Builders' Association will be held at Atlantic City, N. J., 
June 17-19. The sessions of the convention will be held in 
the Greek Temple on the new Million Dollar Pier. The 
Marlborough-Blenheim hotel has been chosen as head- 
quarters and the president, executive committee and secre- 
tary of the association will have offices there. The regis- 
tration booth will be in the entrance of the pier. Those at- 
tending the convention should report at this booth and 
register immediately upon their arrival. 

The program for the three sessions is as follows: 

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 17, 1008. 

io a. m. to 1 130 p. m. 

Prayer io a. m. to 10:05 a. m. 

Address of president 10:05 a. m - to 10:15 a. m. 

Intermission 10:15 a. m. to 10:20 a. m. 

To permit visitors to retire, although all are requested 
to remain. 

Reports of secretary and treasurer, 10:20 a. m. to 10:30 a. m. 
Assessment and announcement of annual dues; appoint- 
ment of committees on correspondence, resolu- 
tions, nominations, obituaries, etc., 

10:30 a. m. to 10:40 a. m. 
Election of auditing committee.. ..10:40 a. m. to 10:45 a. in- 
Unfinished business 10:45 a. m - to 10:50 a. m. 

New business 10:50 a. m. to 11 a. m. 

Discussion of reports 011 : 

Revision of Standards and Recommended Practice, 
exclusive of Protection to Trainmen, 

11 a. m. to 11:15 a. m. 

Triple valve tests 11:15 a - m - to 11:30 a. m. 

Brake shoe tests 11:30 a. m. to 12 m. 

Topical discussion: 

Stresses to which car wheels are subjected. To be 

opened by Geo. L. Fowler 12 m. to 1 p. m. 

Discussion of report on tests of M. C. B. couplers, 

1 p. m. to 1 :30 p. m. 



9 a. m. to 1 :30 p. m. 

Discussion of reports on revision of rules for loading 

long materials 9 a. rn. to 9:15 a. m. 

Cast iron wheels 9:15 a. m. to 10 a. m. 

Rules of interchange, including decisions rendered dur- 
ing the year by the arbitration committee, and re- 
port of arbitration committee on revision of both 
freight and passenger car rules... 10 a. m. to 10:15 a - m - 

Journal box and pedestal for passenger cars with jour- 
nals 5 in. x 9 in. x S'A hi. x 10 in., 

10:15 a. m. to 10:30 a. m. 

Marking of freight equipment cars. 10:30 a. m. to 10:45 a - m. 

Air brake hose 10:45 a. m. to 11 a. m. 

Automatic connectors 11 a. m. to 11. 15 a. m. 

Bracing of steel freight cars 11:15 a. m. to 11:30 a. m. 

Side bearings and center plates 11:30 a. m. to 12 m. 

Topical discussions: 

1. Manganese or other special steel coupler knuckles. 
Does it pay to use them? If so, what is the differ- 
ence in cost from other steel knuckles? 

To be opened by S. P. Bush 12 m. to 12:30 p. m. 

2. The abolishment of the brake beam safety chain. 

To be opened by J. J. Hennessey.. ..12:30 p. m. to 1 p. m. 
Discussion of report on steel passenger cars, 

1 p. m. to 1 :30 p. m. 


FRIDAY, JUNE 19, I908. 

9 a. m. to 1 :30 p. m. 
Discussion of reports on: 

Ventilation and heating passenger cars, 

9 a. m. to 9:30 a. m. 
Protective coatings for steel cars.. 9:30 a. m. to 9:45 a. m. 
Location of ends of running boards. .9:45 a. m. to 10 a. m. 

Protection of trainmen 10 a. m. to 10:30 a. m. 

Side door and end door fixtures. . 10:30 a. m. to 10:45 a. m. 

Tank cars 10:45 a - m- to 11 a. m. 

Subjects 11 a. m. to 11:15 a. m. 

Unfinished business: 

Reports of committees on correspondence, resolu- 
tions and such other committees as may be named 

during the convention 11 :i5 a. m. to 12 m. 

Topical discussions: 

1. Should journals of standard axles when fillets are 
partially worn, be made longer in order to get in a 
full size fillet? If so, what should be the limit of 
the length of journals? 
To be opened by W. E. Fowler 12 m. to 12:20 p. m. 

[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

2. The advantages and disadvantages of the all-steel 
box cars. 

To be opened by W. R. McKeen, Jr.. 12:30 p. m. to 1 p. m. 

Election of officers 1 p. m. to 1:30 p. m. 


The forty-first convention of the American Railway 
Master Mechanics' Association will be held at the same 
place on the first three days of the following week, June 


Manufacturers of railway supplies, as in previous years, 
will have an elaborate display of exhibits which will be 
grouped on the new Million Dollar Pier. 

The Situation in Cleveland 

The railway committee of the Cleveland City Council last 
Wednesday heard complaints regarding the service of the 
Municipal Traction Company. Residents along the Wade 
Park line objected to the service being given in this section. 
President DuPont promised to consider the complaints, but 
stated that he thought many people had been benefited on 
account of the time gained in reaching the business district. 

On Friday evening a meeting was held to discuss a 
double-track express line on Superior Avenue. The com- 
pany proposes to widen the street by taking out the boule- 
vard or grass plots and pushing the curbs back to the pave- 
ment. The residents said a change of the kind proposed 
would spoil the appearance of the. street, and the fast cars 
would make it dangerous to pedestrians. It was also said 
that residence property would be reduced in value. Mayor 
Johnson spoke briefly at the meeting and stated that there 
would be 14 ft. between the outside tracks and the curb. 
The plan, as outlined by the Mayor, is to have a four-track 
system on the street, the inside tracks to be used for the 
express service, the cars to stop only at crosstown lines. 

The Mayor said he would not attempt to build the line 
without the consent of the property owners, but that on 
Euclid Avenue the case is different and he proposes to build 
a two-track line between East Twenty-second Street and 
East Fortieth Street. 

Affairs in New York 

To obtain certain changes in the route of the proposed 
Broadway-Lexington Avenue subway, New York, the Pub- 
lic Service Commission has applied to the Appellate Division 
of the Supreme Court for the appointment of a commis- 
sion of three to hear testimony as to the advisability of 
making the changes. The modifications asked concern the 
district between Ninth Street and Thirty-sixth Street, where 
a straightening would result from allowing the line to pass 
under Grace Church and other property, and a change from 
a two-track road, as originally planned, to a four-track sys- 
tem north of 129th Street. The latter would allow a cross- 
ing of the Harlem River to Park Avenue in the Bronx, and 
would give better connections at 138th Street with other 
subways. Should the report of the special commission to 
the court favor the modifications, the Public Service Com- 
mission could proceed with the work of building the sub- 
way without first' obtaining the consent of property owners. 

The Public Service Commission, First District, has replied 
to the proposal made by the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company to build a subway in Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn. 
The answer says that work will continue on the Fourth 
Avenue subway while the offer of the Interborough com- 
pany is under consideration, and that plans have so been 
drawn as to make it unnecessary to perform any alterations 
should the work be allotted to the Interborough company. 
The commission adds that the plans provide for two tracks, 
which the Interborough Rapid Transit Company is to oper- 
ate if it desires. Consequently the company is to have 
the opportunity of running over the route, whether it is in 
charge of the construction or not. Only a short stretch 
will have to be built to connect the new and the existing 
tubes at Flatbush and Atlantic Avenues. 

The Board of Estimate and Apportionment has referred 
to the Comptroller and Corporation Counsel the question of 
authorizing $2,850,000 bonds to provide funds for com- 
mencement of the construction on the Fourth Avenue sub- 
way in Brooklyn. 

Semi-Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers 

The semi-annual meeting of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers will be held in Detroit, Mich., June 
23-26. An entire session will be devoted to hoisting and 
conveying machinery. Among the other subjects the follow- 
ing papers are announced: "Clutches," by Henry Souther; 
"Thermal Properties of Superheated Steam," by Prof. R. 
C. H. Heck, of Lehigh University; "Horse Power, Friction 


Junk 13, 1908.] 



Losses and Efficiencies of Gas and Oil Engines," by Prof. 
Lionel S. Marks, of Harvard University, and "A Journal 
Friction Measuring Machine," by Henry Hess, of Philadel- 
phia. Among the excursions planned is one to the Univer- 
sity of Michigan at Ann Arbor. The gas power section of 
the society will hold a session and the Society for the Pro- 
motion of Engineering Education and the Society of Auto- 
mobile Engineers will hold a meeting in Detroit at the same 
time. The sessions will be arranged to avoid overlapping of 
the work of different sections as much as possible. 

Legislation Affecting Electric Railways 

Massachusetts. — A bill has been introduced in the Senate 
which it is proposed to substitute for the bill to authorize 
the consolidation of the Boston Elevated Railway and the 
West End Street Railway. This bill provides in part that a 
"street railway company, incorporated under the laws of 
this commonwealth, may purchase and hold the whole or 
any part of the capital stock of any other such street rail- 
way company whose railway connects with, intersects or 
forms a continuous line with its own." The bill further 
provides that "such railways shall be considered as con- 
necting with, or intersecting each other, or forming a con- 
tinuous line if one of them connects with or intersects or 
forms a continuous line with a railway leased to or operated 
by the other, or with a railway any part of the stock of 
which is owned by such other." 

New York. — Governor Hughes has signed the bill pro- 
viding that all railroad franchises in Buffalo and Rochester 
shall be sold at public auction. Some time ago the Court 
of Appeals decided that the law requiring franchises to be 
sold at public auction did not apply to Buffalo and the new 
measure was passed to make plain the intent of the law. 

Line Between Wellsburg and Bethany, W. Va., Opened. — 

The Pan Handle Traction Company, of Wheeling, W. Va.. 
opened its new line between Wellsbura' and TVthany on 
June 2. 

Milwaukee Ordinance Recommended for Passage. — The 

ordinance providing for franchises to the Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railway & Light Company to enable it to extend its 
lines in the northwestern part of Milwaukee has been rec- 
ommended for passage by the council committee on rail- 

Increases in Wages at Reading and Lebanon, Pa. — The 

United Traction Company, of Reading, Pa., has increased 
the wages of its motormen and conductors from 16 2/3 cents 
to 17 cents an hour. The Lebanon Valley" Street Railway 
has increased the wages of its trainmen from 15 cents to 
isyi cents an hour. 

Interurban Railway at Louisville Completed. — The Louis- 
ville (Ky.) Railway has completed its line between Louis- 
ville and Fern Creek, i2 l / 2 miles distant, and will place the 
line in regular operation soon. A trip was made over the 
line a few days ago by T. J. Minary, the president, and a 
party of newspaper men and invited guests, including many 
men prominent in Louisville. 

Need of an Electric Railway Between Paterson and New 
York. — M. R. McAdoo, of New York, has written to the 
editor of the Paterson, N. J., Call directing attention to the 
desirability of improving transit facilities between Pater- 
son and New York. Mr. McAdoo intimates in his letter 
that if enough interest is expressed in the subject he is 
prepared to assist in the promotion of a new rapid transit 
line to connect the cities. 

Indiana Rules. — The committee of officials of the Indiana 
interurban electric railways and the Indiana Railroad Com- 
mission held the final meeting in the State House at Indian- 
apolis, June 5, 1908. The railway members of the committee 
present were: C. D. Emmons, Ft. Wayne, chairman; H. A. 
Nicholl, Anderson; C. C. Reynolds, Indianapolis; A. A. 
Anderson. Columbus; C. G. Lohman, South Bend, and 
Fletcher M. Durbin, Evansville. 

Meeting of Pennsylvania Association. — The annual meet- 
ing of the Pennsylvania Street Railway Association will 
probably be held in Harrisburg this year. Legislation 
affecting electric railways to be brought before the next 
session of the Legislature will be considered. The advis- 
ability of electing a permanent secretary, with headquarters 
in Harrisburg, is under consideration. The time and place 
of the meeting will be determined by the executive com- 
mittee of the association. 

Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers. — The annual meeting of the American Institute 

of Electrical Engineers will be held June 29 to July 2 at 
the Traymore, Atlantic City, N. J. Thirty-six papers are 
scheduled. J. R. Bibbins will present one on turbines and 
one on gas engines. Other papers of especial interest to 
electric railway engineers are: "From Steam to Electricity 
on a Single-Track Road," by J. B. Whitehead; "Induction 
Motors for Multi-speed Service with Particular Reference 
to Cascade Operation," by H. C. Specht; "The Determina- 
tion of the Economic Location of Substations in Electric 
Railways," by Gerard B. Werner; "Conductor Rail Meas- 
urements," by S. B. Fortenbaugh. 

Attitude of Chester Company in Strike. — J. A. Rigg, presi- 
dent of the Chester (Pa.) Traction Company, met the com- 
missioners of Delaware County in Philadelphia last week 
and stated the attitude of the company toward its former 
employees. The position of the company is that the rate 
per hour for the men must remain at 17 cents, but the other 
questions are open to arbitration. Mr. Rigg said there was 
a heavy decline in receipts following the recent financial 
crises and that the employees at Chester were reduced pro- 
portionately with employees of the company elsewhere. 
Objection was made to the reduction at Chester and ad- 
vantage was taken of the reduction to allege a number 
of other grievances. 

Convention of Canadian Electrical Association. — The con- 
vention of the Canadian Electrical Association is to be- 
held in the Chemistry & Mining Building of the University 
of Toronto on June 17, 18 and 19. Space has been pro- 
vided in which to make exhibit of standard, special or new 
devices which manufacturers and dealers may desire to 
bring to the attention of those in attendance. This space 
consists of two large rooms about 32 ft. x 50 ft., and the 
corridors of the basement and ground floors subdivided 
into units and about 40 sq. ft. Applicants for space should 
state whether electric current is required, the kind and 
how much. W. G. Chace is chairman of the exhibits com- 

American Institute of Chemical Engineers to Be Formed. 

— The committee appointed at Atlantic City last June to 
consider the formation of an "American Institute of Chemi- 
cal Engineers" has found a strong sentiment favoring closer 
relations between those who particularly specialize in chem- 
ical engineering, and it has been determined to hold a meet- 
ing for the purpose of organization at the Engineers' Club, 
1317 Spruce Street. Philadelphia, June 22. Committees will 
be appointed at the morning session and at the afternoon 
session reports of these committees will be heard. The 
election of officers and the perfection of the organization 
will take place at the evening session. William M. Booth, 
Dillage Building, Syracuse, N. Y., is temporary secretary 
of the institute. 

Franchise Suit in Newark. — There will be brought up for 
argument during the present term of the Supreme Court 
the suit of the city of Newark against the North Jersey 
Street Railway for the annulment of the ordinance passed 
by the Board of Works Jan. 19, 1905. Under the provisions 
of this agreement the city and the company entered into an 
arrangement whereby the company paid to the city 5 per 
cent of the gross receipts of the lines operated partly or 
wholly within the city limits. The city seeks to set aside 
the ordinance on the ground that the basis of the payment 
of the 5 per cent of gross receipts is inequitable and that 
the company should be compelled to pay to the city the 
amount the municipality avers to be due. There are other 
important questions involved, among them the bringing 
of all street railway grants, for whatever period originally 
made, under the perpetual tenure given under an ordinance 
passed by the Board of Works in 1893. 

Meeting of Purdue Branch A. I. E. E. — At the meeting 
of the Purdue Branch of the American Institute of Electri- 
cal Engineers last month at Purdue University. "Engineer- 
ing Education" was the topic of discussion. A study, led by 
Dean Benjamin, Professor Harding and Professor Plumb, 
was made of recent institute papers on this subject. "Elec- 
trical Engineering Education." by Charles P. Steinmetz, and 
"The Best Engineering Education." by C. F. Scott, formed 
the nucleus of the discussion. Dean Benjamin said that 
the main defects in the present electrical engineering train- 
ing in some colleges appear to be as follows: Insufficient 
remuneration of the teachers, which makes most of the best 
men unavailable for educational purposes; competition be- 
tween colleges, which leads to a curriculum marked more 
by the quantity of the subjects taught than by the thorough- 
ness of the teaching; a tendency to teach the trade of elec- 
trical engineering rather than to educate intelligent and 
resourceful electrical engineers; unsatisfactory teaching of 
allied sciences, which gives a fragmentary knowledge of 
some details. 

9 8 


[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

Financial and Corporate 

Stock and Money Markets 

New York, June 10, 1908. 

The price tendency in stocks on the Wall Street market 
for the week has been downward. With light trading and 
an almost entire absence of outside buying, prices have 
sagged and some of the previous advance has been lost. 
The sale of $50,000,000 of Union Pacific Railroad bonds 
was one of the factors in the market. The large financial 
interests in the Union Pacific properties were anxious to 
uphold the market for the sentimental effect a higher level 
of prices would have on the figure to be secured for the 
bonds. Speculators were convinced that with the consum- 
mation of the sale the movement in the market would be 
abandoned and their realizing sales produced falling prices. 
While net changes in stock prices for the week ending June 
6 were advances in many instances, the close in almost all 
cases was lower than the highest for the week and the 
course of the market during the first three days of the cur- 
rent week has been downward, with trading at stagnation 

Following the reduction in the price of steel bars of the 
week previous, the leading steel manufacturers of the coun- 
try, after a special session June 9, announced a general re- 
duction in prices for all products except steel rails. This 
action was probably brought about by pressure of the inde- 
pendent manufacturers. It is generally believed that reduc- 
tions will be productive of orders and will aid in keeping 
mills in operation. The reductions should help to clear the 
atmosphere and have a beneficial effect; they imply recog- 
nition of the changed conditions which now prevail. 

Little effect was caused by the receivership of the Wheel- 
ing & Lake Erie Railroad. The fact that this property and 
the Pittsburg terminal will be reorganized on a business 
basis was encouraging. 

Rates for money in this country and abroad were easier. 
Rates of discount in Germany, Sweden and the Netherlands 
were lowered during the week and the outside markets in 
London and Paris were more favorable to borrowers. In 
the New York market call money ranged from 1^2 to 
per cent, while time loans were made as low as 2]/^ per cent 
for 60 days. 

Other Markets 

Traction securities in Philadelphia have been a trifle more 
active than in recent weeks, with a tendency toward lower 
prices. Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company stock reached 
12^, which is the low mark for the year. 

There was little trading in electric railway securities in 
Boston and price changes were fractional. 

Cleveland Railway Company stock has not yet been listed 
on the Cleveland exchange. Small lots of the stock are said 
to have been sold at several points below par. 

Some trading took place in the Baltimore market in the 
bonds of the United Railways & Electric Company, but price 
changes were nominal. The funding 5s sold at 76^, the 4s 
were steady at 85% and the income bonds rose to 5iJ4>. 

Electric railway securities were dull in the Chicago mar- 
ket with prices practically unchanged. 

Quotations for various traction securities as compared 
with last week follow: 

June 2. June 9. 

American Railways Company, Philadelphia 44^6 *44'A 

Boston Elevated Railway ai34 ai34 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 49 % 48-34 

Chicago City Railway ai9o — 

Cleveland Electric Railway asi54 354 

Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey 71 71 

Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey, 5 per cent 

bonds — 10254 

Detroit United Railway 37 Z A 37 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company i2 : /& 1 1 !4 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 32% 32 

Manhattan Railway I37J4 135 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) 10 io54 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) *44/4 *49 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chicago 

(common) *i8 — 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chicago 

(preferred) *54 — 

Metropolitan Street Railway 26 — 

North American Company 63^6 60 

Philadelphia Company. Pittsburg (common) 39 39 

Philadelphia Company. Pittsburg (preferred) — 41 54 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 1454 I2J4 

Philadelphia Traction Company 89^4 '87 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent collateral notes.... a97 ag6^4 

Public Service Corporation, certificates a70 a6g 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis (common) 90% 91 yi 

Union Traction Company, Philadelphia 52 t47-34 

a Asked. 
* Last sale, 
t Ex. dividend. 

Annual Report of Georgia Railway & Electric Company 

In the calendar year 1907 the gross earnings of the 
Georgia Railway & Electric Company, of Atlanta, Ga., 
amounted to $3,309,341, as compared with $2,500,574 in the 
preceding year. The large gain is due in part to an in- 
crease in miles of track. During the year the company 
built 10.4 miles of new track, making a total operated of 
161. 1 miles of single track. Of this total 150.2 miles have 
been built or rebuilt since Jan. 1, 1899. 

In his statement to shareholders P. S. Arkwright, the 
president, states: 

"During the year $1,039,931 was expended on new con- 
struction, consisting of extensions of track, additional track 
making double track, electric line construction, additions to 
steam and electric plants, additional cars with electric 
equipment, acquisition of land and construction of build- 
ings, together with additions to the car shops and struc- 
tures thereon and additional mains, services, meters and im- 
provements for the gas company. 

"The common stock was increased $2,500,000. Of this in- 
crease 4952 shares were sold to raise funds for the uses of 
the company and 20,048 shares were distributed among the 
common stockholders in payment, at par, of the extra divi- 
dend of 33 1/3 per cent declared out of the surplus. 

"Consolidated mortgage bonds to the amount of $158,000, 
par value, were certified and issued to the company in ac- 
cordance with the deed of trust, on account of new con- 
struction and properties acquired. Underlying bonds of the 
Atlanta Consolidated Street Railway of the par value of 
$25,000 were retired in accordance with the sinking fund 
provision in the mortgage and $10,000, par value, of the 
first consolidated mortgage bonds of the Georgia Railway 
& Electric Company were retired in accordance with the 
provisions in the mortgage securing these bonds. 

"The contract with the City of Atlanta for lighting the 
streets, which expired April 1, 1908, was renewed for a 
period of five years from that date. The company agreed 
to a reduction of its maximum rates to private consumers 
from 12 cents to 10 cents per kw-hour for current used for 
lighting purposes, and from 7 cents to 6 cents per kw-hour 
for current used for power purposes. The question of the 
city lighting contract and the electric current rates of 
the company are, therefore, satisfactorily settled for 
five years. 

"The assessment of the physical property and franchises 
for taxation was very largely increased. This was done 
without arbitration or litigation. The amount at which the 
company is now assessed for taxation is entirely satisfac- 
tory to the public authorities. 

"The company has dealt liberally with the public and has 
furnished good service in every department." 

The statement of earnings compares as follows with the 
two preceding years: 

1907. 1906. 1905. 

Gross earnings $3,309,341 $2,500,574 $2,112,973 

Operating expenses 1,663,282 1,216,032 1,160,641 

Net earnings $1,646,059 $1,284,542 $952,332 

Taxes and interest 784,675 613,968 497,856 

Balance $861,384 $670,574 $454,476 

Preferred dividends 120,000 120,000 120,000 

Surplus $741,384 $550,574 $334,476 

Common dividends 428,448 120,292 

Surplus $312,936 $430,282 $334,476 

The balance sheet as of Dec. 31, 1907. shows $909,529 
accounts and bills payable. 

New York Central & Hudson River Railroad to Combine 
Electric Railways 

The New York Central & Hudson River Railroad has 
applied to the Public Service Commission of the Second 
District of New York for permission to transfer from the 
Mohawk Valley Company, which is controlled by the New 
York Central Company, the interests of the railroad and 
the Central Railway Syndicate in the street railways of 
Rochester, Syracuse, Utica and Schenectady, to a new cor- 
poration, the purpose of which is to unite the operation of 
the various companies. Plans are said to have been under 
way to control the electric railway interests of the New 
York Central road through the Mohawk Valley Company 
some time ago, but upon the passage of the Public Service 
Commission's law these plans were abandoned. The Mo- 
hawk Valley Company owns stock in the following compa- 
nies: Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway, Oneida Railway, 
Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway, Rochester & Eastern 
Rapid Transit, Schenectady Railway, Rochester Railway, 
Rochester & Suburban Railway, Rochester & Sodus Bay 
Railway and the Ontario Light & Traction Company. De- 
cision has been reserved. 

June 13, 1908.] 



Berkshire Street Railway, Pittsfield, Mass. — Plans have 
been announced for consolidating the Berkshire Street Rail- 
way and the Bennington & North Adams Street Railway 
and for the establishment of electric railway communication 
between Springfield and Pittsfield, by connecting the West- 
ern Massachusetts Street Railway and the Berkshire Street 
Railway. The General Court will be asked to pass a bill 
providing that the Berkshire Company may construct a 
railway to connect the system with the summit of Grey- 
lock Mountain, extend its line south from Great Barring- 
ton through Sheffield to the Connecticut line, and connect 
this extension with the town of Egremont. The extensions 
will involve an expenditure of $2,000,000. The financing 
will be arranged through the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad, which controls the lines. 

Boston Elevated Railway. — Gross earnings for May were 
$1,214,000, which compares with $r, 181, 000 in May of last 
year, an increase of $33,000. It is thought that the gross 
earnings of the company for the fiscal year ending Sept. 
30 next will show the smallest increase of any year in the 
company's history. For the 1907 fiscal year gross earnings 
showed an increase of $425,781, a gain of 3.1 per cent. For 
the eight months ended June 1 the increase in gross has 
been less than $150,000. The increase in gross for the year 
is not expected to exceed $200,000. 

Boston & Worcester Street Railway, Worcester, Mass. — 

Gross earnings for May were $48,184, compared with 
$42,836 a year ago, an increase of $5,348, or 12.6 per cent. 

Calumet & South Chicago Railway, Chicago, 111. — The 

Calumet & South Chicago Railway, which acquired the 
property of the Calumet Electric Street Railway and the 
South Chicago City Railway, has executed a mortgage cov- 
ering the entire rights and property of the combined com- 
panies to secure an issue of $5,000,000 of 5 per cent bonds 
maturing in February, 1927. The bonds are redeemable 
at any interest date before maturity at 105. The First 
Trust & Savings Bank, of Chicago, is trustee of the mort- 
gage. The proceeds from the sale of these bonds will be 
used to pay for the rehabilitation work required under the 
new ordinance accepted this spring by the consolidated 

Camden & Trenton Railway, Camden, N. J. — The receiver 
has filed a report in- the Court of Chancery showing that 
receipts from February to May were $45,123 and disburse- 
ments $36,881. The net earnings for March were $4,138 as 
compared with $1,672.57 for the corresponding month of 
last year. For April, this year, the net earnings were $4,138 
as compared with $2,416 last year. In May, this year, the 
net earnings were $5,622.87 as compared with $3,312 last 
year. The receiver reports that the line has been improved 
through repairs to rolling stock and equipment. 

Chicago Consolidated Traction Company, Chicago, 111. — 

On June 1 the Chicago Consolidated Traction Company 
defaulted on the interest on its issue of $6,750,000 of 4*4 
per cent general mortgage bonds. The Chicago Railways 
Company, when it took over the Chicago Union Traction 
Company, lessee of the Chicago Consolidated Traction 
Company, did not assume guaranty of either principal or 
interest of the bonds issued by the Consolidated Traction 

Chicago Railways Company, Chicago, 111. — The February 
statement of the Chicago Railways Company shows an in- 
crease of $47,116 in gross earnings, as compared with the 
corresponding month of last year, or 6.5 per cent. Expenses 
exceeded by $33,578 the 70 per cent of the gross earnings 
to be charged to operating expenses in accordance with 
the ordinance. Detailed receipts and expenses for the two 
months follow: 


Receipts: 1908. 1907. 

Passengers $742,826 $700,873 

Other income 16,116 10,953 

Total ; . . $758,942 $711,826 


Maintenance of way and structure $30,087 $62,126 

Maintenance of equipment 61,245 138,717 

Operating power plant 83,725 79,178 

Operating cars 280,800 225,233 

General expenses 88,362 101,332 

Taxes (est.) 16,609 16,609 

Other expenses 4,008 

Total $564,836 $623,195 

Balance 194,195 88,632 

Balance based on 70 per cent 227,683 f88,632 

5 per cent interest return 135,788 128,249 

Net income $91,895 *$39,6i7 

Dividend : 

City, 55 per cent $50,542 *$2i,789 

Company, 45 per cent 41,352 *I7,8j7 

'Decrease. tActual. 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway. — This company is re- 
ported to have increased its capital stock from $750,000 to 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, New York. — The 

earnings for the quarter ended March 31 follow: 

Quarter ended March 31: 

1908. 1907- 

Gross earnings $6,354,431 $6,031,899 

Operating expenses 2,705,931 2,496,657. 

Net earnings $3,648,500 $3,535,242 

Other income 318,340 233,712 

Total income $3,966,840 $3,768,954 

Interest, taxes and rentals 2,638,206 2,514,678 

Surpltft $1,328,634 $1,254,276 

Earnings for the nine months ended March 31 compare 
as follows: 

1908. 1907. 

Gross' receipts $17,811,055 $16,339,152 

Operating expenses 7,926,593 6,994,121 

Net earnings $9,884,462 $9, 345, 031 

Other income 914,863 577,44' 

Total income $10,799,325 $9,922,472 

Interest, taxes and rentals 7,983,009 7,218,793 

Surplus $2,816,316 $2,703,679 

Metropolitan Street Railway, New York. — The receivers 
have sold the $3,500,000 of receivers' certificates authorized 
recently to the Central Trust Company and to W. A. Read & 
Company. They carry 5 per cent interest and run one year. 

Norfolk & Ocean View Railway, Norfolk, Va. — Charles 
Parker Breese has applied to the United States Court for the 
appointment of a receiver for the Norfolk & Ocean View 
Railway, formerly the Bay Shore Railway, long in litiga- 
tion. H. W. Anderson, the general counsel for the Nor- 
folk & Portsmouth Traction Company, has given out the 
following statement: "Application has been made by a 
man named Breese claiming five bonds of the Bay Shore 
Terminal Company to file a certain petition in the old suit 
in which the mortgage was foreclosed, praying certain re- 
lief with respect to a certain contract for the sale of his 
bonds. The property of the Bay Shore Terminal Company 
is owned by the Norfolk & Ocean View Company and the 
Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Company is in no way 
involved in the matter and cannot be affected thereby. The 
court did not permit the petition to be filed, but set the 
matter down for a hearing June 22. The suit is merely an 
incident in closing up the old Bay Shore litigation and is 
of no importance to the Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction 
Company, which is not a party to the suit. This disposes 
of the erroneous reports regarding a receivership for the 
Norfolk & Portsmouth." 

Northern Texas Traction Company, Fort Worth, Tex. — 

This company has increased its capital stock from $250,000 
to $3,000,000. 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. — The Philadelphia 
News Bureau publishes the following: "The partial aboli- 
tion of free transfers by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company has proved to be a very wise and proper measure. 
The public at large has not opposed it, as the ordinary rider 
has been convinced that he was taxed and inconvenienced 
by the wholesale distribution of free transfers which got 
into the hands of people who paid nothing for them and 
who secured a ride and the seat of the man who paid his 
fare. In the two weeks since the company did away with 
wholesale transfers it has been demonstrated that the com- 
pany will save more than $1,000,000 per year by abolishing 
free riding. This addition to the company's revenues will 
not cost the honest rider appreciably, as it comes from peo- 
ple who have not paid fares, but are now compelled to do 
so. This result is far beyond the expectation of Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Company officials, who never knew what 
the actual loss was until the free transfer was abolished." 

Somerset Water, Light & Traction Company, Somerset, 

Ky. — Judge Jarvis has appointed J. L. Waddell, of Somer- 
set, formerly superintendent of the water works, receiver 
of the Somerset Water, Light & Traction Company, on ap- 
plication of the Louisville Trust Company. 

Toledo (Ohio) Urban & Interurban Railway. — It is re- 
ported that the committee which investigated the advisabil- 
ity of the purchase and control of the Toledo Urban & 
Interurban Railway for $750,000 by the Toledo, Bowling 
Green & Southern Traction Co. will make an adverse re- 
port. The committee is said to have found the physical 
condition of the railway good, but it is thought to be un- 
wise to take the property over at the price fixed. The meet- 
ing of stockholders will take place on July 9, instead of 
July 2, as announced some time ago. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

Traffic and Transportation 

Brief of Natick & Cochituate Street Railway on 6-Cent 


The Natick & Cochituate Street Railway, Natick, Mass., 
has submitted a brief to the Massachusetts Board of Rail- 
road Commissioners in reply to the arguments of Chairman 
Sweetser of the Wellesley Board of Selectmen regarding 
the 6-cent fare. Mr. Sweetser argued that the necessary 
increase in net revenue could properly be secured by the 
abolition of free transfers at Wellesley Square, by. an in- 
crease in the unit of fare on the Needham and Cochituate 
branches without increase on the main line, or by reduction 
in the schedule. 

In its reply the company states that the abolition of free 
transfers would seem to be against the policy of the board 
in allowing passengers to ride from any point within the 
limits of one town or towns to any other point within the 
limits of the same town or towns for one unit of fare; and 
that passengers should be allowed to ride from the center 
of one town or towns to the center of adjoining towns for 
one fare. The company has increased the transfer privi- 
leges at town centers on this basis from time to time. Citi- 
zens of Wellesley living on the Needham branch should be 
allowed the same ride on the main line from Natick to New- 
ton Lower Falls as persons who happen to live elsewhere 
in the town. Tampering with fare limit points will work 
hardship. It seemed better to secure a proper return to the 
company by a general increase in the unit of fare than that 
fare limits should be disturbed. The abolition of transfers 
would not increase the net revenue, and the petitioners did 
not take account of the fact that whenever a transfer is 
issued, the car on which the fare is paid is credited with 
but half the fare. An increase in the fare on the branch 
line would cause a reduction in revenue through inevitable 
decline in traffic, and would therefore be an expedient of 
doubtful value. 

The company states that it is practically impossible to 
treat the branches as separate and distinct properties. The 
division of capitalization assumed by the petitioners between 
the branches in their proportion of gross revenue is arbi- 
trary. The company knows of no basis by which the capi- 
talization can be proportioned to the different branches. 
It is still more difficult to estimate the cost of operation for 
each branch. The petitioners multiplied the average car- 
mile operating expenses in 1907, 15.78 cents, by the mileage 
operated on each branch and on the main line. This method 
assumes that expenses are the same for different portions of 
the lines. The expense of operating the Needham branch 
in reality is much less than that of the main line. The cars 
are smaller and are operated at lower speeds. A large 
proportion of the fixed expenses would not be reduced by 
abandonment of the branches. It is impossible to determine 
the expenses of the Needham and Cochituate branches. It 
does not seem unfair that those who travel chiefly on the 
main line should contribute something toward maintenance 
of branch lines which are not so profitable, if such is the 
case. The enterprise should be treated as a whole. The 
decision of the board on the petition of citizens of Grafton 
for reduction in fares on the Grafton line of the Worcester 
Consolidated Street Railway emphasizes the importance of 
treating such problems from the standpoint of the system as 
a whole. The arrangement of fares on the branch lines on 
a different basis from that used on the main line would not 
be acceptable to the public. 

The company considered making reductions in service in 
order to effect sufficient saving to increase the net revenue 
materially. Reduction from a 15 to a 20-minute headway 
is possible during a few months of the year only, and during 
the last month a service has been operated on Saturdays, 
Sundays and holidays which gives a mileage equivalent to 
that run on the corresponding days of last year. A 10-min- 
ute service is now planned during the afternoon and evening 
hours. The car-mile saving will be less than the petitioners 
figured. As the consumption of power grows less, the cost 
of the remaining power increases. Wages of superinten- 
dents, starters, inspectors and others would not be de- 
creased, and the expense for car crews would not be cut 
down because the reduction in car hours cannot be made 
to correspond with the reduction in car miles. No account 
is taken of the falling off in the volume of travel through 
reduced service. Some saving will be effected by the re- 
duced schedule during the months in which it can be main- 
tained, but there seems to be no hope of saving anything 
like $7,400, as figured by the petitioners. The returns of 
the company with the increased fare do not show an in- 
crease approaching 20 per cent., as assumed by the peti- 
tioners. The increase will not do more than enable the 

company to pay a return on the invested capital within the 
figure recognized by the petitioners as fair (7 per cent) and 
as soon as the revenue warrants it is planned to partially 
reduce the ,+ e for workingmen's tickets. 

Figures c the mileage and earnings of the Natick & 
Cochituate road were submitted as follows: 

.Jvlileage of cars Earnings per car-mile 

1 07 1906 Increase 1907 1906 Increase 

Oct 44/961 44,887 74 18.87 18.96 *o.oo 

Nov 43>767 43,658 109 17.65 18.03 "0.38 

Dec 14,488 44,674 *i86 15.86 16.52 *o.66 

1908 1907 1908 1907 

Jan 40,160 44,474 *43'4 15-90 15.11 0.79 

Feb 35,295 39,566 *427i 16.81 15.63 1. 18 

Mch 38,358 44,778 "6420 18.52 16.83 '-69 

Apr 38,918 43,447 *45^9 18.76 17.64 1. 12 

fjVIay 24,013 27,629 *35i6 21.09 18.21 2.88 

* Decrease, 
t First 19 days only. 

Fare Collectors on Fifth Avenue Buses 

It is reported that society women are waging a campaign 
against the automatic fare-collecting device used by con- 
ductors on the Fifth Avenue buses. Richard W. Meade, 
president of the New York Transportation Company, which 
controls the buses, has made the following statement on 
the subject: 

"The present method of collecting fares was instituted 
for the same reasons that have led to the adoption of the 
system on a number of street railways throughout the 
country. The method facilitates operation by simplifying 
the work of the conductors in receiving and accounting for 
fares and without imposing any hardship upon the pas- 

"Under the old system a large part of the time and 
attention of the conscientious conductor was necessarily 
given to maintaining a balance between the indication of 
his fare register and the fares collected, leaving him that 
much less opportunity to attend to the more important 
duties, from the point of view of our passengers, of watch- 
ing for signals to stop the bus, of assisting travelers to get 
on and off and of giving the signal to start the bus in 
motion properly after passengers had entered or alighted. 

"The present method of collecting fares also overcomes 
the objection which so many women have to permitting 
their white-gloved hands to come in touch with the more 
or less grimy hands of the conductor, whose work of pull- 
ing the bell rope and handling change and dirty bills makes 
it impossible for him to keep his hands immaculate, al- 
though our orders are that every conductor shall wash his 
hands at the end of each trip. 

"Our automatic device makes it possible for a woman 
to avoid contact with the conductor, as all she has to do is 
to slip her dime into the slot of the nickeled box which 
he presents. Of course, if the woman does not happen to 
have the exact change .handy she will have to risk contact 
with the conductor's hands when he makes change. 

"Not the least important of the good features of the 
system is its effect upon the morale of the conductors. The 
fact that every passenger deposits, in effect, a fare directly 
into the treasury of the company, relieves the conductors 
who carry the automatic fare-collector from any possible 
suspicion of the dishonesty which has so unfortunately been 
associated hitherto with such employment, and in so many 
cases placed an unwarranted stigma upon honest, con- 
scientious and faithful employees. 

"The best answer we can make to what we believe to be 
a thoughtless criticism is the fact that since the adoption of 
this system we have received a large number of apprecia- 
tive and commendatory comments." 

Receivers Unable to Comply with Orders of New York 

The receivers of the New York City Railway have noti- 
fied the Public Service Commission, Second District, of their 
inability to operate the system in compliance with some of 
the orders requiring increased service, assuming the prin- 
ciple of adequacy of service underlying these orders to be 
applied to the entire system, without bringing about the en- 
tire disintegration of the system through inability to meet 
rentals and interest on securities of subsidiary companies. 

In a letter of protest to the commission the receivers 
estimate that, in order to carry out the commission^ ideas, 
it would be necessary to make these capital expenditures: 
Cars, $3,192,000; car-house facilities, $1,596,000; power-plant 
facilities, $4,149,820; total, $8,937,820. 

The receivers figure the annual expense of the increases 
ordered by the commission to be: Operation, $809,400; 
taxes, $55,807; insurance, $20,744; interest, $536,269; total, 

June 13, 1908.] 



The receivers point out that the expenditures enumerated 
are in addition to those for which payment was to be made 
through the issue of $3,500,000 receivers' certificates, recently 
sold. It appears that of the $3,500,000 expend" re covered 
by the present certificates, approximately Y j',ooo,ooo is 
money spent for maintenance and betterment of plant and 
equipment, substantially in accord with orders of the com- 
mission already issued. Of the remainder u little less than 
$1,000,000 is for the purchase of 125 new cars, already or- 
dered, and the balance, with certain insurance money, will 
be used to replace car-house property destroyed by fire. 
The pay-as-you-enter cars on the Fourth and Madison Ave- 
nue line were financed outside of the issue. The receivers 
state to the commission: 

"It must be evident to you that it is impossible for us 
to incur any such obligations (as the $8,937,820 referred to 
above), but granting, for the sake of argument, that we 
might attempt to carry out your orders, we would place 
such a burden on the property that in all probability the 
leaseholds would become unprofitable, and there would 
result a dissolution of the entire system in so far as it 
would be possible for us to default on the contracts and 
leases, leaving on our hands the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way proper. 

"As a result of the loss of the leased lines, the Metropoli- 
tan Street Railway would not have at its disposal suffi- 
cient funds to operate its lines in accordance with such 
orders as you have issued, and on account of the loss of 
the control of the leased lines the Metropolitan Street Rail- 
way would have to discontinue a very large percentage of 
its comparatively more profitable routes. This would bring 
about an utter demoralization of surface-car transportation 
facilities on Manhattan Island, involving a practical abol- 
ishment of the transfer privilege, a radical rearrangement 
of the routes of the cars, and resulting inconvenience and 
financial loss to the community. Briefly, this would mean 
that there would be no adequate means of surface-car trans- 
portation at all. 

The commission has replied to tbe receivers, saying in 
part : 

"The commission understands that the expenditures re- 
ferred to in your letter, approximating $9,000,000 for addi- 
tional cars, carhouses, facilities arid power plant are not 
the result of the orders already adopted or now under con- 
sideration, but would be the expenditure necessary to pro- 
vide adequate service upon all of the lines under your juris- 
diction. However, the commission is gratified to know that, 
in your opinion, adequate service can be secured without a 
greater capital expenditure. 

"The commission also understands that you do not con- 
tend in your communication that the service orders pre- 
viously adopted or those now being considered under hear- 
ing orders will render it impossible for you to continue the 
operation of the lines under your jurisdiction as a unit, but 
that under certain contingencies which might arise you 
would be unable to pay the rentals called for in the inter- 
company agreements." 

The receivers replied in part as follows to the statement 
of the commission: 

"We do not desire to enter into any discussion as to the 
advisability of placing additional service on certain lines 
affected by the orders of the commission, because the re- 
ceivers are unable financially to carry out those orders. It 
is not necessary to discuss the merits of orders, compliance 
with which is financially impossible. 

"The entire system of our distribution would be disor- 
ganized, and the attempt to regulate the service in accord- 
ance with the orders of the commission would render it 
necessary for us to default on certain of the leases. As a 
consequence of the abrogation of the leaseholds, disruption 
of the system would follow, so that instead of accomplish- 
ing an improvement in the service the orders of the com- 
mission would produce results directly to the contrary. 

"We are of the opinion that the distribution of the 1475 
cars at our disposal has been made to the best possible ad- 
vantage of the traveling public. If it is your judgment that 
our assignment of the cars is founded on illogical premises, 
we shall be very glad to consider any suggestions which 
you may have to offer with the object of redistributing 
these cars and providing transportation facilities propor- 
tioned more nearly in accordance with what you believe to 
be the relative needs of the public as a whole." 

The receivers will ask authority from the court to dis- 
continue payment of rentals on additional leased properties. 

East Boston Tunnel Service of the Boston Elevated 

Complaints by the Boston Board of Aldermen of the 
East Boston service of the Boston Elevated Railway were 

heard by the Massachusetts Board of Railroad Commis- 
sioners on June 4. 

C. S. Sergeant, vice-president, and George R. Tripp, super- 
intendent of transportation, represented the company. Mr. 
Sergeant stated that for anything with like conditions he 
considered the service through the East Boston tunnel and 
East Boston the equal of any in the world. The total one- 
way car service through the East Boston tunnel varies from 
1 car per hour during the night to 48 between 7 and 8 a. m. 
and 54 between 5 and 6 p. m. The light hour car service 
through the tunnel in one direction is 28 cars and the total 
number of one direction cars through the tunnel scheduled 
in 24 hours is 593. 

Mr. Sergeant filed a count of the traffic made by em- 
ployees of the company at the Maverick Square (East Bos- 
ton) portal of the tunnel on May 26 and 27, 1908. Cars 
with standing passengers were counted by adding to the 
known seating capacity the number of passengers stand- 
ing. A summary was presented showing the number of 
cars by half hours and the average number of passengers 
per car. The count extended from 5:30 a. m. to 12:30 a. m. 
The summary follows: 










Cars. Pass. 






Cars. Pass. 

5.30 to 6. . . 

. 6 



1 7 

3 to 

3-30. . . 

• 14 




6 to 6.30... 

■ 17 





to 4 . . . 

■ 1 5 


1 2 


6.30 to 7 . . . 

. 21 


4 to 

4-30. . . 

■ 14 




7 to 7-30. . . 

• 23 





to 5--- 

. 2 1 




7.30 to 8. . . 

■ 24 

5 7 



5 to 

5-30. . . 

■ 27 




8 to 8.30. . . 

■ 24 





to 6. . . 

1 7 



8.30 to 9 . . . 

. 16 




6 to 

6.30. . . 

• 24 




9 to 9.30. . . 

• 13 





to 7-.- 

. 18 




9.30 to 10.. 

• 14 




7 to 

7-30.. . 

■ 14 




10 to 10.30. 

■ 14 




to 8. . . 

. 1 7 




10.30 to II. 

■ 14 




8 to 

8.30. . . 

. 1 1 




11 to 11.30. 

• 13 



2 1 


to 9 . . . 

• 1 5 




11.30 tO 12. 

• 14 


1 5 


9 to 

9-30. . . 

. j 2 




12 tO 12.30. 

• 14 





to 10.. 

. 1 1 




12.30 to I . . 

• 14 




10 to 10.30. 

. 12 

2 1 



1 to 1.30... 

■ 15 





to II. 

■ 14 


1 2 


1.30 tO 2 . . . 

• 15 




11 to 11.30. 

. 10 




2 tO 2.30. . . 

■ 15 




1 1.30 

tO 12. 

. 1 




2.30 to 3. . . 

• 13 



12 tO 12.30. 

. 6 




Mr. Sergeant stated in conclusion that the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway does not receive a cent of the tunnel tolls, 
which are actually a detriment to traffic, and said that 62 
per cent of the tunnel passengers transfer free to it from 
the other lines of the company. He requested the board 
to allow the stops between streets to be discontinued, as 
they interfere seriously with rapid transit with the large 
cars and powerful equipments in use. 

Violation of Order Causes Accident on Washington, Balti- 
more & Annapolis Road 

Several persons were killed and about 15 injured in a 
head-on collision between two cars on the Washington, 
Baltimore & Annapolis Electric Railway at 7:50 p. m. June 
5, at Camp Parole, about 2 miles from Annapolis. The cars 
were special cars, one from Baltimore and the other from 
Annapolis. Among the passengers were W. E. Slaughter, 
general traffic manager of the company, and several mem- 
bers of his family. Mr. Slaughter's daughter was killed and 
his son badly injured. Mr. Slaughter was injured, but the 
indications are that he will recover. J. N. Shannahan, vice- 
president and general manager, went to the scene of the 
accident as soon as word of the collision was received, and 
after doing everything possible to relieve the suffering of 
those injured, spent the balance of the night making a rigid 
investigation as to the cause of the accident. After re- 
turning from the scene of the accident Mr. Shannahan 
issued this statement: 

"A careful investigation as to the cause of the deplorable 
accident has been made by the officials of this company. 
The investigation shows clearly that the accident was due 
to the violation of a plain written order, which amply pro- 
vided for a safe running of these cars. 

"The owners of this property have spared no expense to 
eliminate all ordinary causes of danger to the traveling 
public by building the very highest type of interurban road, 
and eliminating all grade crossings, and adopted the most 
improved system of train management, as well as selecting 
trainmen of ample experience and paying them the highest 
rate of wages in this State. 

"To protect us and our passengers against injuries result- 
ing from violation by a trainman of a plain written order, 
which is just as necessary for his own protection as for 
the protection of the passengers, we have to rely to a rea- 
sonable extent upon his having the same instinct of self- 
preservation as other men, if not more. I presume, of 
course, that there will be a full investigation into the cause 
of this accident by the coroner, and perhaps the above is 
about as full a statement as 1 ought to make in advance of 
that inquiry." 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

Milk Traffic of Worcester (Mass.) Roads 

E. G. Connette, general manager Worcester Consolidated 
Street Railway, writes as follows regarding the milk train 
which has been established on the Worcester & South- 
bridge Street Railway: "The General Court of Massachu- 
setts passed a bill recently allowing electric roads to run 
milk cars. We have started the operation of a milk car 
between Charlton City and Worcester, a distance of 20 
miles. We are carrying nearly 100 cans of milk each day 
and, as the contracts of the milk producers expire, we ex- 
pect that a large amount of the milk traffic which is now 
carried by steam trains will be diverted to our line from 
the milk producers' district. The rate is made in accor- 
dance with the size of the can and the distance hauled. I 
expect that arrangements will be made before long so that 
milk will be carried not only on our lines into Worcester, 
but also on through cars to Boston via the Boston & 
Worcester Street Railway." 

Improving Service and Morals in New York 

Frederick W. Whitridge, receiver of the Third Avenue 
Railroad, of New York, has had posted in the cars the fol- 
lowing official notice: 


Do Not Spit on the Floor! 

Do Not Throw Rubbish or Filth on the Floor! 

Do Not Let Anybody Else Do These Things! 

We Wish to Please the Public! 

We Ask the Public to Help Us! 

Inform Us of Everything Wrong! 

Be Sure Your Complaints Will Be Attended To! 

Another form has been posted conspicuously in the cars. 
It says: 


Every passenger who does not pay his fare — STEALS. 
Every conductor who does not turn in fares collected — 


Western New York & Pennsylvania Traction Company, 
Olean, N. Y. — This company has issued a very handsome 
folder, beautifully illustrated, which gives a map of the 
portions of Pennsylvania and New York through which it 
operates, including the lines from Bradford to Olean, to 
Seneca Junction, to Salamanca, Riverside and other places. 
A plan is given of the company's amusement resort at Rock 
City. Complete schedules are given of the different lines. 

Right to Haul Freight Questioned. — The right of the Brit- 
ish Columbia Electric Railway Company, Ltd., to haul 
freight for its own use in Victoria, B. C, is causing con- 
troversy. The city solicitor has decided that it would not 
be advisable to allow the company to haul freight for out- 
side firms. The matter has been referred to other authori- 
ties and the company announces its intention of apoealing 
if an adverse opinion is given. In the meantime the city 
has refused the company the right to erect poles on certain 

Advertising Campaign of Jacksonville Electric Company. 

— The advertisements of the Jacksonville (Fla.) Electric 
Company, which are now appearing in the newspapers of 
Jacksonville, are issued in connection with a publicity cam- 
paign which was undertaken with the object of keeping 
the public informed concerning the work which the com- 
pany is doing from time to time in behalf of the community. 
The advertisements discuss schedule changes, rearrange- 
ment of lines to improve service, etc., and give suggestions 
to the public from time to time which if followed will help 
to reduce accidents. 

Result of Increased Fares on the Brockton & Plymouth 
Street Railway. — Stone & Webster, of Boston, general man- 
agers of the Brockton & Plymouth Street Railway, Plym- 
outh, Mass., report satisfactory results from the 6-cent fares 
received on that line during April, the first month the in- 
creased rate was in effect. Passenger receipts in April, 
1908, increased 4 per cent over April, 1907, and if special 
car receipts, which were exceptionally heavy in April, 1907, 
are deducted for each month, the remaining passenger re- 
ceipts for April. 1908, show a gain of 7 per cent over the 
corresponding month of the previous year, a very satis- 
factory showing in view of business conditions. A feature 
of the statement was the heavy ticket sales, which amounted 
to nearly 32 per cent of the total passenger traffic. 

Personal Mention 

Mr. A. L. Drum has been appointed the representative of 
the Calumet & South Chicago Railway Company on the 
Board of Supervising Engineers, Chicago Traction. 

Mr. O. C. Macey, of Cairo, 111., has been appointed divi- 
sion superintendent of the Alton, Granite City & St. Louis 
Traction Company, of Alton, 111., succeeding Mr. W. R. 
Bailey, resigned. 

Mr. Wilbur C. Fisk, of Harvey Fisk & Sons, of New York, 
has been elected a director and vice-president of the Hudson 
& Manhattan Railroad Company, operating the tunnel be- 
tween New York and New Jersey. 

Mr. A. W. Q. Birtwell, formerly with the Northern Texas 
Traction Company, has entered upon his duties as assistant 
treasurer of the Puget Sound Electric Railway and the 
Tacoma Railway & Power Company. 

Mr. J. S. Simpson has resigned as assistant treasurer of 
the Puget Sound Electric Railway and the Tacoma Railway 
& Power Company, of Tacoma, Wash., with which he has 
been connected for the last eight years. 

Mr. John M. Boyer, of London, Ohio, has been appointed 
claim agent for the Ohio Electric Railway Company. Mr. 
Boyer was at one time probate judge of Madison County 
and later was engaged in electric railway construction work 
in the east. 

Mr. George L. Collins has been appointed manager of the 
Ontario Light & Traction Company, of Canandaigua, N. Y., 
to succeed Mr. R. M. Searle. Mr. Collins was formerly 
manager of the Consolidated Gas & Electric Company, of 
Batavia, N. Y. 

Mr. R. J. Ludlam, of the Long Island Railroad, has been 
appointed assistant trainmaster, with offices at Long Island 
City, and will have jurisdiction over the following electric 
railways controlled by the Long Island company: Hunting- 
ton Railroad, Nassau County Railway, Northport Traction 
Company and the Ocean Electric Railway. 

Mr. N. C. Draper has resigned. as vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light 
Company, of Fond du Lac, Wis., to become district man- 
ager of the Ohio Electric Railway, with headquarters at 
Zanesville, Ohio. He will have charge of the city lines in 
Newark and Zanesville and the interurban line from Colum- 
bus to Zanesville. Mr. Draper was formerly with the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company at Cleveland. 

Mr. R. T. Gunn, superintendent of transportation of the 
Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company, of Fort 
Wayne, Ind., has been appointed general manager of the 
Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Company, of Fond 
du Lac, Wis., effective June 15. Mr. Gunn was formerly 
general manager of the Lexington Railway & Light Com- 
pany, of Lexington, Ky., and previous to his connection with 
that company was superintendent of the Norfolk Railway 
& Light Company, of Norfolk, Va. 

Mr. Clement C. Smith, president of the Columbia Con- 
struction Company, of Milwaukee, has been elected presi- 
dent of the Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Company, 
of Fond du Lac, Wis. He will continue to serve as vice- 
president of the Sterling, Dixon & Eastern Electric Rail- 
way Company, of Sterling, 111., vice-president of the Lee 
• County Lighting Company, Dixon, 111., and president of 
the Citizens' Gas Company, of Kankakee, 111. There has 
been no change of ownership or control of the stock of the 
Eastern Wisconsin Railway & Light Company. 

Mr. C. A. Hammond has resigned as claim agent of the 
Seattle (Wash.) Electric Company, and Mr. George Carson 
has been appointed to succeed him. Mr. Carson was for- 
merly division inspector of the company and was familiar 
with the working of the department. Before assuming his 
new duties Mr. Carson, at the request of the company, made 
a tour of the West to study claim department methods in 
other cities. He spent two weeks during April in San Fran- 
cisco and Los Angeles investigating the systems of handling 
claims and devising ways of attracting the attention of em- 
ployees to the causes of accidents. 

Mr. Benjamin E. Tilton, whose appointment as engineer 
of maintenance of way of the Rochester (N. Y.) Railway 
was noted in the Street Railway Journal of May 30, was for- 
merly engineer of maintenance of way of the Municipal 
Traction Company, of Cleveland, which succeeded to the 
property of the Cleveland Electric Railway. His connection 
with the last-named company extended from May, 1907, to 
May, 1908. Before that time he was engineer in charge of 

June 13, 1908.] 



grade-crossing work in Cleveland. From 1901 to 1907 Mr. 
Tilton was with the Pennsylvania Railroad working under 
the chief engineer of maintenance of way. The property 
at Rochester under his jurisdiction includes about 100 miles 
of city and suburban railway. 

Mr. A. J. J. Pfeiffer, general manager of the Calcutta 
Tramways, is in this country on a short business trip. Be- 
fore returning to London he expects to visit Mexico. Mr. 
Pfeiffer was formerly connected with the General Electric 
Company and went abroad in 1897 to install important rail- 
way equipments in Paris and Milan for the French Thom- 
son-Houston Company. Among the roads constructed un- 
der Mr. Pfeiffer's direction was the Milan-Gallarate-Porto 
Ceresio third-rail line to the Italian lakes. In 1902 Mr. 
Pfeiffer became connected with Dick, Kerr & Company, in 
London, and soon after visited Calcutta, India, in the inter- 
ests of that company to install the system of which he 
subsequently was appointed general manager. 

Mr. W. W. Cole has resigned as vice-president and general 
manager of the Elmira (N. Y.) Water, Light & Railroad 
Company, to become general manager of the public utilities 
department for Dodge & Day, engineers, of Philadelphia. 
Mr. Cole went to Elmira in 1893 to construct the West Side 
Railroad, and upon its completion was made superintendent 
and general manager. Following the consolidation of the 
West Side and the Elmira & Horseheads Company, Mr. Cole 
became general manager, a position which he has since 
filled. Before becoming connected with the Elmira 
properties Mr. Cole was general manager of the Utica Belt 
Railway and prior to that was superintendent of the Allston 
division of the West End Street Railway, of Boston. He was 
also an expert with the Thomson-Houston Company. Mr. 
Cole is a member of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and 
the American Gas Institute. He expects to leave Elmira for 
Philadelphia about August 1. 


Mr. Pierre Van Cortlandt Miller, secretary and treasurer 
of the Butte (Mont.) Electric Railway, died at his home in 
Flushing, N. Y., last week. Mr. Miller was a director in the 
American Stone Company, Clark Coal Company, E. Spencer 
Hall & Company, Henry-Bonnard Bronze Company, the 
United Verde Copper Company, the Wacklark Realty Com- 
pany and the Wacklark Wire Company. 


Locomotive Catechism, by Robert Grimshaw, M. E. 
Twenty-seventh edition, entirely revised, enlarged and 
reset. New York: Norman W. Henley Publishing 
Company, 1908; 817 pages with index; illustrated. 
Price, $2.50. 

Since this work first appeared in print in 1896, it has gone 
through new editions as fast as a popular novel and has 
become a standard work. The 190& edition is really a new 
book as it contains nearly twice as much data as the pre- 
ceding issues. While written in the form of a catechism, 
the matter is arranged in a logical and readable way to 
cover the design, construction, running and repair of mod- 
ern steam locomotives. The book is particularly suited for 
examiners and applicants for the locomotive engineer li- 

Locomotive Breakdowns. By Geo. L. Fowler, revised by 
W. W. Wood. New York: Norman W. Henley 
Publishing Company; 1908 edition; 266 pages, including 
index; illustrated. Price, $1. 
This is the fifth dress of this stanch friend of the locomo- 
tive engineer. The construction of the steam locomotive 
is so complex, and the progress in its improvement so rapid, 
that those who operate it cannot do their best without some 
manual of this character. The book is got up in the 
question and answer form with a comprehensive index to 
make immediate reference possible to any of the 400 sub- 
jects treated. The principal features of the new edition are 
the pointers on the Walschaerts valve gear, electric head- 
lights, and a more extended treatment of the air brake chap- 
ter. The contents are printed in large type on pages a,Y% in. 
x 6^4 in. in size, and are bound in durable, flexible cloth, so 
that the engineer can make the book his pocket companion. 

Charles Thompson, a stockholder of the Toledo & 
Western Railway, has obtained from the Common Pleas 
Court, at Toledo, permission to amend a petition filed about 
a year ago to prevent the sale of the property to the Toledo 
& Western Railway. A demurrer to this petition has been 
filed by Attorney U. G. Denman which states that Mr. 
Thompson has no right to attack the outcome of the case 
because he took no steps to prevent the sale while the liti- 
gation was pending in the United States Court. The 
amended petition, Mr. Thompson says, will show why he 
failed to take such action. 

Electric Railway Patents 

[This department is conducted by Rosenbaum & Stock- 
bridge, patent attorneys, 140 Nassau Street, New York.] 

Railway Signal System, 888,483; Elihu E. Gabbart, Kings- 
land, Tex. App. filed Oct. 16, 1907. Relates particularly to 
a system designed for use on curves where it is desirable 
to indicate at one end of the curve when a train enters the 
opposite end. Employs tappets closing circuits at the en- 
trance to the section, and actuating signals at the other end. 

System of Electrical Control, 888,557; Hermon L. Van 
Valkensburg, Pittsburg, Pa. App. filed Sept. 2, 1904. Pro- 
vides for effecting step-by-step operation of the unit 
switches by successive operation of a manually controlled 
master switch. Designed to simplify and lighten the con- 
trol apparatus. 

Air Brake, 888,566; John B. Wright, Greensboro, N. C. 
App. filed Oct. 9, 1907. Comprises a train pipe opening 
valve and a pair of independently operable truck actuated 
mechanisms, each including a valve engaging member ar- 
ranged to move the valve to open position independent of 
the other member. 

Automatic Car Fender, 888,578; Henry W. Bodendieck, 
St. Louis, Mo. App. filed Aug. 30, 1907. Arranged in com- 
bination with an ordinary front fender is a horizontal fen- 
der which will automatically make contact with the track 
and be advanced forwardly underneath the front fender 
whenever an object comes in contact therewith. 

Safety Device for Street Cars at Drawbridges, 888,588; 
Joseph W. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio. App. filed March 3, 
1908. Details. 

Electric Railway Signaling System, 888,613; Edward B. 
Howell, Butte, Mont. App. filed Aug. 22, 1907. A railway 
signal system which makes it possible for engineers to 
transmit to. and receive signals from, other trains and a 

Electrical Appliance for Controlling Air Brakes, 888,648; 
James G. Pearce and William H. Pearce, Oakland, Cal. 
App. filed Sept. 25, 1907. Details. 

Trolley, 888,677; Charles M. Whitcomb, Portland, Ore. 
App. filed April 9, 1906. The trolley wheel has spiral 
grooves on each side to guide the trolley wire into the cen- 
tral or normal running groove. The wheel may be readily 
taken apart. 

Track Clearer, 888,730; George A. Parmenter, Cambridge- 
port, Mass. App. filed Sept. 28, 1907. The car truck has a 
transverse bar at the front end to which a pair of spring 
levers carrying cleaner blades at their outer end are pivot- 
ally secured. 

Automatic Electric Railway Switching Device, 888,929; 
Francis M. Rice, Dows, and Arthur W. Hill, Belmond, Iowa. 
App. filed Sept. 19, 1907. The car is provided with two 
reversely moving electromagnets in close proximity to the 
rails, means for moving them transversely to the car and 
for connecting them for simultaneous movement in oppo- 
site directions successively to open and close a switch 

Railway Signal, 888.959; Edgar M. Cain. Wilmington, 
Del. App. filed Jan. 17, 1908. Details of construction of a 
semaphore signal having in addition a whistle operated by 
by an electromagnet. 

Rail-bond, 888,980; Axel H. Englung, Philadelphia, Pa. 
App. filed June 16, 1904. The bond is provided with a recess 
having a wall which extends entirely around the same, so 
that when the bond is applied to a rail the recess is closed 
on all sides. 

Trolley, 889,015; Albert S. Janin. New York, N. Y. App. 
filed Nov. 16, 1906. A support for trolley rollers of the kind 
used by electric locomotives. Makes use of a toggle or link 
support depressible in a vertical direction. 

Electric Heater, 889.040; Edwin F. Porter, Boston, Mass. 
App. filed Jan. 29, 1906. Effects the ventilation of the car 
by taking in fresh air from out of doors over the heat gen- 
erating resistances. 

Car Heating and Ventilating Apparatus, 889,041; Edwin 
F. Porter, Boston, Mass. App. filed Aug. 19, 1907. Relates 
to modifications of the above. 

Registering Apparatus, 889,079; Paul Winsor, Weston, 
Mass. App. filed March 15, 1907. A register by which a 
record may be obtained of the number of fares registered 
by the conductor in a given time without such record being 
made known to the conductor. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified under each head- 
ing alphabetically by States. 


Los Angeles, Cal. — A. St. Clair Perry has applied for a 
franchise for a street railway up Avenue Forty-three to 
Mount Washington. 

Stockton, Cal. — The Central California Traction Company 
has applied for an electric railway franchise in Stockton. 

Springfield, Mass. — A franchise has been granted to the 
Springfield Street Railway for double tracks on Sumner 
Avenue and Long Hill Street from the present terminus of 
the double tracks on Sumner Avenue to Cherryvale Avenue 
on Long Hill Street. The company was also granted a 
franchise for building a line in East Street in Chicopee Falls. 

Babylon, N. Y. — The South Shore Traction Company has 
been granted a franchise on Main Street, between Deer 
Park Avenue and Cooper Street, and northerly on Cooper 
Street to John Street, and thence easterly over and along 
John Street to the village limits. The company was also 
granted a 99-year franchise to build its line through Rock- 
ville Centre. 

Portland, Ore. — The Portland Railway, Light & Power 
Company is reported to have applied to the City Council 
for a franchise to build and operate electric railways on 40 
separate streets in the city. 

Cheyenne, Wyo. — Thomas A. Cosgriff has been granted 
a franchise for an electric railway in Cheyenne. It is 
planned to begin construction work immediately. The road 
is also to be extended to Fort Russell and Frontier Park. 


Idaho & Nevada Southern Railway, Boise, Idaho. — Incor- 
porated in Idaho to build an electric railway from Twin 
Falls to Wells, Nev., a distance of about 114 miles. Gen- 
eral office, Boise. Officers: H. L. Hollister, president; I. 
B. Perrine, vice-president and general manager; R. M. 
McCollum, secretary and treasurer; S. Hays, attorney. 
These officers, with C. B. Hurtt, will constitute the board 
of directors. Capital stock, $250,000. [S. R. J., Dec. 21, '07.] 

Terre Haute & Northern Traction Company, Indianapolis, 
Ind. — Incorporated in Indiana to construct and operate 
street railways in Terre Haute and Markle, Burnet, Fonte- 
net, Coal Bluff, Perth, Diamond and Bridgeton, in Vigo, 
Clay and Parke counties and an interurban railroad between 
and connecting these cities. The company also proposes to 
build and operate power plants. Capital stock, $100,000. 
Headquarters, Terre Haute. Directors: W. S. Philips, A. 
J. Stein, D. Russ. Woods and F. C. McKeen. 

Vincennes & Washington Transit Company, Monroe City, 
Ind. — Incorporated in Indiana to construct and operate an 
electric railway from, between and connecting Monroe City, 
Linton, Washington and Bloomington, in Knox, Sullivan, 
Daviess and Monroe counties. Capital stock, $60,000. Di- 
rectors: J. J. Burns, W. S. Hassette, W. W. Claycomb and 
M. A. Peoples. [E. R. J., June 6, '08.] 

Des Moines & Sioux City Railroad, Des Moines, Iowa. — 

Incorporated in Iowa to build an electric railway from Des 
Moines to Lake City via Perry, Jefferson, Lake City and 
Sioux City. Capital stock, $20,000. Officers: S. M. El- 
wood, Sioux City, president; H. M. Miller, Fort Dodge, 
vice-president; A. O. Anderson, Lake City, secretary; E. 
N. Bailey, Sioux City, treasurer. The board of directors 
includes: J. H. LaGrange, W. C. Edson, A. G. Martin, C. 
S. Hopper, M. A. Miller, H. H. Feige and S. M. Elwood. 
Offices, Lake City. Arrangements are being made in all 
the important towns along the line for the organization of 
similar companies. [S. R. /., Feb. 8, '08.] 

Hillsboro, Cynthiana & Bainbridge Traction Company, 
Cynthiana, Ohio. — Incorporated in Ohio, with a capital stock 
of $10,000, by Oliver E. Eylar and others. 

Oklahoma City Belt Line Railway, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

— W. W. Bierce writes that this company will build a steam 
and not an electric railway. [S. R. J., May 23, '08.] 

Vancouver (Wash.) Traction Company. — Incorporated 
in Washington to construct an electric railway from 
Vancouver to Washougal and Fisher. Incorporators: 
E. M. Rands, Vancouver; W. J. Patterson, Baker City, and 

A. Welch, Portland. This company takes over the Wash- 
ington Railway & Power Company, which was formed by 
W. H. Moore and his associates, and its object is to finish 
construction of the work already started, and then to ex- 
tend the line through Clark County. The board of trustees 
of the new company is composed of Harrison Allen, Bert 
Yates, W. J. Patterson, A. Welch and E. M. Rands. 


Alabama Railway & Electric Company, Opelika, Ala. — 

J. C. Chapman writes that it is intended to start construction 
work on this line at once. The road is to be built from 
Opelika to Eufala, Ala., Dothan and Lafayette, Ala., and 
will be operated by electricity. Officers: A. M. Buchanan, 
Opelika, president; J. C. Chapman, 223 Century Building, 
Atlanta, Ga., vice-president and purchasing agent; J. M. 
Shelly. Atlanta, secretary and treasurer; S. A. Wardlaw, 
Atlanta, superintendent. [S. R. J., May 16, '08.] 

Little Rock & Hot Springs Electric Railway, Little Rock, 
Ark. — C. J. Kramer, president of this company, is said to 
have announced that actual construction will begin on the 
line within 60 days. This company contemplates the con- 
struction of an electric railway from Little Rock to Hot 
Springs. [S. R. /., Apr. 18, 08.] 

British Columbia Electric Railway, New Westminster, 

B. C. — This company is reported to have awarded a contract 
to Boyd & Craig, Vancouver, B. C, for the construction 
of the section between New Westminster and Cloverdale, 
a distance of 12 miles. It is said that contracts for other 
sections will be awarded shortly and as soon as one sec- 
tion is completed it will be put in operation; in fact, traffic 
will follow closely on the overhead gang. The above sec- 
tion, which is to be built presently, is part of an extension 
which the company is building from New Westminster to 
Chilliwac, 60 miles. D. J. McQuarril, manager. 

Sacramento Electric Gas & Railway Company, Sacramen- 
to, Cal. — John A. Britton, president, writes that this com- 
pany proposes to add 1 mile of single track to its system 
this year. 

Ventura (Cal.) Terminal Railway. — This company is said 
to be making preliminary arrangements toward the building 
of its line from Ventura to Nordhoff. About 25 miles of 
track are to be built. Julian P. Jones, manager. [S. R. /., 
Dec. 21, '07.] 

Kansas-Colorado Power & Railway Company, La Junta, 
Colo. — The directors of this company met on May 27 and 
formed two companies, the first to be known as the Kansas- 
Colorado Electric Transmission Company, capital stock, 
$3,500,000, and the second, the Kansas-Colorado Railway 
Company, capitalized at $5,000,000. The companies are 
formed for the purpose of putting into operation the plans 
of A. B. Hulet, of Madison, Wis., to build power plants, 
transmission lines and an electric railway from Canon City, 
Colo., to Dodge City and Scott City, Kan., connecting the 
principal towns in the Arkansas Valley. The officers for 
both companies are: S. H. Atwater, Canon City, presi- 
dent; J. A. Lockhart, Rocky Ford; vice-president; Robert 
W. Patterson, La Junta, second vice-president; A. H. 
Warner, Garden City, secretary, and Andrew Russell, Dodge 
City, Kan., treasurer. Directors: S. H. Atwater, J. A. 
Lockhart, R. W. Patterson, Andrew Russell, Alva Adams 
and A. M. McClelland, of Pueblo, Colo.; J. O. McDonald, 
of Florence, Colo.; J. N. Beatty, of Colorado Springs; W. 
P. Humphreys, of Syracuse, Kan., and W. O. Bournier, of 
Scott City, Kan.; J. W. Warner, Garden City; W. A. 
Gould, Lamar; Samuel Mclntyre, Las Animas. 

New London & East Lyme Street Railway, New Lon- 
don, Conn. — It is stated that this company has a force of 
men at work on the roadbed between Niantic and Flanders. 
The entire length of the road is to be put in first-class 
order for the summer traffic. L. S. Rudd, superintendent. 

Atlanta, Ga. — President W. J. Massee, of the Atlanta, 
Griffin & Macon Electric Railway, and the Macon, Ameri- 
cus & Albany Electric Railway, which proposes to build 
interurban lines connecting the various Georgia cities 
named, is reported as saying that construction will be 
started on both lines immediately, as the Railroad Com- 
mission has approved the plans for the financing of the 
roads. The president applied for permission to issue 
$5,000,000 of common stock and $5,000,000 in bonds for each 
of the two companies, and the charters are to be amended 
for that purpose. Mr. Massee is further quoted as saying 
that upon the completion of the line cars will run between 
Atlanta and Macon on a two-hour schedule, with current 
furnished from the plants of the Central Georgia Power 



Company, which are now being built on the Okmulgee 
River and the Flint River. The two roads will have about 
200 miles of track, [S. R. /., Nov. 2, '07.] 

Illinois & Indiana Electric Railway, Springfield, 111. — The 

State Board of Railroad & Warehouse Commissioners on 
June 2 granted the petition of this company for leave to 
cross the tracks of the Southern Railway at Fourth Street 
and Railway Avenue and at Market Avenue and Eighth 
Street, both in East St. Louis, and of the Illinois Transfer 
Company at Pigget Avenue and Twenty-third Street, East 
St. Louis. The company was also granted permission to 
cross the tracks of the East St. Louis Railway at three 
places at grade. 

Indianapolis, Frankfort, Delphi & Chicago Traction Com- 
pany, Frankfort, Ind. — J. R. Brown writes that this com- 
pany is taking up the deeds for the right of way on options 
heretofore taken and will soon be ready to begin construc- 
tion on its line between Frankfort and Delphi. This com- 
pany is the successor to the Frankfort, Delphi & Northern 
Traction Company and has been reorganized with the fol- 
lowing officers: A. S. Straus, Chicago, 111., president; W. 
H. Cohee, Frankfort, Ind., vice-president; Bert Wills, 
Frankfort, Ind., secretary; Chas. E. Hyman, Chicago, 111., 
treasurer. [S. R. J., May 2, '08.] 

Indianapolis, Cloverdale & Terre Haute Traction Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, Ind. — E. M. Bowman, president of this 
company, states that a corps of surveyors have been locat- 
ing and staking the road during the past week. It is the 
intention of this company to build an electric railway con- 
necting Indianapolis, West Newton, Mooresville, Gassburg, 
Monrovia, Hall, Cloverdale, Polen, Asheville, Brazil and 
Terre Haute. [S. R. J., Apr. 18, '08.] 

Vera Cruz, Ind. — It is reported that J. Berger and P. 
Neuenschwander are interested in a proposition to con- 
struct an electric railway from Bluffton to Celina, Ohio, by 
way of Berne. 

Red Oak & Northeastern Interurban Promotion Com- 
pany, Red Oak, la. — M. N. Spencer writes that no definite 
construction date has been decided upon. It is the inten- 
tion of the promoters to construct an electric railway which 
will start at Red Oak and will pass through Milford, Fon- 
tanelle, Greenfield, Stuart, Redfield, Adel, Waukee and 
thence into Des Moines. Capital, $10,000. Officers: B. P. 
Clark, Red Oak, president; G. W. Curtis, Redfield, vice- 
president; M. N. Spencer, Red Oak, secretary; Thos. Grif- 
fith, treasurer. [S. R. J., May 9, '08.] 

St. Tammany & New Orleans Railway & Ferry Company, 
Covington, La. — This company is reported to be making 
rapid progress on the construction of its line to connect 
Covington, Abita Springs and Mandeville, La., 18 miles. 
Nearly all the right of way has been secured, and grading 
is well advanced. A bridge about 500 ft. long has been built 
at Ponchitoawa, and several smaller bridges between there 
and the Abita River are to be erected, besides a bridge over 
the Bogue Falaya. It is expected to complete the line from 
Covington to Mandeville by Aug. 1 and to operate fast 
boats to New Orleans. Clay Riggs, president; Preston 
Herndon, Covington, La., chief engineer. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway. — This company is 
stated to have petitioned the railroad commission for ap- 
proval of a location for double tracks from Boylston Street 
through Hereford and Newbury Streets to Massachusetts 
Avenue. The petition specifies that the location is to be 
only temporary. 

Shelburne Falls & Colrain Street Railway, Shelburne 
Falls, Mass. — It is stated that this company will build a 
concrete bridge across the Deerfield River from River 
Street to connect with the Boston & Maine station. The 
bridge will be 400 ft. in length. Fred T. Ley & Company, 
of Springfield, are to construct the bridge, work to begin 
as soon as possible. 

Minnesota Construction Company, Minneapolis, Minn. — 

This company is reported to have been organized, with a 
capital stock of $100,000, to build an electric railway from 
Minneapolis to Medicine Lake, Minn., which is to be ex- 
tended later to Montevideo, via Wayzata, Long Lake, Stubbs 
Bay and Winsted. It is said that the right of way has been 
obtained for the first section, which will be 6 miles long. 
John Blichfeldt, president, Temple Court. Minneapolis; 
W. W. Bardwell, Loan & Trust Building, Minneapolis, secre- 

Kansas City, Ozarks & Southern Railway, Springfield, 

Mo. — J. B. Quigley, of Sedalia, states that this company in- 
tends to begin constructing its line between Mansfield and 

Ava this year. The preliminary surveys for the road were 
made Dec. 29, 1907. The city of Ava has raised a $30,000 
bonus for the road, and main offices and repair shops will 
be located there. [S. R. J., May 2, '08.] 

Rochester, Scottsville & Caledonia Electric Railway, War- 
saw, N. Y. — David C. Salyerds, president, is reported as 
saying that the company has secured all rights and fran- 
chises required for the road from Rochester through to 
Portage and that the contract for a considerable part of 
the construction work will be let in the near future. 
[S. R. J., Mar. 28, 08.] 

Monterey (N. L., Mex.) Street Railway, Light & Power 
Company. — It is reported that this company contemplates 
extending its Obispado line along Morelos Street to Cruz 
Verde. The running of the line on Reforma Street from 
the Golfo station to the old International station is also 
contemplated. L. Lukes, general manager. 

Dayton (Ohio) Street Railway. — It is reported that this 
company has started construction work on its line in Day- 
ton. The company has in contemplation the construction 
of a new city route to be about 14 miles in length. Work 
was begun at Salem and Neal Avenues and tracks will be 
laid north from this point. C. H. Bosler, Dayton, purchas- 
ing agent. 

Toledo & Michigan Electric Railway, Toledo, Ohio. — 

It is announced officially that this company will begin con- 
struction work on its line as soon as $300,000 has been 
subscribed. The company proposes to build an electric rail- 
way connecting Adrian, Clayton, Hudson, Pittsford, Osseo, 
Hillsdale, Janesville and Coldwater. Capital, $1,500,000. 
P. P. Duket, 462 Spitzer Building, Toledo, president. 
[S. R. J., May 9, '08.] 

Beulah Street Car & Electric Company, Doxey, Okla. — 

It is reported that this company will start work before long 
on its proposed electric railway. The company is said to 
be asking prices on electric railway equipment. Wm. Jones, 
Doxey, Okla., president. 

Oklahoma City, Shawnee & El Reno Rapid Transit Rail- 
way, Oklahoma City, Okla. — John W. Burchinal writes that 
this company intends to start constructing its line as soon 
as the rights of way have been secured, possibly by Sept. 
15. The road will be about 70 miles in length and will 
extend from Shawnee to Oklahoma City, Spencer, Yukon 
and El Reno. The overhead trolley system will be in- 
stalled. General office, 108J/2 Grand Avenue, Oklahoma 
City, Okla. Capital stock, $1,400,000. Officers: W. M. 
Sawyer, president; J. A. Niblo, vice-president; C. A. Huber, 
secretary, and S. L. Niblo, treasurer. [S. R. J., May 23, '08.] 

Coos Bay Railway & Terminal Company, Marshfield, Ore. 

— It is announced that this company has started construc- 
tion work on its proposed electric railway between MarsrT- 
field and North Bend. Seymour H. Bell, manager. 

Sunbury & Selinsgrove Electric Street Railway, Sunbury, 

Pa. — It is announced that this company will begin operat- 
ing its system on June 24. A large force of men is em- 
ployed at both the Sunbury and Selinsgrove ends of the line. 
The foundations for the new car house at Hummel's Wharf 
have been completed and the steel superstructure will be 
placed as rapidly as possible. Work has also been started on 
the company's office building near Hummel's Wharf. One car 
is already on the ground and another on the way. W. H. 
Lyons, Sunbury, president. [S. R. J., Apr. 25, '08.] 

Mount Holly & Gettysburg Street Railway, Carlisle, Pa. — 

T. M. Nelson has announced that this company has just 
made a survey, but no plans for construction work have 
been made up to the present time. Mr. Nelson states that 
the company does not expect to do any work this year. 
[E. R. J., June 6, '08.] 

Virginia Passenger & Power Company, Richmond, Va. — 

It is reported that this company within the next two weeks 
will begin the work of laying new steel rails on Main Street, 
from Seventh Street to Twelfth Street. 

Seattle, Snohomish & Everett Railway, Seattle, Wash. — 

Charles W. Kimball writes that this company has almost 
completed the surveys and will be ready to proceed with 
the construction work as soon as the route is established. 
It is to be a standard-gage electric road and it is planned 
to connect Seattle, Bothwell, Snohomish and Everett. The 
overhead trolley system will be installed. The company 
proposes to rent its power from the Seattle Electric Com- 
pany. Capital, $500,000. Headquarters, 443 New York 
Block, Seattle. Officers: Clyde C. Chittenden, Seattle, 
president; J. R. McLaughlin, Seattle, vice-president; Charles 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

W. Kimball, Seattle, secretary and general manager. 
[S. R. /., May 9, '08.] 

Pacific Traction Company, Tacoma, Wash. — It is reported 
that this company is completing the survey of a line to ex- 
tend from the terminus of the company's line at American 
Lake to Olympia. It is stated that the line will probably 
be built during the next eight months. E. J. Felt, Tacoma, 

Parkersburg, Marietta & Interurban Railway, Parkers- 
burg, W. Va. — This company is said to have made prelim- 
inary surveys for building a line from Lowell to Coal Run 
and Beverly, Ohio, 10 miles, under charter granted to the 
Muskingum River Traction Company. The right of way 
and capital have not been secured yet. No steps have been 
taken toward letting contracts. C. H. Shattuck, president, 

Sparta & Melrose Electric Railway & Power Company, 
Sparta, Wis. — This company is reported to have commenced 
construction of its proposed railway, which will run from 
Sparta to Melrose, about 28 miles. Capital stock, $300,000. 
Officers: President, Charles Newland; vice-president, James 
Cole; secretary, Howard Teasdale; treasurer, W. A. Sholes. 
[S. R. J., May 4, '07.] 


Los Angeles (Cal.) Railway. — Howard E. Huntington, gen- 
eral manager of this company, writes that it is intended to 
purchase during the next six weeks the following apparatus: 
Two 1000-kw motor generators; one 600-kw motor generator 
and nine transformers. 

Monterey (N. L., Mex.) Street Railway, Light & Power 

Company has installed in its power station a new 500-hp 


Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway, Columbus, Ohio. 

— This company is reported to have a building on West 
Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio, which it is remodeling for 
a passenger and freight station. The new station will con- 
tain waiting rooms for passengers and will furnish ample 
facilities for handling the freight of the company. It will 
probably be placed in service July 1. 

Columbus (Ohio) Railway & Light Company. — It is 

stated that this company has completed its new car house 
and repair shops at Columbus which will be used to house 
and repair the cars of the Central Market system, now 
operated by the company. 

A decree to enjoin the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad Company from holding further stock in elec- 
tric railway companies of western Massachusetts was of- 
fered in the Supreme Judicial Court June 9 by Attorney- 
General Dana Malone. The decree was based upon the re- 
cent decision of that court in a suit brought by the Attor- 
ney-General against the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Company, to the effect that the stock in the street railways 
was held by the company contrary to the laws of 
Massachusetts. The court took the decree under advise- 
ment. The street railway corporations involved are the 
Worcester & Southbridge Street Railway, Worcester & 
Blackstone Valley Street Railway. Worcester & Webster. 
Webster & Dudley, Berkshire Street Railway and the 
Springfield Street Railway. 

The annual convention of the Incorporated Municipal 
Electrical Association will this year be held from June 30 
to July 3 at Nottingham, where H. Talbot, the president, is 
city electrical engineer. The following preliminary pro- 
gram has been arranged, but it is subject to alteration: 
First day, Tuesday, June 30 — Morning, reception of the 
members by the Mayor; presidential address; reading and 
discussion of papers; luncheon given by the chairman and 
members of the electricity committee. Afternoon, visits to 
works. Second day, Wednesday, July 1 — Whole day excur- 
sion to Dovedale. Third day, Thursday, July 2 — Morning, 
annual general meeting. Afternoon, visits to electricity and 
other works. Evening, members' annual dinner. Fourth 
day, Friday, July 3 — Morning, reading and discussion of 
papers. The following are some of the subjects to be dis- 
cussed during the convention: "Experiences of a Governor 
in Establishing an Electrical Undertaking," "The Equip- 
ment of a Testing Department," "A. C. Accumulator Sub- 
stations," "The Designing of Electrical Generating Sta- 
tions," "Overhead Equipment." 

Manufactures & Supplies 

Milwaukee Northern Railway, Milwaukee, Wis., is having 

two 5 1 -ft. interurban cars similar to the present equipment 
of this road built by the Niles Car Manufacturing Company. 

Western Railways & Light Company, Ottawa, 111. — This 

company is reported to have ordered six double-truck trail- 
ers for electric railway service from the Danville Car Com- 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company, 
New Haven, Conn. — This company has just received six 
new electric locomotives from the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company. This makes 41 electric locomo- 
tives in all which the company has for its suburban serv- 
ice out of New York. 

Chicago Railways Company, Chicago, 111., has increased 
its order with the Pullman Company from 300 to 600 pay- 
as-you-enter cars, and is reported to have placed an addi- 
tional order for 50 steel cars with the Pressed Steel Car 
Company. The cars ordered from the Pullman Company 
are to be 49 ft. 2 in. over all, 8 ft. 9 in. wide and 11 ft. 8 in. 
high. The heaters and push buttons will be supplied by the 
Consolidated Car Heating Company, Albany; the brakes by 
the National Brake & Electric Company, Milwaukee, Wis.; 
the journal boxes by McCord & Company, Chicago, and the 
electrical equipment by the General Electric Company, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 


Belmont Iron Works, Philadelphia, has changed the ad- 
dress of its New York office from 21 Park Row to 1 West 
Thirty-fourth Street. 

Forsyth Brothers Company, Chicago, 111., announces the 
opening of its New York office, Hudson Terminal, Fulton 
Building, 50 Church Street. A. L. Whipple is sales man- 
ager at the New York office. 

Standard Roller Bearing Company, Philadelphia, has re- 
cently installed a thoroughly equipped testing laboratory 
at its factory in charge of Walter H. Hart, a chemist for- 
merly connected with the Alan Wood Iron & Steel Com- 

Warner Engineering Company, London, England, has 

issued a pamphlet in regard to its radial trucks for electric 
cars, which have been in use on the West Ham Corporation 
Tramways, the Metropolitan Electric Railways, of Middle- 
sex, and elsewhere in England. 

Schutte & Koerting Company, Philadelphia, Pa., manu- 
facturers of steam and engineering specialties for power 
plant, chemical and other industries, has opened a branch 
sales office in the Keenan Building, Pittsburg, Pa., where it 
is represented by E. A. Knowlton. 

Summers Steel Car Company, Pittsburg, Pa., has been 
granted a charter by the State Department at Harrisburg. 

The company is capitalized at $800,000 to manufacture steel 
cars for steam and electric railways. The directors are: 
J. R. D. Huston, president; Wm. Lindsay, F. P. Patterson 
and A. M. Neefer. 

R. D. Nuttall Company, Pittsburg, Pa., has added to its 
list of gears and pinions, the Titan brand of manganese steel 
gears and pinions, having arranged with the Atha Steel 
Casting Company for their exclusive sale. This places the 
Nuttall Company in a position to furnish practically every- 
thing in the way of gears and pinions for electric railway 

Fixler Trolley Stand Company, Delta, Ohio, recently 

incorporated, with a capital stock of $25,000, is arranging 
to open a factory at Delta for the manufacture of a new 
trolley stand. The officers of the company are: C. R. P. 
Waltz, president; Dr. A. M. Wilkins, vice-president; J. M. 
Longnecker, treasurer; J. H. Gehring, secretary; D. H. 
Lavenberg, general manager. 

Arthur S. Partridge, St. Louis, Mo., under date of June 8 
has issued Schedule No. 21 of his offerings. There is a 
list of generators, motors, converters, transformers, en- 
gines and boilers and some car bargains. Among the cars 
for sale are ten 8-bench open cars, a 12-bench Brill open 
car, two 10-bench Brill open cars, a construction car and a 
combination baggage and passenger motor car entirely 
overhauled and repainte'd. 

Toseph T. Ryerson & Son, Chicago, 111., have completed 
their new general offices and warehouses at Sixteenth and 
Rockwell Streets, Chicago, where they will be pleased to 
have patrons call and inspect the increased facilities which 
the new location affords. The Milwaukee Avenue and Lake 

June 13, 1908.] 


Street offices were discontinued June 1, but downtown 
branch offices are maintained at the Commercial National 
Bank Building. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., at its 

annual meeting elected as directors Edward F. C. Young, 
George T. Smith, George E. Long, Harry Dailey, William 
Murray, Edward L. Young and William H. Corbin. The 
officers were re-elected as follows: Edward F. C. Young, 
president; George T. Smith, vice-president; George E. 
Long, treasurer, and Harry Dailey, secretary. 

W. J. A. London has recently accepted the position of 
chief engineer of the Terry Steam Turbine Company, Hart- 
ford, Conn., succeeding C. E. Terry, recently deceased. Mr. 
London's experience in the turbine industry has been exten- 
sive, dating from his early connection with the C. A. Par- 
sons Company, Newcastle, Eng., and about 15 years later 
with Brown-Boveri Company, Baden, Germany, and the 
British and American Westinghouse companies. His work 
has taken him into the field not only of land turbines, tur- 
bo-generators and condensers, but also that of marine pro- 

Hadaway Electric Heating & Engineering Company, 

which was some time since acquired by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, has removed its offices 
from 238 West Broadway, New York, to the Westinghouse 
works at East Pittsburg. This change will permit 
the business to be carried on upon a much larger scale than 
formerly and all the standard appliances for hatters, confec- 
tioners, printers and other manufacturers will be turned out 
in larger quantities. Special attention will be given to the 
manufacture of the sad irons, glue pots and similar appli- 
ances that have recently become so popular. A New York 
office will be maintained on the twenty-second floor of the 
City Investing Building, 165 Broadway. 

Massachusetts Chemical Company, Walpole, Mass., oper- 
ating the Walpole Rubber Works and Walpole Varnish 
Works, calls attention to a change in name of one of its 
products formerly known as field coil cushions, which from 
now on will be known as field coil pads. These pads are 
used to take up play between the field coils and adjacent 
parts, thereby doing away with chafing and grounds through 
the field pieces. Heretofore canvas sheets have been cut 
to fit over the field pieces and several sheets have been stuck 
together, making an unyielding washer which wore out 
quickly. The rubber field coil pads yield sufficiently to 
prevent any looseness caused by expansion and contraction. 
They are applied easily. 

Electric Railway Improvement Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 
which manufactures bonds and cars for installing brazed 
and copper welded bonds, reports the following among re- 
cent orders: The Los Angeles-Pacific Company has leased 
a bonding car and ordered 32,600 bonds. The Toronto Rail- 
way, which leased a car some time ago, has leased a second 
car and ordered 30,000 bonds. The Pacific Electric Railway, 
of Los Angeles, has leased a car and ordered 5000 bonds. 
The Municipal Traction Company, of Cleveland, has leased 
a second car. The Illinois Traction System has leased a 
car. The Ft. Wayne & Wabash Traction Company, for 
which the Electric Railway Improvement Company installed 
a large number of bonds last year, has taken a car on lease 
and will install its own bonds in the future. 

Danville Car Company, Danville, 111., recently entertained 
the Mayor of Gary, Ind., and the members of the Gary Com- 
mercial Club, at Danville, the occasion being the inspection 
and trial of the cars built for the Gary Interurban Railway. 
Members of the Commercial Club of Danville met the mem- 
bers of the Gary club and after lunch a trial run was made 
to the works of the Danville Car Company. Later a trip 
was made over the interurban lines. The plant of the Dan- 
ville Car Company is connected with the Illinois Traction 
System so that all new cars can be taken on a trial run of 
300 miles if necessary. The cars for the Gary Interurban 
Railway are of semi-steel, semi-convertible type. They 
measure 42 ft. over all and have 30-ft. bodies. The finish is 
in mahogany. The trucks are Brill 27-G. The Commercial 
Club of Gary has invited the officers of the Danville .Car 
Company and the members of the Commercial Club of Dan- 
ville to attend the opening of the Gary Interurban Railway. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, Pitts- 
burg, Pa., for the convenience of draftsmen has developed a 
motor-driven eraser. The eraser proper is connected to a 
small Westinghouse motor by a Coates flexible shaft, per- 
mitting the motor to remain fixed near the edge of the table 
from which any spot on the drawing can be reached. If 
desired the motor may be carried from table to table, or it 
may be fixed permanently to a special table and all work 
to be corrected done on one table. The motor is supplied 
for either direct or alternating current, 1/12 hp or % hp. 
Its high speed gives the eraser the speed required to remove 

any line desired with light pressure. Heavy pressure re- 
sults in overheating the paper and in injury to the drawing. 
With a little practice any one may learn readily to use the 
eraser rapidly and accurately. The complete outfit is sup- 
plied by the Coates Clipper Manufacturing Company, 
Worcester, Mass. 

Brady Brass Company Wins Suit. — The United States 
Supreme Court has confirmed the decision in favor of the 
Brady Brass Company in the long litigation it has had with 
the Ajax Metal Company for au alleged infringement of a 
patent. The original decision in this case was reported in 
the Street Railway Journal for March 14, 1908. Usually 
in cases involving the validity of a patent, the decision of 
the United States Circuit Court of Appeals is by statute 
made final, and no appeal therefrom to the United States 
Supreme Court is permissible. The statute does, however, 
give a defeated party the right in such cases to apply to 
the court of last resort for a writ of certiorari to review the 
decision of the Circuit Court of Appeals. This was done in 
this case on the ground that the decision of the Circuit 
Court applied only to the circuit territory in which Judge 
Gray has jurisdiction. The United States Supreme Court 
has not concurred irr this view because it has denied the 

Gould & Eberhardt, of Newark, N. J., have still further 
improved their stepped style of stocking cutter for rough- 
ing out the teeth of coarse pitch gearing before finishing 
with a standard finishing cutter and have recently brought 
out and patented the new "Stepped Style" of stocking cut- 
ter. In the new cutter the tops of the cutting teeth are 
recessed so that each tooth practically takes out about half 
as much as the old-style cutter. The new cutter also fin- 
ishes the bottom of the tooth space, thereby relieving the 
finishing cutter of this duty and having the latter where 
it usually wears most rapidly. The cutting edges, being 
staggered, are more thoroughly lubricated while cutting 
and save the finishing cutters by removing the stock where 
the ordinary saw cutter leaves large corners at the points 
of the gear teeth. They are considerably wider through 
the hubs than a saw or slotting cutter, lessening the liabil- 
ity for keys shearing off, and permit faster feeds and 
speeds and lessen the strains on the machine itself. 

Edwards & Zook, New York, consulting and civil engi- 
neers, having made the physical and real estate valuation of 
the steam railroad and converted electric railway properties 
of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad for 
John F. Stevens, are prepared to engage in this class of 
work and offer the benefits of their experience and organi- 
zation to those interested. Mr. Zook is a graduate of 
Pennsylvania Polytechnic College with the degree C.E. and 
is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 
He has been connected with the Norfolk & Western Rail- 
way, Pennsylvania Railroad, Louisville, New Albany & 
Chicago Railroad, Queen & Crescent System, Louisville, 
Evansville & St. Louis Railroad, Central Railroad of New 
Jersey, Peabody Coal Company, J. G. White & Company 
and the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. Mr. 
Edwards is also a graduate of Pennsylvania Polytechnic 
College with the degree C.E. and is a member of the Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineers. He has been connected with 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, Pittsburg & Western Railroad, 
Great Northern Railway, Chihuahua & Pacific Railroad 
and the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and 
has practised as an independent consulting engineer. 


Hess-Bright Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa. — 

"Thrust (Collar) Bearings with Cage" and "Mounting 
Directions" are the subjects of the company's latest sheets 
in its series on ball bearings and their correct use. In 
"Mounting Directions" advice is given regarding old bear- 
ings and wear, loose bearings and bearing repairs. 

Scott Electrical Company, Newark, N. J. — This company 
describes its line of flaming arc lamps in a little folder 
introduced with the slogan, "We Have No Limit as to 
Candle Power." The flaming arc is especially adapted to 
outside illumination and the folder should appeal to all 
companies operating parks and pleasure resorts. 

Schutte & Koerting Company, Philadelphia, Pa. — This 
company is distributing a new catalog in three sections. 
One section pertains to apparatus for the chemical indus- 
try; one to apparatus for use in power plants, etc., and a 
general catalog is given illustrating and describing the 
company's entire line. The publication will be sent on re- 
quest to those interested. 

Pathe Freres, Chicago, 111.— The Bulletin of Pathe Frcres 
for the week of June 8 contains announcements of the fol- 
lowing moving-picture films: Tracked by the Police Dog, 
Messenger's Mistake, Joyous Surprise, The Ragpicker's 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 2. 

Daughter, Drama in the Tyrol, Misadventures of a Sheriff, 
Music and Poetry, Dynamite Duel, A Tiresome Play and 
Brazil — The Cascades. 

American Engineering Company, Indianapolis, Ind. — 

This company has issued another edition of the pamphlet 
containing' the special article on interurban railways writ- 
ten by President Chas. N. Wilson, of the company, for 
The Tradesman. The company has also reprinted from 
The Interurban Railway Journal the 49 reasons given by Mr. 
Wilson for the failure of new railways. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, jersey City, N. J., in 

Graphite for June gives valuable advice regarding the use 
of its products. The second installment is printed of W. H. 
Wakeman's article entitled "Preventing Corrosion of Steam 
Machinery," in which especial attention is called to the care 
of dash pots and the valve gear. The article is illustrated 
with four' line engravings. The publication is enlivened 
with the usual number of stories about men and things. 

Sprague Electric Company, of New York. — A series of 
attractive blotters has been issued by the company to adver- 
tise its electric fans. This company has a line of excellent 
direct- and alternating-current tans adapted for all require- 
ments. Catalogue Mo. 317 describes the fans and may be 
obtained by addressing the company. The company is also 
sending out Folder No. 431 describing its new stamped steel 
octagon box Ao. 6250, which is a departure from former 

Carbolineum Wood Preserving Company, New York, 

N. Y. — Bulletin 28 of this company, entitled "The Boat 
Industry," discusses the application of Avenarius Carbo- 
lineum to the boat industry. The general subjects dis- 
cussed are as follows: History, teredos, mold, wood pre- 
servative, joints, hulls, barges, piers, application. References 
given include the New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road, Old Dominion Steamship Company and others. Sam- 
ple specifications show references to the use by the United 
States Government of Avenarius Carbolineum for impor- 
tant harbor and river improvements. The bulletin is of gen- 
eral interest on account of the severe conditions imposed 
where wood is continually subjected to the action of water. 

General Compressed Air & Vacuum Machinery Company, 
St. Louis, Mo. — This company, which manufactures com- 
pressed-air and vacuum-cleaning plants and acts as engi- 
neer and contractor for complete plants of that character, 
describes its system and application thereof in a circular 
entitled "We Harness the Winds." The principal subject 
discussed is the application of the apparatus to domestic 
uses. The portable car-cleaning device of the company is, 
however, illustrated and described. The truck is especially 
designed for use in cleaning railroad coaches and sleeping 
cars and interurban and electric cars. The truck may be 
hauled to any part of the yard and two lines of vacuum hose 
run to the car for cleaning. 

Crane Company, Chicago, 111. — In The Valve World for 
May R. T. Crane continues his article, "Some Fallacies of 
Education." An interesting article appears on the first 
installation of Crane steel electrically operated valves in 
a refrigerating plant. "How Superheated Steam Affects 
Cast Iron" is another interesting contribution to the evi- 
dence already gathered on this subject. Speaking of one 
of the fittings under test, the Crane Company says: "It is 
altogether probable that had the fitting been strong enough 
to resist expansion strains for a longer period than one 
year at a temperature of 588 deg., the loss in tensile strength 
would have been greater, for all evidence pointed toward 
a slow, permanent, volumetric expansion of the metal and 
a consequently weakened molecular structure." 

Goldschmidt Thermit Company, New York, N. Y. — This 
company has issued its publication, "Reactions," for the 
second quarter of 1908. Announcement is made of the 
opening by the company of a Canadian branch at 103 
Richmond Street, West, Toronto, which will carry a com- 
plete supply of thermit and appliances for welding rails in 
paved streets, welding heavy sections such as stern posts 
of steamships and for the repair of small castings in shops. 
A very interesting account is printed of the welding of rails 
with thermit under New York City traffic conditions. Illus- 
trations are presented of motor case and truck repair work 
done for the Public Service Corporation, Washington Rail- 
way & Electric Company, Indiana Union Traction Com- 
pany, Union Railway of New York and Chicago City 

Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing Company, Milwaukee, 
Wis. — This company has issued a 16-page pamphlet descrip- 
tive of its "Wirt Type" dynamo brush, designed for use with 
low-tension, direct-current motors and generators, alternat- 

ing-current generators, plating dynamos, exciters, etc. The 
pamphlet states that in designing a dynamo brush two con- 
ditions must be met in order to insure satisfactory opera- 
tion. The brush must be elastic so that it will make good 
contact with the commutator under slight pressure, disre- 
gard of this condition resulting in undue heating and rapid 
deterioration of both brush and commutator, due to fric- 
tion. The brush must be so designed as to oppose a high 
resistance to the wasteful and destructive current that is 
generated when adjoining commutator bars are short cir- 
cuited by the brush. The statement is made that the con- 
struction of the "Wirt Type" brush is such that these con- 
ditions are fully met. Elasticity is secured by constructing 
the brush of laminated strips of metal, while the desirable 
feature of high resistance is obtained by combining with 
the copper laminations, strips of a high-resistance metal 
through which the wasteful current to which reference is 
made is compelled to pass in completing the circuit from 
one commutator bar to another. In addition to the purely 
descriptive matter and price list, the pamphlet contains use- 
ful information on the care of commutators and brushes, 
the importance of correct lap, etc. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y. — Bulletin 
No. 4588, just issued by this company, describes the GE-202 
railway motor, which is similar in design and construction 
to the latest standard GE railway motors, containing all 
their improvements and, in addition, being provided with 
commutating poles. The characteristics of the commutat- 
ing-pole motor allow the overload to be considerably in- 
creased and at the same time a more rugged form of motor 
is obtained which will withstand the most severe service 
conditions and is less likely to be injured by misuse. The 
motor is, therefore, especially adapted for operation on 
heavy grades or with equipments geared for high-speed 
work which have to start and stop frequently in city serv- 
ice. The details of construction are given at some length 
in the bulletin, and an interesting article on rating with 
suggestions for the proper selection is included. Dimension 
diagrams, characteristic curves and a service data sheet for 
use in ordering, complete the pamphlet. The company in 
Bulletin No. 4595 describes the Form 1 arrester, which is 
being placed on the market. The arrester consists of a 
"stack" of concentric inverted aluminum cones, insulated 
from each other and placed in a tank of oil. Before being 
placed in the oil the space between the cones is partially 
filled with a special electrolyte. The critical value at which 
the electrolyte breaks down is 420 volts for any two adja- 
cent cones. When this potential is reached a large amount 
of current is allowed to flow during discharge. In Bulletin 
No. 4586 the company describes a new G. O. flaming arc 
lamp which contains many novel mechanical features and is 
of simple construction. The lamp is only 31 in. from top 
to bottom and is intended for operation either in series 
or in multiple. 

Allis-Chalmers Company, Milwaukee, Wis. — This com- 
pany in a special publication has taken occasion to review 
its works and products. The result no doubt will startle 
even those who thought themselves fairly familiar with 
the extent of the company's operations. Any one 
of several of the company's departments would make a 
large industrial undertaking by itself; combining them a 
gigantic organization results. Besides its power machin- 
ery, including prime movers of every description, electric 
generators and auxiliary apparatus, the company also is a 
leader in the manufacture of pumping machinery, sawmill 
equipments, flour mill, crushing, cement making, mining 
and ore reducing machinery, electrically operated air 
brakes, etc., etc. The seven shops have approximately 74 
acres of floor space and the works cover nearly 250 acres. 
The work of the company is carried on by the following 
departments: Electrical, Steam Turbine, Steam Engine, 
Gas Engine, Crushing and Cement Machinery, Saw Mill, 
Flour Mill and Air Brake. The company has its own line 
of 100-ton cars for transporting its products. The story 
is related of the entrance of the company into the electri- 
cal field through the purchase a few years ago of the Bul- 
lock Manufacturing Company. Notable installations are 
cited of Allis-Chalmers electrical and steam machinery in 
the railway and lighting fields and for general power pur- 
poses. Among the installations of dynamos to which at- 
tention is directed are the 12,000-hp machines installed for 
the Boston Elevated Railway. Under reciprocating steam 
engines reference is made to the large installations of the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company, of New York; 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company; Metropolitan West Side 
Elevated Railway, of Chicago, and the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company. The turbine also receives 
attention and a long list of users of the company's prod- 
ucts is given. In conclusion the booklet tells the purpose 
of the graduate student course of the company. 

Electric Railway Journal 


Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 


Published Eve.rv Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, President. J. M. Wakeman, ist Vice-president. 

A. E. Clifford, 2d Vice-president. C. E. Whittlesey, Sec. and Treas. 

Henry W. Blake, Editor. 
L. E. Gould, Western Editor. Rodney Hitt, Associate Editor. 

Frederick Nicholas, Associate Editor. 

Main Office: 
NEW YORK, 239 West Thirty-ninth Street. 

Branch Offices: 
Chicago: Old Colony Building. 

Philadelphia: Real Estate Trust Building. 
Cleveland: Schofield Building. 

London: Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand. 

Cable Address, "Stryjourn, New York"; "Stryjourn, London" — Lieber's 
Code Used. 

Copyright, 1908, by the McGraw Publishing Co. 


In the United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Cuba, Mexico 
and the Canal Zone: 

Electric Railway Journal (52 weekly issues and also 
special daily convention issues published from time to 
time in New York City or elsewhere), postage prepaid .. $3.00 per annum 

Single copies 10 cents 

Combination Rate, with Electric Railway Directory and 

Buyer's Manual (3 issues — Feb., Aug. and Nov.) $4.00 per annum 

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BACK COPIES. — For back copies of the Electric Railway Journal, 
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should be addressed to the McGraw Publishing Company. No copies of issues 
of the Street Railway Journal or Electric Railway Review prior to 
January, 1907, are kept on sale, except in bound volumes. 

Of this issue of the Electric Railway Journal 9500 
copies are printed. 

The Engineer in National Affairs 

Mr. L. B. Stillwell, in a letter elsewhere in this issue, 
c-alls attention to the public service performed by Mr. John 
Hays Hammond in announcing his candidacy to the office 
of Vice-president of the United States. Whether Mr. 
Hammond is nominated at the convention in Chicago this 
week or not, the fact that his name has been pre- 
sented is an interesting commentary upon the increasing 
importance of the engineering profession in the affairs of 

the nation. For many years, in fact since the foundation 
of the Republic, there have been practically but two 
paths to the highest administrative offices in the country; 
through political preferment and through military prowess. 
But the government of a large nation is not dissimilar to 
that of a large business corporation and questions of broad 
administration, science and engineering are daily becoming 
more important. The best method of conserving the re- 
sources of the country, a topic to which the recent conven- 
tion of governors gave its attention, is an example of the 
intimate connection of engineering with national prosperity, 
but there are many others in which engineering questions 
are paramount. We are not in politics and hold no brief for 
Mr. Hammond, but would welcome the time when the value 
of the engineer would be recognized in national affairs as 
thoroughly as it is in large commercial undertakings. 

Railway Power Rate in Chicago 

The announcement that the Chicago City Railway and 
the Chicago Railways Company are arranging to purchase 
practically all of their power from the Commonwealth Edi- 
son Company calls attention to the attendant problem of 
fixing rates for such large railway power contracts. The 
increase of traffic and the change from cable to electric 
operation in Chicago have been carried on without any 
increase of generating equipment installed by the surface 
railroads. All of the additional power requirements have 
been met by the one generating company which supplies 
current for the lighting and railway services of the entire 
city, excepting a small amount used for street lighting. 
The output of about 50,000 kw generating capacity is sold 
to the surface and elevated railways of Chicago. The 
measurement is by watt-hour meters at the generating sta- 
tion busbars. In fixing the rate and the method of meas- 
urement the generating company has recognized that the 
cost to the railways must be below that for which they 
could operate independent generating stations. This rate 
consists of a kind of a readiness-to-serve charge based on 
the maximum demand made by a railway company during 
any one hour during the year, plus l / 2 cent per kw-hour. 
This y 2 cent charge is to cover the operating cost only. 
The fixed and investment charges are taken care of by the 
readiness-to-serve charge of $15 per year per kilowatt of 
maximum demand for any one hour. This arrangement of 
the railways for purchasing current should greatly simplify 
the work of rehabilitation since otherwise it would be 
necessary for the street railway companies to provide cur- 
rent generating machinery for immediate use which could 
not be given a high load factor (even from a railway stand- 
point) until the complete rehabilitation of the track and of 
the rolling stock equipment. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 

The Chicago City Railway Car House 

Car-house design is receiving a great deal of attention 
at present and perhaps in no department of electric rail- 
way work have greater improvements been made than in 
this direction. The car house of 10 years ago, unless de- 
signed with especial forethought, is almost obsolete. The 
greatest factor in the change has been the requirements for 
fire protection, but with these have come many other modi- 
fications. The arrangement of tracks has been changed 
with the disappearance of large areas. Construction of pits 
has been modified to secure better lighting and greater con- 
veniences during inspection. General lighting has been im- 
proved and better facilities are provided for the transfer of 
apparatus from one part of the building to another. 
Finally, better provisions are made for the comfort of the 
employees. Of all the features in the new car house of the 
Chicago City Railway described this week, this latter point 
will perhaps attract the most attention, although it is in 
line with that which other well managed companies are 
doing. In fact the tendency in this direction is so wide- 
spread, though emphasized more strongly perhaps than 
usual in the case of the' Chicago road, as to warrant a con- 
sideration of the advantages of the policy. 

Railway companies are not charity organizations and 
stockholders in most instances prefer to take care of their 
own benevolences. We cannot, therefore, presume that the 
railway company expects no return from the money in- 
vested in employees' rooms and the money required each 
year to maintain them. It can be assumed then that if 
the establishment and maintenance of such quarters is a 
part of good management, the company expects and will 
receive indirect benefits for its investment. 

The Chicago City Railway Company probably has definite 
ideas of how these returns will be made. To the observer, 
however, there are countless ways in which they will be 
manifest. One depends on that trait of character which 
makes one reciprocate good treatment. Where a man has 
no other interest in his employment than to get the dollar, 
lie is likely to feel that the employer is entitled only to his 
time. This is especially true in a large corporation which 
is popularly considered as having no soul. Whether the 
public believes this or not, the employee is quick to appre- 
ciate liberal treatment and if he feels that his employer is 
really concerned in his welfare, he is usually ready to 
show his appreciation of it by loyalty and with a service 
which money cannot buy. 

Another and equally as important an advantage is that 
accommodations of this kind appeal to the better class 
of men. With a library at hand for those with literary 
inclinations, billiard and pool tables in pleasant surround- 
ings for those who desire games, opportunities for gym- 
nasium work for the athletic and bathing facilities for all, 
the standard of the men who seek employment with the com- 
pany and of those who desire to remain in its service should 
be raised in a marked degree. The man in whom the pres- 
entation of such facilities and privileges as those afforded 
in Chicago and elsewhere does not arouse a cordial feeling 
toward the company is the exception. The majority will 
make every endeavor to show their appreciation, and in do- 
ing so will render more efficient service to the company 
with which they are connected. 

Express Service at Freight Rates 

The advertisement of "express service at freight rates" 
has undoubtedly been helpful to electric railways in attract- 
ing business from the established express companies and the 
steam roads. That the service offered was more liberal in 
many cases than the companies were justified in giving for 
the rates received is one of the unfortunate facts which time 
has demonstrated. The problem raised by the existence and 
recognition of this situation is, however, one that must be 
solved, and in the interest of all, and the public should real- 
ize that it cannot expect express service at rates no greater 
than those which would be charged by steam lines for the 
transportation of freight. 

The inadequacy of the freight or express rates charged 
by the Schenectady Railway has been advanced as an argu- 
ment by that company in an answer filed with the New 
York Public Service Commission, Second District, concern- 
ing a complaint made by merchants on its lines. In dis- 
cussing the complaint, the railway argues that it really 
gives express service and that its rates are much lower than 
those quoted by the express companies, although the service 
is equal in value to that furnished by companies established 
for the purpose of conducting an express business. The 
minimum charge for the transportation of a package is 25 
cents, while any package that weighs over 100 lb. is trans- 
ported at a rate of 15 cents per 100 lb. These rates, 
quoted alone, convey no indication of the actual expense in- 
volved in the transaction. For these rates the company 
gives wagon service at the points of shipment and destina- 
tion, assuring the prompt delivery and convenience afforded 
by express companies at express rates, but not by steam rail- 
ways at freight rates. Certain classes of perishable goods 
are always shipped by express instead of by freight on 
steam lines, because the essential consideration is the ele- 
ment of time involved in the trip to destination. If the 
time required to make the trip assures preservation of the 
goods until the markets are reached, the shipper is willing 
to pay any reasonable rate. While prohibitive rates on 
perishable goods would destroy the traffic, which would be 
preserved and developed by reasonable rates, total de- 
struction would be the end of the business of shippers of 
this class of goods if the express service should be with- 
drawn permanently. The facilities afforded by steam and 
electric carriers differ in many opposing points. Those 
offered by electric lines partake more of the special nature 
of express service than freight service, and it is only fair 
that where the element of time is important in the trans- 
portation of goods, the remuneration should correspond to 
that received by the express companies for similar service. 
It is important that the cost of furnishing wagon service 
be reckoned carefully in order that a proper proportion of 
the expense may be included when rates are computed. 

The Schenectady Railway states that its express or freight 
department is conducted, with present rates, for- the ac- 
commodation of the public and not for the profit of the 
company. We believe that the same condition of affairs is 
true with respect to other companies. Where mistakes 
have been made in the establishment of inadequate rates, 
advances should follow without delay. Freight or express 
traffic should yield a fair return on the capital investment,, 
above expenses and taxes. 

June 20, 1908.] 



Appraisal of the New York Surface Systems 

Appraisal of the surface railway systems in New York 
City by the Public Service Commission is probably an in- 
evitable result of the strained state of the relations which 
have gradually developed between the receivers of the New 
York City Railway and the members of the commission. 
An appraisal is a necessary and wise step when purchase 
of property is involved, but of uncertain value in a case 
of this character, where the real questions concerned are 
those of adequate service and the right of the receivers to 
bring about profitable conditions of operation by segregat- 
ing lines and reducing over-liberal transfer privileges. 

The resolution passed by the Public Service Commission 
assumes that the reason why the receivers cannot 
adequate service and meet rentals on leased lines is that the 
properties are overcapitalized and that if the rentals were 
based on a fair value of the property the company could 
run more cars and retain a satisfactory transfer system. 
The action of the receivers, who welcome the decision of 
the commission to make a valuation, throws the burden of 
responsibility upon the latter body. 

The resolution provides for a valuation of property, tan- 
gible and intangible. How comprehensive the interpretation 
of this description will be depends upon the commission and 
those whom it employs to conduct the long, laborious task- 
that is necessary if the appraisal is to be thorough. It 
may be held that three bases exist on which the appraisal 
might be founded : Cost value, replacement value, and what 
might be termed liquidation value. Although the resolu- 
tion of the commission gives no indication of the course 
which will be followed, it may be assumed that the endeavor 
will be to ascertain the replacement value of the system 
as a whole or of those constituent parts which are now, or 
soon will be, operated as separate properties. While the 
simplest part of the work will be the appraisal of the actual 
tangible property, problems will arise when the allowances 
for contractors' profits, engineering expenses, contingencies 
and other heavy expenditures of that nature are taken into 
consideration. During the valuation of the property of the 
Cleveland Electric Railway eminent engineers and finan- 
ciers estimated the cost of constructing a street railway in 
Cleveland as if no street railway system existed there. 
William Barclay Parsons said that a possible 30 per cent 
should be allowed above cost value to meet the expenses of 
engineering, contractors' profits, ordinary contingencies and 
other exigencies which could not be foreseen. Horace E. 
Andrews urged that one-third above the estimated cost 
should be allowed. The estimates of engineering expense 
alone extended from 5 to 12.5 per cent on the cost of mate- 
rials and labor. G. T. Bishop, president of the Washington, 
Baltimore & Annapolis Electric Railway, said that 20 per 
cent was an underestimate of the allowance that should be 
added to the cost of the physical property in place. 

While expenses of the character just outlined belong 
properly to the value of the physical property, replaced, 
other amounts really intangible and yet definite and neces- 
sary, should be included. In New York City a complete 
surface system of railways exists — tracks, equipment, 
power transmission facilities, power houses, car-houses and 
organization. In valuing the property of the street railway 
companies it might be assumed that New York City had 

reached its present density of population without any sur- 
face street railways. 

Suppose that the inhabitants found, some morning, that 
during the night the surface system had been obliterated, 
with no evidence left behind to show that it had ever ex- 
isted. The serious civic problem demanding immediate 
solution would have to be considered from two aspects : 
( 1 ) The expense of originating and completing a compre- 
hensive surface system, designed to serve the public not 
less efficiently than the present arrangement. (2) The time 
that would be spent in constructing a system of this charac- 
ter. It will be admitted that bankers, engineers and con- 
tractors would be glad to have an opportunity to co-operate 
in the construction of a new system. But it would be just 
to assume that they would have to undertake the enter- 
prise without previous knowledge of the avenues of traffic 
or economical arrangements for power or operation pos- 
sessed as assets by the present system. The new investors 
would make their own mistakes, learn lessons and profit 
therefrom. What would it cost to create the system and per- 
fect the working organization? That the cost would be 
enormous and an intangible asset in a fair valuation of a 
large property cannot be justly denied. There should also 
be added to the cost of creating the system an estimate of 
franchise value. The fact that the system exists is an asset 
of determinable value. If it would require, as Mr. Parsons 
estimated, three years to construct an entirely new system 
in Cleveland, with the streets clear, much more time would 
be needed in New York to complete a similar enterprise. It 
is worth many millions of dollars to the public and the 
companies to have the system on the streets. 

It is right that certain essential points of similarity and 
difference between the railway and the manufacturer should 
be borne in mind. The railway has passed through the use 
of the horse and the cable to electricity for motive power. 
In following the advance in the art it has lost money ex- 
pended on the development of the earlier systems as well as 
in other improvements in tracks, cars and methods of con- 
ducting its business. 

A company is certainly entitled to recognition for ex- 
penditures of this kind which are necessary to maintain 
service abreast of the times. When machinery is sold by a 
manufacturer, the price received covers all the expenses 
which were incurred in experiments and mistakes before 
the invention reached perfection. The manufacturer can 
make provision in his price for such expenses ; but the rail- 
way has been limited to 5 cents per passenger, with con- 
stantly increasing demands for transfers. 

The grave nature of the problems before the commis- 
sion is indicated in the foregoing. All the factors sug- 
gested should be included in the total valuation if the- 
commission intends to maintain a position of fairness to- 
ward the security-holders, who will be the real, and, in fact, 
the only, sufferers if values are lowered unnecessarily. 
The surface system has been too liberal in the extension of 
transfer privileges; the inevitable deduction that the av- 
erage revenue per passenger has been too small to justify 
the service furnished explains in part the present financial 
situation of the companies. A clear understanding of the 
situation implies consideration of the rights of owners of 
stocks and bonds in the valuation of these properties. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 


Late in 1907 the Chicago City Railway Company com- 
pleted a new fireproof car house at Cottage Grove Avenue 
and Thirty-ninth Street and it is now storing there all of 
the cars used on the Cottage Grove and Indiana Avenue 
lines. The building occupies an irregularly shaped area 
about 400 ft. wide and 600 ft. long running through from 
Cottage Grove Avenue to Langley Avenue between Thirty- 
eighth and Thirty-ninth Streets and is divided into six 
storage bays, one repair bay and one car house utility bay. 
The five storage bays on the north side have entrances from 
the street at both ends, but the sixth storage bay and the 
repair bay are stub ended with track connections only from 
Langley Avenue. 

The building is constructed of brick walls 13 in. thick, on 
concrete foundations with reinforced concrete floors and 
roofs. The five storage bays are 47 ft. wide and 18 ft. 
high from top of rail to trolley trough. The reinforced 

apart center to center, which allows an aisle 26 in. wide 
between cars 9 ft. wide over sheathing. For 256 ft. of 
their length they are built with open pits 4 ft. 6 in. deep 
which extend entirely across the bay. The 5^-in. ioo-lb. 
rails are carried on 6-in. cast iron columns spaced 6 ft. 
apart. The aisles between pits are floored with 4-in. rein- 
forced concrete slabs, but the space below is entirely open. 
The pit floor is 4-in. concrete sloped to carry water to two 
rows of open drains. The pits ar.e- reached by cast iron 
steps at each end between each paicof track rails. 

The building is heated by low pressure steam on the Van 
Auken vacuum return system. A coil of six pipes is 
mounted on both walls of each bay^about 3 ft. above the 
floor, and four radiating pipes are run under the floor of 
the middle aisle throughout the length of the pits. In addi- 
tion two banks of six pipes each are mounted under the 
roof. The heating plant adjoins the repair shop bay and 
contains two low pressure boilers, hand fired. A concrete 
stack 125 ft. high supplies draft. 

The interior of the storage bays is painted white above a 

Chicago City Railway Car House — Cottage Grove Avenue Entrance 

concrete slab roof is supported by steel cross girders made 
up of angles and fireproofed with 1 in. of adamant plaster 
on No. 27 herringbone metal lath. These girders are 4 ft. 
3 in. deep and rest on pilasters 28 in. wide built in the walls 
16 ft. apart. The roof slabs are 4^2 in. thick, reinforced 
with ^2-in. corrugated bars. The roof slopes each way 
from the skylight over each bay and the water is collected 
in gutters and led off through cast iron down spouts built 
in the walls. These connect under the pit floors with cross 
drains which are also connected with the pit drains and 
lead to the street sewers. A skylight opening 7 ft. 3 in. 
wide extends the entire length of each bay with a side-light 
monitor of the same width and 16 ft. long at the center 
of the length of the bay for ventilation. The skylight over 
the repair bay is 12 ft. wide and has side lights the entire 
length. All skylights are supported on both sides through- 
out their length by 8-in. 18-lb. I-beams built in a concrete 
curb and supported directly by the top chords of the roof 
trusses. It is glazed with %-in. wire glass. 

There are four tracks in each bay, spaced 11 ft. 2 in. 

black wainscot 6 ft. high. They are lighted at night by 
enclosed arc lamps suspended from the roof. The repair 
bay is triangular in shape and has four tracks holding 14 
cars. These tracks connect with a single ladder track run- 
ning along the south wall which extends into the re- 
ceiving storage and utility room. The repair bay is 50 ft. 
wide and is divided in the center by a row of columns sup- 
porting runways for two j l / 2 -ton traveling cranes. Two of 
the tracks have pits 190 ft. long, while the other two have 
pits 150 ft. and 95 ft. long, respectively. The construction 
of these pits is similar to those in the storage bays. A 
13-in. brick fire wall separates the repair bay from the stor- 
age room adjoining it. Arranged around the store room 
are an office for the car house foreman 7 ft. x 16 ft., a 
stock room 28 ft. x 16 ft., blacksmith shop 15 ft. 6 in. x 
25 ft., shopmen's locker and lunchroom 15 ft. 6 in. x 48 ft., 
toilet room 15 ft. 6 in. x 29 ft. 6 in., oil and paint store 
room, entirely fireproof, 10 ft. x 27 ft. and a boiler pump 
room 14 ft. x 27 ft. 

In a triangular addition at the northwest corner of the 

June 20, 1908.] 


car house are provided quarters for the wreck wagon and 
storage bins for sand, barn feed and advertising cards. Ad- 
ditional sand and salt bins are provided at the outer end of 
No. 1 bay and No. 6 bay. The wreck wagon quarters con- 
tain four ordinary and two box stalls and floor space for 
an overhead repair wagon, breakdown wagon and hose 
bridge wagon. One driver is on duty here at all times and 
he has within call as many barnmen as are needed in an- 
swering any emergency alarm. Paved alleys 16 ft. wide 
lead from the wreck wagon house out to Langley Avenue 
and north to Thirty-eighth Street. 

The end of the house facing Langley Avenue is set back 
70 ft. from the sidewalk and the open space is paved with 
granite. Twenty-two cars may be stored outside of the 
building at this end. On the Cottage Grove Avenue side 
the house is set back 52 ft. from the sidewalk and this area 
is paved with granite. This end of the house is two stories 
high over four of the five bays, the second story being 
64 ft. deep and 194 ft. long. It is faced with pressed brick 

counter 20 in. wide on which the men can make out their 
trip reports. Schedules and assignments of runs are 
mounted in frames on the walls. At the south end of the 
room are four tables with chairs where the men can sit 
down and prepare carefully and comfortably reports of 
accidents and other events. Several double benches are 
provided in the center of the room for men waiting to re- 
port. The room is lighted, in addition to the windows back 
of the receivers' cages, by a skylight in the roof 70 ft. long 
and 8 ft. wide. At night illumination is supplied by in- 
candescent lamp clusters in ground glass bowls mounted in 
the ceiling. 

Opening off of this room through two sets of swinging 
doors is the toilet room, 14 ft. 6 in. x 66 ft. 6 in. This con- 
tains 14 closets, 12 urinals, 16 wash basins and a drinking 
fountain. It is finished in the same style as the outer room 
with tile floor and painted walls. At one end is a barber 
shop large enough for two chairs and a bootblack's stand. 
The barber who has this concession pays nothing to the 

Chicago City Railway Car House — Club Room, Showing Stage 

and finished with stone trimmings. On the second floor 
are the trainmen's room, toilets, dispatcher's room, divi- 
sion superintendent's office and employees' club room. 

These rooms are finished in fumed oak and are probably 
as fine trainmen's quarters as can be found in any street 
railway car house in the country. 

A broad flight of stairs leads up from the plaza in front 
of the building along the north wall, opening through swing- 
ing doors at the top into the trainmen's room, 87 ft. 6 in. x 
45 ft. This room is finished in dark quarter-sawed oak 
with rough plaster walls and ceiling painted a light buff 
color. The floor is laid with octagonal red tile. Along the 
east side are the receivers' cages, lost article case, division 
superintendent's office and dispatcher's room. The receiver's 
cages and lost article case are behind a wood and glass par- 
tition with counters and windows. They are lighted by 
four large double windows in the outside wall. Around the 
other three walls of the trainmen's room runs a continuous 

company for it and the only restriction placed on him is 
that not more than 10 cents shall be charged for shaving. 
The bootblack in attendance receives compensation from 
the company for taking care of the toilet room and is al- 
lowed all he can pick up in odd moments shining shoes. 

Adjoining the trainmen's room on the south is the em- 
ployees' clubroom 81 ft. x 46 ft. This is also finished in 
quarter sawed oak with painted walls and ceiling, but it 
has a smooth maple floor, so that it can be used for dancing 
at entertainments. The room is lighted by seven large 
double windows on the east side, and at night by 24 
five-light clusters in the ceiling and 10 double bracket lights 
around the walls. At the south end of the room is a stage 
22 ft. wide and 12 ft. 6 in. deep, with footlights and small 
dressing rooms off the stage, for theatrical and other enter- 
tainments. Adjoining the clubroom on the west side, but 
separated from it by a 6-in. tile fire wall, is a storeroom 
14 ft. 6 in. wide and 85 ft. long, which is used for storing 

Ii 4 


[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 

June 20, 1908.] 



window sash and window screens. A trap-door in the floor 
of this room permits the materials stored there to be raised 
or lowered from the carhouse floor below. 

Opening off from the northwest corner of the clubroom is 
a coatroom and reading room, 14 ft. 6 in. x 22 ft., which is 

to all employees in every department. The railway com- 
pany furnishes free of charge the building, heat, light and 
janitor service. The rooms are open from 5 a. m. until 
1 a. m., including Sundays. 

While the clubrooms are open to all employees, the fur- 

.re Room SaBh Door & Screcni 


Club Room 
Maple Floor 



Electric Railway Journal 

Chicago City Railway Car House — Second Floor Plan 

furnished with a long table and a number of comfortable 
chairs. A library of about 200 volumes is kept in sectional 
bookcases arranged around the walls of this room, and on 
the table are kept current issues of daily papers and of most 
of the technical journals. 

The clubroom is furnished with one pool table and one 
billiard table with cue racks, two chess tables and five card 
tables, and in addition a number of comfortable straight 

nishings are the sole property of an employees' social club 
which is run solely by and for the men. The membership 
dues of this club are 25 cents a month, and out of the funds 
thus obtained all expenses for special entertainments and 
the purchase of furnishings for the clubroom are made. 
There are at present between 750 and 800 trainmen making 
this carhouse their headquarters, and of this number some- 
thing over 500 are members of the club. The membership 

chairs and rocking chairs. A small amount of gymnasium 
apparatus has already been bought and more is to be pur- 
chased in the future. 

The clubroom and reading room are open without charge 

is growing all the time and will probably soon include 
nearly every employee reporting at this depot. A similar 
club was in existence when the trainmen on the Cottage 
Grove Avenue line reported at the old barns now aban- 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 

doned. When the new carhouse was opened trainmen from 
the Indiana Avenue line were brought over in addition to 
those already running on the Cottage Grove Avenue line, 
and most of the non-members are men from the Indiana 
Avenue line who have not yet joined. Non-members have 
no rights or privileges in the clubroom to the exclusion of 


Chicago Car House — Interior of Trainmen's Room 

members of the club, and they are not admitted free to the 
entertainments which the club gives periodically. Members 
may bring in outside guests as often as they please, pro- 
vided they do not prevent other club members from enjoying 
the privileges of the club. The management of the asso- 
ciation is in charge of the president, vice-president and sec- 
retary and treasurer, who are elected by the men. The 
division superintendent, whose offices are in the building, of 
course maintains a supervision over the conduct of the men 
in the clubrooms'. An entertainment committee arranges 
dances, theatrical and musical performances at more or less 
regular intervals during the year. Any expense attached 
to these entertainments is met from the club dues, but no 
extra assessments are made or admission fees charged to 

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company prints all transfers 
and identification slips at a small plant devoted entirely to this 
work. The office and the storeroom of the printing depart- 
ment are located in the Montague Street cable power house 

on State Street, Brooklyn. 
Part of the plant which is not 
now needed for the cable rail- 
way is arranged to accommo- 
date the presses and other ma- 
chinery, and part is set aside 
as a storeroom for the paper 
stock. The plant was estab- 
lished in 1903 and additions 
have been made to the equip- 
ment from time to time until 
it now includes three Meisel 
B. B. presses, two Kidder per- 
fector presses, three Latham 
stitching machines and a Sey- 
bold cutter. One of the Meisel machines, which has just 
been erected, was installed in order to facilitate the work of 
this department, as the plant had recently been run overtime. 

Each of the presses is belted by a separate motor hung 
from a bracket in an out-of-the-way place on the wall. One 
motor driving a shaft, however, is used to operate the 
stitchers and the cutters. This arrangement reduces greatly 
the liability that the entire plant might have to shut down 
on account of motor troubles. Another feature of the print- 
ing equipment is a lathe. The foreman of the plant is a 
pressman and machinist and makes all repairs himself. 
Each press is in charge of a pressman. No feeders are 
needed, as the presses combine the advantages of the flat- 
bed press and the rotary, the paper all being fed from rolls. 
The capacity of each Kidder press is about 2300 sheets an 
hour, while that of each Meisel press is about 3000 an hour. 
Separate forms are used for the different lines to. avoid the 

Chicago Car House — Car Storage Bay 

Clubrooms and employees' clubs similar to those' at the 
Cottage Grove Avenue carhouse are provided and main- 
tained at each of the other carhouses belonging to the 
Chicago City Railway Company, although the quarters in 
some of the older houses are not so large or so well fur- 
nished. It is proposed, however, in all new carhouses to be 
built, to provide equally large and comfortable clubrooms 
and to encourage the formation of employees' clubs. 

Chicago Car House — Reading Room 

necessity for making changes on the press. When the re- 
quired issue has been printed for one line a new form for 
another line is inserted. 

Twenty-two transfers are printed at a time in rows of 
11 each. As the sheets are delivered from the press they 
are cut in half, 11 to a row, and are then passed to the cut- 
ter. The stitchers pad and bind the transfers in lots of 100 
and the identification slips in lots of 50. Each pad is single 

June 20, '1908.] 



stitched. Six girls do all the padding and stitching. After 
being padded the transfers are removed to two clearing 
tables, where they are bundled for delivery. The fore- 
woman checks all the work before giving it to the stock 
clerk. The waste is placed in tin cans and is destroyed 
daily at the incinerator at Third Street. Paper enough to 


The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company has recently 
made an agreement with the individual now holding the 
contract for the collection of Philadelphia's refuse to trans- 
port material gathered by his wagons in the district be- 

Philadelphia Ash Service — Wagons in Receiving Station Dumping Rubbish Into Cars Below 

last one month is carried in stock by the printing depart- 

Sixteen people are employed in the printing department 
and about 35,000,000 transfers a month 
are issued. The record for May, 1908, 
shows a total of 37,722,530. The fig- 
ures of stock used by the printing de- 
partment during that month show that 
the consumption of paper was 23,964 
lb. of yellow, 7437 lb. of green, 4730 
lb. of salmon, 2779 lb. of white, 2665 
lb. of white manila for identification 
slips and 4235 lb. of magenta for 
identification checks. Other stock 
used was 5484 lb. of straw board for 
backing the pads and 160 lb. of wire 
for stitching. Of ink 287 lb. of black 
were used and 84 lb. of green. 

tween the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers bounded by 
Poplar Street on the north and South Street on the south. 
This territory covers an approximate area of four square 

The Boston Elevated Railway has 
petitioned the Massachusetts Board of 
Railroad Commissioners for approval 
of a temporary double track in New- 
bury and Hereford Streets, Back Bay, 
to enable the company to provide ser- 
vice around the Boylston Street and 
Massachusetts Avenue bridges while 
they are undergoing repairs. This is the second request 
of the company. The first request contained no statement 
that provision would be made for the subsequent removal 
of the tracks. The law then did not expressly allow a grant 
for any other than a permanent location, but has since been 
revised to include provision for temporary locations. The 
second petition of the company was framed with the altered 
conditions in mind. 

Philadelphia Ash Service — Side-door Car for Transporting Ashes and Miscel- 
laneous Rubbish 

miles, but other sections will be added if the initial contract 
proves mutually satisfactory. 

All rubbish from the contract district is brought in carts 
to a corrugated iron receiving station covering a plot of 
about 150 ft. square on Wood Street between Broad and 
Fifteenth streets. Here the wagons with the aid of a 
motor-driven winch ascend a wooden ramp to the dumping 
floor where the material is dumped directly on a sheet-steel 



[Vol. XXXI L \'o. 3. 

incline into the cars on the track below. The amount of 
matter thus brought into the receiving station every night 
varies from 700 cu. yd. to 1000 cu. yd. and is carried awav 

Philadelphia Ash Service Company — Wagon Ascending 
Ramp Into the Receiving Station 

by the eight cars built for this work. The capacity of each 
car varies from 32 cu. yd. to 35 cu. yd. The cars usually 
travel in pairs at 30-minute intervals, the first leaving the 
station about 7:30 p. m., and each car averaging four to five 
trips. They are kept in service from 8 to 12 hours 
daily. The material is carried about 5 miles to be used as 
filling in the construction of the Torresdale Boulevard and 
adjoining depressions. The dumping grounds are provided 
with a temporary track and bracket trolley which are ex- 
tended with the progress of the filling operations. 

Instead of following the practice of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company, which transports ashes in bins carried 
on flat cars, the Philadelphia company designed a vestibuled 
multi-side door car with an inverted V-floor. The cars are 
therefore unloaded by gravity and thus a hoisting outfit for 
lifting and dumping bins is avoided. The doors on the 
first cars were hinged at the top and were swung upward by 
chains. In the later design, the doors are arranged to 
swing sidewise by operating the through levers controlling 
the catches at the top and bottom. This type is shown in 
one of the accompanying half tones; the general dimen- 
sions and arrangement of equipment will be noted from the 
drawing below. 

All of the cars have a steel underframe with a superstruc- 


Daily Ash Handling Report for the 

day of 


19 - 


Car No. 



Time Leaving 

Time Arriving 
at Station 

Mileage of 

Top 4 


Location of Dump 




Total Platform Wages, $ 

Philadelphia Ash Service— Portion of Blank Used to Keep Account of the Ash-handling Business 


Railway Journal 

Philadelphia Ash Service — Plan, Side and End Elevations of Car 

June 20, 1908.] 



ture of wood, and the parts which come into contact with 
ashes are protected by a metal lining. The bodies are 
mounted on Curtis trucks made by the J. G. Brill Company. 
These trucks have 33-in. diameter Schoen solid steel wheels 
and 5-in. hammered steel axles, together with Symington 
journal boxes and center bearings. The operating equip- 
ment consists of four GE-80-A inside-hung motors, K-28-B 
controllers and Westinghouse automatic air brakes with au- 
tomatic slack adjusters. The cars are furnished with 
couplers and have extra heavy buffers. They also carry 
incandescent headlights and fenders like the regular pas- 
senger cars. 

The accompanying form is used to keep a record of the 
trips made by these dumping cars so that allocation can be 
made of the platform wages, approximate power costs and 
other expenses due to this service. The same blank also 
shows the amount of rubbish transported on each trip. 


The United Railways Company of St. Louis recently com- 
pleted in its shops an emergency tower wagon propelled by 
a four-cylinder, 40-hp gasoline engine. The tower wagon 
will be kept at one of the trouble stations of the company 
for responding to emergency calls, both for overhead con- 
struction and trouble with rolling stock. If it proves satis- 
factory the company will build a number of these motor 
wagons of the same kind. 

The wagon measures 13 ft. 9 in. over all and has a width 
at wheel centers of 4 ft. 10 in. The tower frame is made 

selves are 34 in. in diameter and are equipped with 4-in. 
solid rubber tires. The weight of the wagon complete is 
6000-lb. so divided that half of it is carried on the front 

Motor Wagon with Tower Lowered 

wheels and half on the rear wheels. The car is geared to 
run at a speed of 20 m.p.h. 

St. Louis Motor Tower Wagon with Tower Raised 

up from 5-in. channels. The platform of the tower when 
raised is 18 ft. 6 l / 2 in. above the street, and when lowered 
11 ft. 8>2 in. The wheel base is 9 ft. The wheels them- 

With the exception of the engine and the sliding gear 
transmission, the wagon was built entirely in the shops of 
the United Railways Company. 



[Vol. XXXI [ No. 3. 


A segregated statement of earnings during the calendar 
year 1907 for each company in the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
system has been submitted to the New York Public Service 
Commission, First District, in connection with the investi- 
gation of the 10-cent fare charge to Coney Island. These 
earnings are shown in Table I, published herewith. The 
company presented analyses of earnings and disbursements 
to show that not only would the 5-cent fare which the com- 
mission has been asked to prescribe be unprofitable, but that 
the lines are not remunerative with the present 10-cent fare. 

There were also submitted statistical tables indicating 
that the loss resulting from operation of the Coney Island 
lines in 1907 was $463,444. The companies involved in this 

transportation. The amount expended for maintenance per 
car-mile in the last five years is as follows : 1903, 2.49 cents ; 
1904, 3.33 cents; 1905, 4.32 cents; 1906, 3.90 cents; 1907, 
3.93 cents. In addition to the maintenance expenditures 
charged in operating expenses there was expended for addi- 
tions and betterments and charged against earnings $208,- 
482 in 1903; during 1907 there was similarly expended and 
charged $442,063. The capital expenditures of the com- 
panies during this period exceeded $35,000,000 and were 
financed by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company through 
the sale of its first refunding 4 per cent bonds. Testimony 
was given by Howard Abel, comptroller of the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit system, to show that these 4 per cent bonds 
had been issued only to the extent of actual cost of the 
property and that the $3,843,072 discount resulting from 
the sale of the bonds had been charged against surplus 


Year Ended Dec. 31, 1907. 
Gross Earnings: 

Brooklyn Union 
Heights Elevated 
Railroad. Railroad. 


Nassau Queens Co. South 

Electric Suburban Brooklyn 

Railroad. Railroad. Ry. 

Passenger earnings $7,839,127 $5,762,769 $3,167,570 $1,630,965 $300,213 

Freight, mail and express 222,964 23,057 72,775 24,179 7,654 

Advertising 47,014 81,352 16,071 6,502 676 

Sea Island 
Beach & Graves- 
Ry. end Ry. 

$261,417 $47,923 
3,522 1,684 
350 206 

Ameri- Transit Brooklyn 
can Ry. Develop- Canarsie Rapid 
Traffic ment Rail- Transit 





Total earnings from operation $8,109,105 $5,867,178 $3,256,416 $1,661,646 $308,543 $265,289 $49,813 $390,307 $18 

201,049 41,657 360,503 $712,337 

Operating expenses 5,206,977 3,103,183 

*5, 058,609 *3, 090, 31 1 

2,283,674 1,041,397 304,062 
"2,234,164 *i, 025, 678 *299,735 

'199,083 *40,7i7 

$25 $63,255 

Net earnings from operation $2,902,128 $2,763,995 

Income from other sources: 

Rent of land and buildings 16,717 15, 475 

Rent of tracks and structure 11,523 41,895 

Miscellaneous 75,729 70,513 



1 ,200 







$29,804 $712,355 t$25_ t$63,255 

164 5.301 

60,382 62,757 $9,730 201,595 

Total income $3,006,097 $2 

Deductions : 

Taxes $437,231 

Rentals : 

Brooklyn Union Elevated R. R 221,667 

Brooklyn City Railroad Co 1,554.303 

South Brooklyn Railway Co 989 

Prospect Park & Coney Island Ry. Co... 6,667 

Sea Beach Railway Co 4.333 

So. Brook. Ry. Co., account P. P. & C. I 

Interest on real estate mortgages t5 

Interest on loans 15,449 

Interest on bonds 12,500 

Interest on certificates of indebtedness... 312,664 

Interest on Brooklyn City Con. Adv 161,414 

Dividend preferred stock 


Less Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.'s propor- 
tion of interest on securities 

78 $1,102,616 
$183,306 $177,630 

$647,140 $26,440 
$64,219 $5,755 

$65,254 $14,919 
$3,747 $660 

f90,350 $780,413 
$1,200 $4,700 

,705 $138,340 








11,781 86.904 
24,726 621,174 


208,333 260,000 

Total deductions $2,727,212 $1,682,921 $1,210,403 $444,511 $119,718 $32,129 $1,192 $37,707 $714,366 

t 657,441 

Net income $278,885 $1,208,957 

Special appropriations 128,694 69,314 


Surplus $150,191 $1,139,643 $.$195,675 

Car mileage 27,686,627 21,812,207 12,930,318 

$202,629 $93,278 
10,340' 4.758 

$33,125 $13,727 $52,643 $66,047 9,705 $795,78i 



$192,289 $98,036 
6,004,275 1,527,108 

$33,125 $12,601 
979,044 194,691 

$52,561 $27,260 $9,705 $795,78i 

*Excluding freight, mail and express expenses as follows: Brooklyn Heights Railroad, $148,368; Brooklyn Union Elevated Railroad, $12,872; 
Nassau Electric Railroad, $49,511; Brooklyn, Queens County & Suburban Railroad, $15,719; South Brooklyn Railway, $4,327; Sea Beach Railway, 
$1,967; Coney Island & Gravesend Railway, $940. 

t Credit. 

t Deficit. 

traffic and their respective car-mile cost of operation are 
shown in Table II. 

In computing the cost of operating the Coney Island lines 
the car-mile unit was employed ; fixed charges and taxes 
were treated similarly. This method of determining the 
net earnings was considered fair to the complainant in the 
proceeding, and it was stated that the lines and their equip- 
ment could not be duplicated on the basis of average cost 
on account of the length of road, greater power plant ca- 
pacity, expensive terminal facilities, private rights of way 
and heavy investment in equipment, the full capacity of 
which are required on days of maximum traffic only, say 
three or four days during the entire season. 

It was also shown that the desire of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit interests has been to build up the property, not- 
withstanding that this has resulted in giving the public an 
erroneous conception of the true cost of city passenger 

earnings, so that the inclination had been to relieve rather 
than burden the property with fixed charges. 

There were also placed in evidence statements showing 
the relative capitalization of the properties in the Brooklyn 
Rapid Transit System prior to their reorganization and 
acquisition by the parent company. The important feature 
of these statements was the reduction in obligatory interest 
charges of about $700,000 per annum. This exhibit was 
presumably introduced to refute the allegation that had it 
not been for an inflation in capital obligations the business 
to Coney Island could be conducted at a profit even with a 
reduction in fare from 10 cents to 5 cents per passenger. 
Supplementing these figures a statement was filed showing 
that on the basis of the operating cost of last year and the 
present rate of fare, 10 cents, eliminating all fiscal charges 
other than taxes and in lieu thereof assessing the traffic with 
an interest charge of 6 per cent on the cost to reproduce the 

June 20, 1908.] 



actual rolling stock in service on the Coney Island lines 
during 1907, 6 per cent on the cost of the power plant neces- 
sary to operate the number of cars used, the resultant loss 
would exceed $100,000, and that if to this sum there should 
be added 6 per cent on the assessed valuation of the private 
rights of way, over which the traffic is carried, the actual 
loss would exceed $300,000. 

The testimony showed the extent of the burden which the 


X ^ 

Car-mile expenses, c t! 

calendar yr. 1907. — . 



Maintenance of way 

and structure... .0142 

Maintenance of way 

and equipment... .0302 

Operating power 

plant .0249 

Operat. cars, train- 
men's wages 0556 

Operat. cars, other 
expenses 0251 

Damage and legal 
expenses 0229 

General expenses.. .0098 

Totals 1827 

Special appropria'ns .0046 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company is carrying by furnishing 
funds to meet losses from traffic on the Coney Island and 
other outlying lines and providing for enlargement of facili- 
ties in the hope that at some future date the present un- 
profitable territory will become settled and remunerative. 
As an illustration of the manner in which the company has 


ooklyn Union 
ev. R. R., cts. 

Nassau Electric 
R. R., cts. 

ooklyn, Queens 
). & Suburban 
R., cts. 

) u t h Brooklyn 

a Beach Ry.. 

>ney Island & 
■avesend Ry., cts. 










• 0153 










■ 0379 




• 0543 


• 0373 





















1903. 1904. 1905- 

Rep. and ren. track and roadway. . .00504 .00572 .00747 

Rep. and ren. electric line 00271 .00293 .00325 

Rep. and ren. bldgs. and fix 00164 .00259 .00352 

Rep. and ren. steam plant 00092 .00211 .00334 

Rep. and ren. electee plant 00043 .00099 .00087 

Rep. and ren. cable plant 00024 .00022 .00011 

Rep. and ren. passenger cars 00527 .00731 .01005 

Rep. and ren elec. equip, of cars.. .00470 .00711 .01028 

Rep. and ren. of locomotives 00127 .000S7 .00017 

Pep. and ren. miscel. equip 00049 .00063 .00068 

Miscellaneous shop expenses 00226 .00285 .00353 

Amt. expended for rep. and main.. .02497 .03333 -04327 

Exp. for additions and betterments .00396 .00696 .00773 

Special reserve 

.0001 7 
.0 1020 

.0009 1 

.03903 .03938 
.00894 .00636 



Per ct. increase 
of mainten'ce 


.05100 .05567 


expense over 

2. 16 

previous year 




Per ct. increase 

of mainten'ce 

expense over 

previous year, 

including spe- 

cial reserve. . 



Gross earn, from 

operation . . . S 






Per et. increase 

over previous 

1 1.1 1 




Car mileage . . . 






Per ct. increase 

over previous 



1 0.80 


been carrying unprofitable lines since its advent into 
Brooklyn in 1896, the earnings of the Brooklyn, Queens 
County & Suburban Railroad were exhibited. They showed 
that while the investment return on the entire lines of the 
latter company in the years 1906 and 1907 was reasonable, 
the returns of previous years had been insignificant; the 
first seven years of operation of that property were so 
lean as to result in losses aggregating $357,854. The Brook- 

lyn Rapid Transit Company, in order to save the Brooklyn, 
Queens County & Suburban Company from bankruptcy, 
made good these losses. 

Table III shows the increase in expenditures for repairs 
and maintenance by the* Brooklyn Rapid Transit system per 
car-mile during the years 1903 to 1907, inclusive. 


On April 30 officials and other employees of the Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Company organized the Fraternal 
League of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, to pro- 
mote a closer feeling among the members and establish a 
death benefit fund. Membership in this association is 
limited to male employees of the official and clerical forces 
who are between the ages of 18 and 40 years at the time of 
entering the service. The maximum age limit is 50 years 
if the employee entered the service from the age of 40 
years. Membership ceases with the termination of em~ 
ployment by the railway company. 

The association is governed by a board of eight trustees, 
elected as follows: One from the executive department, one 
from the engineering department, one from the accounting 
department, two from the claim department and three from 
the transportation department. From the date of the first 
election one trustee each from the executive, engineering, 
claim and transportation departments holds office for two 
years, and one each from the accounting and claim depart- 
ments with two from the transportation department for one 
year; thereafter the term of all trustees is to be two years 
each. The trustees elect from their number a president and 
vice-president for one year. The secretary-treasurer, who 
is elected at the annual meeting, is required to give a bond 
and receives an annual minimum compensation of $100, 
and $12.50 per annum for each additional 50 members in 
excess of 300. 

The dues are 50 cents a month, and any member in ar- 
rears for three months forfeits all rights to the benefit 
until one month has elapsed after all arrearage has been 
paid. Members in arrears for six months are considered 
suspended and cannot be reinstated except by the action of 
the trustees and the payment of all arrearages. Such de- 
linquents cannot become beneficiaries until three months 
after they have been reinstated. 

The death benefits are as follows : To charter members, 
$100 for less than three months' membership; $200 for three 
to six months ; $300 for six months or over. The heirs of 
non-charter members receive $100 for less than six months, 
$200 for 6 to 12 months and $300 for 12 months or over. 
Should there be no legal heirs, the trustees take charge of 
the remains of the deceased and provide for burial out of 
the money that would otherwise be paid to the heirs. 

The Bavarian Government has decided to introduce elec- 
tricity on three railway lines near the Austrian frontier. 
In an official report which has just been issued on this 
project the cost of equipping the principal line is estimated 
at $442,500 and the amount of power required as 1,700,000 
kw-hours annually. The cost of the entire project is esti- 
mated at $5,500,000 and will involve an extensive develop- 
ment of water power. In view of the importance of the 
undertaking, an international competition for designs will 
be held. The careful investigation of the possibilities of 
electric traction being made by the Prussian railway au- 
thorities adds interest to this proposal. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 


In response to a call from the Michigan Railroad Com- 
mission 15 members of the railroad commissions of Ohio, 
Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Michigan met in Chicago 
on June 12 and 13 to discuss subjects of common interest. 
C. L. Glasgow, chairman of the Michigan commission, pre- 
sided. He explained that the commissioners had been 
called together to discuss problems of common interest to 
the railroads and the people of the North Central States. 
The decisions of any State commission would bear more 
weight and thus be accepted with less opposition if it were 
known that the cases on which they were based had been 
jointly discussed by the commissioners of several adjoining 
States ; thus, the meeting was called so that there might be 
uniform construction of laws and regulations enforced in 
the various States. 

Some of the subjects discussed which are of particular 
interest to electric railways were : Rules for the operation 
of interurban roads, interchange of traffic between steam 
and electric roads, prevention of accidents and inspection 
and repair of equipment. 

W. J. Wood, of the Indiana commission, first addressed 
the meeting on the subject of accidents. He outlined the 
plans which had been followed by the commission of 
Indiana to carry on a complete inspection of the railways 
in that State. The Indiana commission publishes an acci- 
dent bulletin every three months, and takes active measures 
to inquire into the causes of all railway accidents. When- 
ever necessary the commissioners examine the railroad 
employees under oath and are said to get more dependable 
information regarding the causes of accidents than could 
be obtained from any other source. Mr. Wood stated that 
the railroads have heartily approved the efforts of the 
commission to prevent unnecessary loss of life. The com- 
mission draws a sharp line between those accidents for 
which the railroad is responsible and those which are occa- 
sioned by trespass or similar contributory negligence. A 
strong plea by Mr. Wood was made for the protection of 
railroads from trespassers. The Indiana commission pro- 
poses to do all that is within its power to bring about legis- 
lation which will protect the railroads from trespassing of 
any sort. 

Commissioner Wood called particular attention to the 
fact that there are 10,000 or more unprotected highway 
crossings in Indiana, and that a large number of these com- 
prise the crossing of both a steam and an electric line by 
a highway. There are more than 1500 miles of interurban 
track road in the State, and a considerable portion of the 
trackage is parallel to steam railroad lines. On account of 
the increased danger at double crossings between public 
roads and parallel steam and electric tracks the commis- 
sion has requested that at such points the railways change 
the crossing signs so that in addition to the usual words 
"Railroad Crossing" there will be a horizontal board below 
bearing the words "Two Crossings." A detailed drawing 
with dimensions of such a sign, as installed by the Indiana 
Union Traction Company, was illustrated in the Electric 
Railway Review for March 21, 1908, page 359. 

Commissioner Wood was most enthusiastic in his de- 
mands for the separation of railroad grades. He said that 
there is no law in Indiana compelling the separation of 
grades, but thought that the safety of life demanded special 
efforts to increase the safety factor at railroad crossings. 
This subject he thought more important by far than the 
problems of rates, regulation, interchange, etc. 

To provide for continued action and study with regard 
to the future separation of grades, Commissioner Wood 
presented the following resolution, which after being con- 
sidered by a committee comprising one representative from 
each of the five State commissions represented, was passed 
unanimously : 

Resolved, That a committee consisting of one member 
from each commission represented in this convention shall 
be appointed to take up and consider the subject of the 
separation of highway and railroad grade crossings, and 
that the members shall correspond with each other on this 
subject, and shall report to the commissions of which they 
are members, what can best be done and provided in this 

The chairman appointed the following members of this 
committee : J. C. Morris, Ohio ; B. A. Eckhart, Illinois ; 
W. J. Wood, Indiana; G. W. Dickinson, Michigan; J. M. 
Winterbotham, Wisconsin. 

In accordance with another resolution a committee was 
appointed to consider the preparation of a statute to pre- 
vent trespassing on railroads. This committee also has as 
part of its assigned work the promotion of publicity through 
the medium of the press with a view to warning the public 
against reckless trespassing on railroad property. 

A third committee was appointed to draw up a consti- 
tution and by-laws to be submitted at a meeting to be held 
on Dec. 4, when the commissions represented at the Chi- 
cago meeeting will complete a permanent organization so 
that the unified work may be continued and mutual assist- 
ance be given. 

Members of the Indiana commission described the work 
which has resulted in the adoption of uniform rules in that 
State for operating interurban railways. It is believed that 
operation in accordance with these rules will greatly re- 
duce the possibilities of accidents. One important factor 
with regard to the enforcement of these rules is that to dis- 
obey the rules is a misdemeanor in Indiana, punishable by 

The Michigan commissioners told of their co-operation 
with electric railway managers regarding methods of 
operation and inspection. This commission is studying 
proper rules for operation, but criticises the methods of 
breaking in train crews on the ground that the length of 
time of probation and breaking in men before service is too 

In the discussion of interurban operation the Ohio com- 
missioners complimented the standard rules of the Central 
Electric Railway Association, and outlined the steps taken 
preliminary to their adoption. Some criticism, however, 
was expressed on account of recent laxity on the part of 
the managements of a few of the Ohio interurban rail- 

The Indiana commissioners have in mind a more thor- 
ough study of brake rigging on interurban cars. It was 
suggested that a large factor of safety would be added if 
the hand-brakes were provided with a rigging separate from 
that operated by the air cylinders. 

Some of the subjects discussed were : Statutes on cross- 
ings between steam and electric roads, protection of cross- 
ings, stopping of cars and trains at unprotected crossings, 
handling of train orders, efficiency of various de-rails and 
the interchange of freight and passenger traffic between 
steam and electric roads. The advisability of requiring the 
installation of trolley troughs over the conductor wires for 
a specified distance on either side of the steam railway 
track at a combination steam and electric railway crossing 
was considered, and the members of all the commissions 
represented were highly in favor of such a requirement. 

June 20, 1908.] 




The report of the committee of managers of Indiana 
electric railways recommending uniform rules to govern 
the operation of interurban roads has been approved by the 
Indiana Railroad Commission. The committee was ap- 
pointed by the Indiana commission at a conference at the 
State House, Indianapolis, on February 18, 1908, with the 
understanding that it would formulate rules which would 
be satisfactory to representatives of Indiana interurban 
roads and to the commission. 

The committee reports that it "had various meetings 
from time to time, at all of which the State Railroad Com- 
mission was very efficiently represented by its chief in- 
spector, A. Shane, and Inspector D. E. Matthews, whose 
aid and counsel have been of great value to the committee," 
and that it had finally formulated a set of rules which ap- 
pear to be satisfactory to the committee and to the repre- 
sentatives of the commission, and on May 2, 1908, for- 
warded to each interurban road of Indiana a proof copy of 
the rules as formulated. The committee adds : 

The answers received from the various roads, with very 
few exceptions, were that they were unconditionally satis- 
fied with the rules as presented. By correspondence and a 
personal meeting with representatives of the roads that had 
criticisms to any extent, such slight changes have been 
made in the rules as originally submitted by your committee 
as we believe make them satisfactory to these roads, and 
we feel confident will make them none the less satisfactory 
to the commission and representatives of the other roads. 

Of the total number of 23 different interurban railroads 
of the State, with a total mileage of 1468, we have received 
answers from 16, with a total mileage of 1279, or about 88 
per cent, all of which we believe, as stated above, with 
the slight changes which have been made, are satisfied with 
the rules in their present shape. 

In the book as presented is included also a set of rules 
for track' and roadway department and for maintenance of 
overhead line, as prepared by a committee with A. A. 
Anderson as chairman. 

It is also deemed advisable to include in the book copies 
of some of the principal sections of the criminal code of 
the State of Indiana which apply particularly to the opera- 
tion of electric interurban railroads. 

We feel that the representatives of interurban railroads 
of Indiana have had ample opportunity to look over these 
rules to ascertain whether or not they are satisfactory and 
that the formal vote taken thereon should be such as to in- 
sure their use almost without exception on the interurban 
roads of Indiana. 

The task which was set for the committee was found to 
be no easy one and in making the report the committee 
added: "We feel that we are presenting rules which are 
perfectly satisfactory for the operation of electric interurban 
railroads, yet we appreciate the fact almost any rules are 
easily subject to criticism from a standpoint of arrange- 
ment, wording, rules which might be added, or rules which 
might be eliminated." 

The names of the companies which have accepted the 
rules and the mileage operated in each instance follow: 

Miles in 

Name of Line. Operation. 

Ft. Wayne & Springfield Railway 22 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company 108 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Eastern Traction Co. . 45 

Marion, Bluffton & Eastern Traction Company 32 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Co.. 351 

Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company 148 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Railway. ... 47 
Evansville & Southern Indiana Traction Company. ... 28 

Indiana Union Traction Company 313 

Evansville & Eastern Electric Railway and Evansville 

& Mt. Vernon Electric Railway 38 

Miles in 

Name of Line. Operation. 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Railway 37 

Angola Railway & Power Company 4 

Indianapolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Company. 62 

Lebanon-Thorntown Traction Company 10 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Company 6 

Kokomo, Marion & Western Traction Company 28 

The following signed the report : C. D. Emmons, general 
manager Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company ; 
C. C. Reynolds, general manager Terre Haute, Indianapo- 
lis & Eastern Traction Company; H. A. Nicholl, general 
manager Indiana Union Traction Company; Fletcher M. 
Durbin, general manager Evansville & Southern Indiana 
Traction Company; A. A. Anderson, general manager In- 
dianapolis & Louisville Traction Company. At a meeting 
on June 5 the rules were approved by the representatives 
of interurban lines and by the Indiana Railroad Commis- 


■ Within the last month the Sheboygan (Wis.) Light, 
Power & Railway Company has issued a new form of time- 
table for governing the trains on the Plymouth Division. 
One page from this time table is reproduced herewith. The 
original page, 434 in. wide by 8 l / 2 in. high, and other pages 





























PljfflODlh ll 

Frt. Hauls.. Siding 
6rml Pit.. Switch 
Pica Grata .Siding 
Shab. Fill! Jot 1, 


B 5* 

8 48 

9 54 




2 3G 

4 54 



Kh.hnfp™ Fllll 

1 1 05 

Stub. Fall! Jet, Lr 

Ptitonidi . Wje 

6oarliti ... Switch 
18-Erio ...Switch 
SbiBsrgtn ....It 


7 27 



8 11 






t Dally Eiccpl Bunds; 

Train Numbers to Indicate Time and Direction 

referring to rates, rules, fares, accidents, signals and special 
instructions are bound in a book in board covers, convenient 
for carrying in the pocket. 

The system of train numbers is novel and is explained in 
the book as follows : 


The first digit or figure indicates the hour previous to 
leaving time at terminal. In train numbers having three 
numerals (as 101) the first two digits indicate the hour. 
The final digits indicate as follows : 

1 First Class Train a. m. going West 
p. m. 



a. m. 
p. m. 
a. m. 
p. m. 




Example — Train 101 indicates a first class train going 
west during hour following 10 a. m. No. 44 indicates a 
first class train going east during hour following 4 p. m. 
No. 58 indicates second class train going east during hour 
following 5 p. m., etc. 

All employees are required to refer to trains by numbers. 
All verbal or written reports, orders, etc., must designate 
trains by number. 

The Amsterdam & North Holland Electric Railway Com- 
pany has been granted a concession by Holland to build and 
operate an electric railway system in Holland. The road 
will be about 30 miles long and will extend from Amsterdam 
north through Zaandam to Krommenie from Zaandyk to 
Wyk-aan-Zee, and Wormerveer to Purmerend. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 



Minnesota Railroad & Warehouse Commission 

St. Paul, Minn., June 9, 1908. 

To the Editors : 

The amended tentative classification of operating ex- 
penses recently promulgated by Prof. H. C. Adams, of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, divides electric railways 
into three classes, viz. : 

Class A. Annual gross revenue, $1,000,000 and over, 88 

Class B. Annual gross revenue, $250,000 to $1,000,000, 
58 accounts. 

Class C. Annual gross revenue under $250,000, 36 ac- 

The classification has been considered carefully by this 
commission with the result that its adoption for State use 
was recommended to Professor Adams. Prior to this ac- 
tion, however, the classification was submitted to the comp- 
troller of one of our largest systems of electric railways in 
this State, who expressed himself as greatly pleased with 
the result ; and as the text for these accounts has been pre- 
pared there seems now to be no reason why the classifica- 
tion in question should not be adopted by the interstate and 
the State commissions, and this commission has suggested 
that it become effective on Oct. 1, 1908, so as to give the 
carriers ample time to conform to the changes found 

This commission is of the opinion that the division of the 
electric lines into three classes is much more equitable than 
that formerly submitted; but if it is found to be unsatis- 
factory after being placed iq effect it can be modified as 
experience demands. 

On the question of the depreciation accounts this com- 
mission is of the opinion that the operating expenses should 
stand for the actual expenditures only and should not in- 
clude the depreciation, which in most cases would be merely 
an estimate, but that the depreciation should be deducted 
from the income account annually in accordance with the 
facts to be determined by each company. 

Thomas Yapp, 
Assistant Secretary. 



New York, June 13, 1908. 

To the Editors : 

John Hays Hammond, president of the Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers, has performed a public service of great 
value in offering himself as a candidate for the Republican 
nomination to the office of Vice-president of the United 
States. The professional politicians and certain unseeing 
writers for the daily press apparently are astonished that 
a man who has been so busy developing the resources of 
our country and adding prestige to the name "American" in 
foreign countries that until now he has never taken an 
active part in American politics should announce that he 
is prepared to stand for the vice-presidential nomination. 
That he has done so is a fact of peculiar interest to the 
20,000 enrolled members of our great engineering societies, 
and it is to be hoped that every one of these members will 
use his influence to support Mr. Hammond, not because he 
is an engineer, but because he is one of the best possible 
representatives of a type of man that is greatly needed 
in high executive and legislative office. 

The recent conference of governors at the White House 
emphasizes the fact that in the material field the great work 
of the near future in America is the conservation — perhaps 
it would be better to say efficient utilization — of our natural 
resources. The broad expert knowledge, demonstrated 
executive ability, the tact and energy of Mr. Hammond in 
high executive office would constitute assets of the greatest 
value to the immediate and future interests of the United 

Certain politicians have suggested that Mr. Hammond 
lacks political experience. On the contrary, as an Ameri- 
can resident in South Africa standing for American ideas 
he had an experience which not one in one hundred could 
have faced with equal credit to himself and prestige for 
his country. Throughout those trying days his character 
and ability were tested in a manner rarely paralleled and 
he won the admiration and regard of both Boer and Briton. 
He is not expert in the school of petty politics, but it is 
safe to say that few of his competitors at Chicago have had 
equal experience in the school of constructive statesman- 

The prejudice which conceives that no citizen of this 
republic should put himself forward as a candidate for high 
office unless he has served a long political apprenticeship 
in minor offices and in campaign work for his party is 
essentially ignorant and should be dispelled. It is to be 
hoped that every citizen who believes this will energetically 
support Mr. Hammond's candidacy. 

L. B. Stillwell. 


As described in the Street Railway Journal for May 2, 
it is the practice of the Maintenance of Way Department 
of the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company to 
hold weekly meetings at the office of the chief engineer, H. 
L. Weber, to discuss different topics connected with elec- 
tric railway operation. At the meeting May 12 Larry Gill 
presented a paper on system in carrying on track work. 
Among other things, he said : 

Each set of men on the road should have a place for the 
tools, and no one should interfere with them ; by this method 
much confusion, time and expense may be saved. One set 
of hands may have a hammer, an adz or any other tool 
where they can be readily found in case of extreme need 
and some one from another set of hands will take it away 
from where it had been placed, just when it is most needed. 
Hence the necessity of our general rule that no set of men 
should interfere with the tools belonging to another set 
without permission. 

We have to a great extent cleaned up and arranged our 
tool house and yard so things can be found. Consider the 
case of an engineer who allows his tape lines to lie around 
broken and rusty and not one fit to use, who has several 
broken flagstaffs, leveling rods, etc., not one of them in go.od 
working order. Wouldn't you put him in the same class 
with the section foreman who, when he has a drill-jack, 
clawbar, levelboard or any other tool broken always stores 
the tools away in a heap along the right of way, or any 
old place? 

Rainy days are good times to see if the ax, scythe or adz 
needs to be ground, the saw filed, the wrenches looked over, 
the jacks inspected and oiled, and the bolts and spikes gone 
over. It is also a good time to tighten up a few loose bolts 
on the car or truck, to look up the clusters to see if they 
will burn and are in good working order, to see if the 
hatchet and hand axes are ground, the brick hammer and 
rammers are in good condition; also if you have a few 
chimneys, wicks or an extra burner on hand for your switch 
lamps, or if the red lamps will burn if needed. We all can 
do much toward keeping things in order and everything in 
its place; if each would do his part, none of us would be 

June 20, iyo8.] 




The Pacific Electric Railway, which serves Los Angeles 
and the surrounding country, operates nearly 600 miles of 
track. The many radiating lines of this road and those of 
the Los Angeles Interurban Railway which are jointly 
operated with it center at a large terminal station in 
the business district of Los Angeles. 
Leading from the south to within a 
few blocks of this terminal is a four- 
tracked private right of way over 
which the cars of four double-track 
routes enter the city. This four- 
tracked right of way, shown in the 
engravings, is 14 miles long. Inter- 
locking signal installations are pro- 
vided at several crossings and branch- 
off points on this 14-mile four-track 
division. Through the courtesy of J. 
A. Bell, engineer maintenance of way 
Pacific Electric Railway, it is possible 
to present the following" description of 
these installations and one on another 
division of this extensive electric rail- 
way system : 

In June, 1907, the first crossing- 
signal work was started on the Pacific 

Electric Railway at Oneonta Park, where a double-track 
electric line from Los Angeles to Monrovia and Glen- 
dora crosses the single-track Southern Pacific branch to 
Pasadena. The work was completed and the plant put in 
service on July 3, 1907. On the electric line there is a daily 
schedule of 190 cars over the crossing with numerous 
other work and freight train movements, while the steam 
line schedules 12 trains per day. 

The location of the crossing is almost directly at the 
center of a street intersection, the electric railway having 

THE PACIFIC fastened to concrete foundation blocks. The large pipe, 
which is 2 in. in diameter, is fitted with stuffing boxes and 
filled with black oil to reduce friction and prevent rust. 

The plant installed is a 16-lever Saxby & Farmer me- 
chanical interlocking machine of the latest type, as manu- 
factured by the Union Switch & Signal Company. The 
complete equipment consists of six levers for operating six 
derails, two on the steam line and four on the electric line. 

Pacific Electric Railway — Slauson Junction 4-Track Crossing and Branch Off 

its private right of way flanked on either side by Hunting- 
ton drive, the Southern Pacific track crossing on an angle 
of 57 deg. This necessitated setting the tower on one of 
the street corners and 80 ft. from the electric line. The 
pipe to operate the derails and signals was carried below 
the surface of the street in a larger pipe to the private 
right of way where it is carried, exposed, in pipe carriers 

Pacific Electric Railway — Amoco Crossing with Southern Pacific Railway 

Two of the latter protect back-up movements ; four levers 
operate four standard iron-pipe semaphore signals, two on 
the steam road and two on the electric lines; three levers 
operate electric distant signals of the well known Type "B," 
extensively used for automatic block signal work on steam 
roads. These signals are controlled through three No. 12 
hard drawn copper wires, weather proofed; those on the 
Pacific Electric line are strung on the telephone cross-arms 
of the center trolley poles, while on the Southern Pacific 
right of way the wire is carried on the telegraph pole line. 

Circuits are so arranged that while 
the signals are out of the towerman's 
sight, due to curves, he is always ad- 
vised of their movement. Of the re- 
maining three levers, two operate 
wire-connected dwarf signals for sig- 
naling back-up movements on the elec- 
tric lines. The sixteenth lever was 
not made use of, a space being left 
in the machine for its future installa- 

Everything about the plant is built 
along the lines of the most up-to-date 
and accepted practice among steam 
roads. All parts are designed to with- 
stand hard usage with low mainte- 
nance cost. Concrete is made use of 
wherever possible, the only wood in 
contact with the earth being the heavy 
redwood ties at derail movements 
upon which the mechanism to operate 
the point rests. 
The tower, 12 ft. x 12 ft., is two stories high and rests 
on a concrete foundation. It is provided with a wide 
spreading roof shading the interior of the operating room 
at all hours during the day, so that window shades to ob- 
struct the operator's view are unnecessary. The supports 
for the interlocking machine are carried to concrete pedes- 
tals and securely anchored. The windows in the operating 


[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 

room are designed with a short upper sash and a long 
lower sash, thus putting the cross-bar entirely above the 
operator's line of vision. The ground around the tower 
has been improved by towermen rilling the space available 
with various flowers, thus making the tower as a whole an 
addition to, rather than a detraction from, the beauty of 
Huntington drive. 

The second plant constructed was at Dominguez, the 
crossing of the Southern Pacific line to San Pedro and the 
Pacific Electric line to Long Beach. At this point a 
branch of the electric road to San Pedro also leaves the 
main line. For this place the same type of mechanical 
plant was installed as that at Oneonta Park. The second 
installation is twice as large as the first, the machine con- 
taining 28 working levers with four spare spaces. The 
signals of this plant pass daily 175 electric cars and 10 
steam trains which numbers during the summer months 
are almost doubled, due to traffic to the beaches. 

The view along the Pacific Electric line north and south 
from this plant is more or less obscured — south by a long 
line of center poles ; north by a high-tension transmission 
pole line along the track. To make up for the shortness 

Pacific Electric Railway — Home Signal Bridge over Ex- 
press Tracks at Slauson Junction 

of view annunciators have been installed in the tower ad- 
vising the operator when cars are approaching within 4000 
ft. of the crossing. This gives sufficient time for the neces- 
sary derails and signals to be set without delaying cars or 
causing them to reduce speed. 

As this is a junction point and in order that the tower- 
man may not change the derails with a car in the block, 
an electric lock is provided on the signal which admits a car 
into the interlocking. The lever is not released until the 
passage of the car out of the block automatically unlocks it. 
This plant was put in operation on Oct. ir, 1907. 


The next work undertaken was at Slauson Junction, 
where the Pacific Electric four-track line is crossed by the 
Santa Fe Railway's Redondo branch, a single track line. 
Directly south of the Santa Fe crossing a double-track 
electric line turns off to the Whittier division. The whole 

layout at this point is shown in the accompanying engrav- 
ing reproduced from a photograph taken from the bridge 
carrying the home signals for the south-bound track. 

This installation is of the all-electric type manufactured 
by the General Railway Signal Company. It is a most 
up-to-date apparatus. The operation requires 43 levers. 
Nine spare spaces have been provided in the machine, mak- 
ing a total of 52 levers available. It may be of interest to 
note in this connection that this is the largest interlocking 
plant in the State of California. 

The levers are used as follows : 9 levers operating 
switches, 13 operating derails, 14 operating 19 high signals 
and 7 operating 8 dwarf signals. 

The tower for this plant is designed along the same 
lines as those for mechanical work. A battery room is 
provided in the lower story to receive the storage cells. 
These consist of 55 jars of 80 amp. -hour, Type E-5, Chlo- 
ride Accumulators, furnishing sufficient power on one 
charging to operate the plant and light all signal lamps 
for a period of 96 hours. Charging is accomplished by 
taking the 550-volt trolley current through the resistance 
necessary to obtain a current of 10 amp. In actual prac- 
tice the battery is kept under a continuous charge at the 
rate of 2 amp and an overcharge of a few hours given 
once in two weeks. 

In the upper story of the tower is located the interlock- 
ing machine together with the switchboard, which is a 
combination of the ordinary operating and power boards 
generally in use at electric interlockings. This board is 
2 ft. x 5 ft. in size, mounted on an angle iron frame sup- 
porting it 15 in. above the floor. At one side of the board 
is a panel box containing the 550-volt charging switches 
and a regulating rheostat, the charging resistance being 
mounted in the lower part of the tower. 

The signals on the electric line are supported by steel 
bridges directly over the center of the track which they 
govern. This arrangement was made necessary by track 
centers being such that semaphore poles could not be set 
between tracks, and to set them to the extreme outside 
would place the signals in the line of span poles, obscur- 
ing the view. By the bridge arrangement signals are di- 
rectly over the track they govern and practically all chance 
of error on the part of motormen in confusing signals is 
eliminated. The wires necessary to operate the switches, 
signals and derails are carried in redwood boxing sup- 
ported on stakes set between the center tracks, the top of 
the trunking being level with the top of the rail. After all 
wires were placed and tested out the boxing was filled with 
asphaltum pitch, sealing the wires from moisture. 

This plant was placed in service on March 7 of this year. 
Ordinarily there are about 500 movements through this 
system each day with a large increase during the summer 

The latest plant completed is at Amoco, on the four- 
track lines where they are crossed by the Southern Pacific's 
Santa Monica branch. This is also an electric plant of 40 
levers and the details of installation are the same as em- 
ployed at the Slauson Junction crossing. The traffic at 
this point is identical with that at Slauson, as all cars pass 
this place first. This interlocking was put into commission 
on April 25, 1908. 

The track layout for all these installations, the towers 
and the steel bridges were designed by the maintenance 
of way department of the Pacific Electric Railway Com- 
pany. The work of installation was done by the regular 
forces of that department. 

June 20, iyo8.] 




The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company has maintained 
a careful record of the amount of oil used for lubricating 
its elevated-subway rolling stock. The road has not been in 
operation for a sufficient length of time to make detailed 
statistics available, but as an example, the record of Car 
No. 1 might be quoted. 

This car has been in service since Oct. r, 1907, and had 
run 24,499 uhles by May 11. It had not been oiled up to 
that time nor do the journals yet show any signs of need- 
ing oil. The journals are supplied with Galena oil and 
Perfection packing, which is an elastic non-glazing com- 
bination of wool, Irish moss and goat-hair. 


The cast-steel gears and steel pinions used on the ele- 
vated are inspected every 20,000 miles. They have stood 
up very well in service and micrometer measurements made 
after 70,000 miles' running show a gear wear of only 0.002 
in. to 0.004 i n - ar >d a pinion wear of from 0.006 in. to 
0.008 in. When the gears were placed in service the initial 
lubrication was 13 lb. of Whitmore's gear protective com- 


As about half of the present elevated route is on grades, 
special attention has been given to instructing the motormen 
to save power by coasting. To assist in securing this object 
"on" and "off" sign posts bearing a black circle on a white 
field are placed at appropriate places along the line. The 
motormen are secretly checked by inspectors who enter the 
train and watch the switches on the panel board as the 
power is cut in and out. 


The first 40 cars were equipped with steel-tired wheels 
on both motor and trailer trucks. The rolling stock in- 
stalled since then has been furnished with Schoen solid steel 
wheels for the trailer wheels, but steel-tired wheels have 
been retained for the motor trucks on account of the ex- 
tended hub. The 34-in. diameter steel-tired wheels are 
turned for 55 cents a pair on a Pond lathe having a capa- 
city of 10 pairs of wheels a day. 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company — Milk Car in Operation between 
Doylestown and Philadelphia. 

, pound, but since the initial lubrication only 1 lb. of new 
lubricant has been required each month, as the droppings 
from the gears into the gear case are reapplied to the sur- 
face of the gear. 


The original third-rail shoes of the Potter under-running 
type are averaging 33,000 to 35,000 miles each. The old 
shoes are not scrapped, but are trued up in a shaper and a 
new bearing plate is secured to the holder by set screws. 
This plate casting weighs about 5 lb. and costs 15 cents; 
the machining and screws average about 25 cents. 


The elevated cars as originally installed had two sets of 
transverse seats opposite the locked center door. In prac- 
tice they were found obstructive to passenger movement 
and have been converted to longitudinal seating, thereby 
increasing the total passenger capacity about 40 per cent. 
The seating in the middle of the cars will be removed 
eventually, as Burdette-Rowntree door-openers are being 
installed for the center doors in anticipation of the heavier 
traffic which will come with the opening of the Delaware 
River 7-mile extension in September. The total length of 
the elevated-subway line will then be 18 miles. 


The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company recently made 
a canvass among the dairymen in Doylestown and vicinity 
to determine what business there would 
be for milk transportation to Phila- 
delphia, 25 miles distant. On May 4, 
after a conference between the in- 
terested parties, a milk car was placed 
in service to operate between Doyles- 
town and Fifteenth and Huntingdon 
Streets, Philadelphia. This car leaves 
Doylestown at 6 124 a. m., picks up milk 
at any intermediate points and reaches 
the city depot about 9:15 a. m. For 
the information of dairymen who had 
made no arrangements for selling milk 
from this receiving station, the com- 
pany sent out a circular with the names 
and addresses of several wholesalers 
who were ready to buy milk delivered 
at that place. The milk is transported 
on tag tickets attached to the cans. 
These tickets are sold in packages of 
20, $2.40 being charged for the y l / 2 - 
gal. cans and $1.60 for the 5-gal cans. The milk carrier is 
a converted center-door cable car mounted on Brill 27-G 
trucks and equipped with four No. 12-A motors. The car 
has a capacity of 200 40-qt. cans and makes one trip a day. 

It is reported that the Hocking Valley Railway Company 
will put on an extra train each way a day between Fos- 
toria and Toledo, in order to meet the competition of the 
Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway which was recently 
placed in operation. The Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Rail- 
way parallels the Hocking Valley from Fostoria to Toledo. 
The latter company, several months ago, put twin tickets 
on sale at a lower rate than the electric railway expected 
to charge. The Hocking Valley Railway has systematically 
fought the development of electric railways in its territory, 
but notwithstanding this it probably has more competition 
from electric railways than any other steam railroad in the 
State. It now has competition from Toledo south to Fos- 
toria by the Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Railway; from 
Marion south to Columbus by the Columbus, Delaware & 
Marion Railway, and from Columbus south to Lancaster 
by the Scioto Valley Traction Company, besides a number 
of small lines in the southern part of the State. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 


'en Ha 



1 Roller Coaster. 

1 Merry-Go-Round. 

2 Old Mill. 

4 Knife 3 , Cane and Doll Rack 

5 Photo Gallery, 
Foot Bull Came. 

7 Candy Privilege. 

8 Japanese Call 8; 

9 >'ight i Mornins 
1(J Snooting Gallery 

11 Trolley Tours. 20 Low 

12 Over the Waves. 

13 Duncing Pavilion. 

14 Puffed Riee, Saratoga Chips and Hot Corn 


Glen Haven is an amusement park owned and operated 
by the Rochester Railway Company. It is of the Coney 
Island type and is located at the end of Irondequoit Bay. 
Lake Ontario, about 5>4 miles from Rochester. The round 
trip fare is 20 cents from any part of the city, but passengers 
starting from the East Main street station, which is 3.26 
miles from the park, can make the trip for 5 cents each way. 

The grounds are operated with a free gate, the principal 
inducement for visitors being vaudeville. The company's 
policy is to make a contract with some theatrical agent who 
has booked dates with most of the nearby parks, so that 
advantage may be taken of the lower prices possible when 
long trips for the performers are eliminated. Last year 
the contract was held by Frank Melville, of New York, 
who furnished shows for 13 weeks at $400 a week. The 
company consisted usually of 11 people, who gave five 
diverse acts. This number in- 
cluded a pianist, who arranged 
the acts, cared for baggage, 
paid the performers, and 
handled the other details. Mon- 
day afternoons were devoted to 
rehearsals, but two daily per- 
formances of one hour each 
were given the rest of the 

This arrangement proved 
very satisfactory and the vaude- 
ville succeeded in drawing big 
crowds both afternoon and 
evening. In fact, the introduc- 
tion of vaudeville three years 
ago increased the park traffic 
89 per cent, and it has been 
rising ever since. Last season 
the total attendance was about 
half a million. 

The acts are presented on an 
open-air stage termed the Cir- 
cus Maximus, which is 60 ft. 

wide by 30 ft. deep, with dressing rooms in the back and 
two doors on each side. There is no covering on the stage 
and the performance is visible from three directions. At 
night the whole is attractively illuminated with 3000 in- 
candescent lamps. Music is furnished by an orchestra of 
seven, which receives $185 a week, but the actual expense 
is less, as the orchestra is used at- other times by the local 
hotel proprietors. 

This theater provides free seats for about 3000 people. 
An important feature in conducting this entertainment 
is the provision that all the concessions must be closed 
while the vaudeville is in progress. This was done to 
enable the patrons to enjoy the acts without disturbance 
from the annoying shouts of the different bally-hoo men. 
The concessionaires objected to this rule at first, but were 
soon mollified when they found that its effect was to put 
the people in better humor to visit their attractions after 
the vaudeville was over. 

Although beer and other spirituous liquors are sold in the 
three hotels at Glen Haven, there is little trouble from dis- 
orderly elements because of the excellent policing and sum- 
mary punishment of offenders. The park and its environs 
cover about eight acres, which are policed by three regular 

uniformed deputies and four assistants. A small jail in the 
park serves to house arrested individuals until justice is 
meted out to them by local Dogberrys, who are not too 

It is a cardinal principle of the park management to 
provide an abundance of benches, as the more opportunities 
the visitors have to rest the more likely they will be to 
visit other shows rather than going home early with a tired 
feeling. For the same reason there are no cement sidewalks 
to make the pedestrian foot-weary, and every effort is 
made to enhance the natural beauty of the grounds so far 
as is consistent in a park of this character. 

The lighting of the park is on a very liberal scale but is 
applied to make every part of the grounds look cheerful 
rather than confining it to a central tower. 

The park contains a generous number of standard pay at- 
tractions, most of them installed by the T. M. Harton Com- 
pany, of Pittsburg. Among these are a roller-coaster, old 
mill, mystic chutes and merry-go-round. The riding de- 

ls Chullbuck Wheel Swing. 

10 Bowling Alleys. 

17 Romany Gypsy Camp 

IS Weighing Scales Privilege. 

19 Restaurant. 
"J1J Sausage Pavilion. 

21 Hotel. 

22 Ruby Glass Privilege. 

23 Frog "Pond. 

24 Hot Waffles. 

25 lee Cream A: Soft Drink Stand. 

20 Love's Voyage. 

Scale. 1 =565 

Rochester Railway Company — Plan of Glen Haven Park 

vices and dance hall are the most popular offerings aside 
from vaudeville. Break-neck amusements and other thrill- 
ers are not encouraged because of their danger and tendency 
to draw undesirable elements to the park. In general, the 
management does not believe in shows which are good only 
for one season and require specially designed structures 
useless for other purposes. The park also contains moving 
pictures, Japanese games, souvenir stands, etc. The hotels 
and stands are rented at fixed amounts per season, but the 
other features are on a percentage basis. 

No special effort is made to secure organizations to make 
trips to Glen Haven, but the company has a most successful 
drawing card in the military carnival held at the park every 
other year in the fall after the regular season is pretty well 
over, when the grounds are turned over to the local militia 
for sham battles, the regular park attractions being con- 
tinued as usual. The railway company gets all the fares 
and the militia organizations are given the percentage 
profits from the park entertainments which at other times 
go to the railway company. 


Sea Breeze Park is a place which the Rochester Railway 
Company has built up chiefly as a picnic party resort, secur- 

June 20, 1908.] 



ing its business because of the natural beauty of the grounds 
and the conveniences afforded to lunch parties. The park 
is at the foot of Irondequoit Bay, Lake Ontario, 16 miles 
from Rochester. The round trip fare for adults is 25 cents 
and 15 cents for children. There is a large pavilion, an 
ample number of tables and benches and a fully equipped 
kitchen, including hot and cold water, dishes and utensils. 
All of these conveniences may be freely used by visitors on 
application to the matron in charge, who also dispenses hot 
coffee for the asking. 

In addition to the main pavilion there is a smaller one 
and three large tents, so that every day five distinct organi- 
zations may have their outings under separate covers. 
There are also three baseball diamonds, a Figure 8 roller 
coaster, a merry-go-round and a photograph gallery. Visitors 
who wish to purchase refreshments, either solid or liquid, 
can do so at any of the three hotels. As at Glen Haven, 
there is a small lockup on the grounds and usually a local 
justice is on hand in less than an hour to dispose of cases. 

The success of this park is shown by the fact that it had 
over 380,000 visitors last year, and 75 church organizations 
have already been booked for this season. Society business 
is secured through personal solicitation, correspondence and 
advertising matter, such as blotter sets which are mailed 
to the proper parties. These blotters have a celluloid cover 
which shows an attractive scene at the park, bears the perti- 
nent query "Have you secured a date?" and tells the reader 
how he can make arrangements. 

A large number of excursions are made in chartered cars 
at the rate of $15 per car holding 60 passengers. The com- 
pany, however, prefers to sell tickets at the usual rates so 
that the people can go to and from the park any time on a 
regular car, and at the same time it is unnecessary to keep 
the chartered car idle all day or bring it from some dis- 
tant point. 


Annother traffic-building enterprise of the Rochester 
Railway Company is a tent city at Summerville, a shore re- 
sort 8 miles from Rochester at the mouth of the Genesee 
River, Lake Ontario, opposite Ontario Beach Park, The 
round trip fare to this place in 20 cents. The company 
owns a considerable shore front at this location ideally 
suited for tenting life. The property is divided into lots of 
40 ft. to 50 ft. front and 100 ft. depth and the rental for 
the season varies from $36 to $65 a lot, according to the 
nearness to the lake. There is little profit in these rentals, 
as the company looks after the water supply, lighting and 
sanitation, but by giving the people what they want at rea- 
sonable rates the railway is building up a profitable traffic 
on its Summerville division. Last year the tent city con- 
sisted of 114 families and there is every reason to believe 
that this number will be greatly increased the coming season. 

The third annual convention of the Grand Lodge of the 
Brotherhood of Interurban Trainmen of Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois was held recently at Wapakoneta, Ohio. Twelve 
lodges in Ohio, three in Indiana and two in Illinois com- 
prise the lodge. The officers who served last year were re- 
elected as follows: W. R. Rutledge, of Lorain, Ohio, grand 
master; H. W. Merritt, of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, grand 
secretary and treasurer; N. J. Hadley, of Lorain, Ohio, 
grand chaplain. This organization is maintained for the 
purpose of securing recognition for the interurban train- 
men as a craft. In Ohio the lodge now uses 2100 of the 
2290 miles of interurban track under a standard code 
adopted by its organization. The next meeting will be held 
at Muncie, Ind., May 13, 1909. 


The Rhode Island Company, of Providence, has re- 
cently installed a two-wire automatic interlocking signal 
system, manufactured by the United Electric Signal Com- 
pany, of Providence, which has attracted considerable at- 
tention. The system is operated by an overhead brush con- 
tact, using power from the main feed for both lamps and 
operating mechanism. Mounted upon a pole directly ahead 
of the turn-out is an oblong-shaped iron box containing 
four standard railway lenses, each illuminated by one of 
two incandescent lamps, the one not in service being in 
reserve to cut-in should the first lamp burn out. 

The absence of a car between turn-outs is indicated by a 
white light at both ends, and the presence of a car within 
the block is indicated at the entering point by a green 
light in addition to the white light, and at the distant point 
by a red light only. The 
red and green lights are in 
series. The lighting cir- 
cuit consists of a single 
wire, the other wire be- 
ing used for the purpose 
of operating the mechan- 
ism through the over- 
head contact device. The 
lights are readily discern- 
ible at night, on a dull 
day or with the sun shin- 
ing directly upon the 
lenses. When the lenses 
are not illuminated by 
the lamps the direct rays 
of the sun have no effect 
upon them. 

With this system a 
number of cars may enter 
a block going in the same 
direction and the red light 
at the distant end will stay 
at danger until all cars 
have passed out. The 
first car to enter receives 
a green light either above 
or below the white light, 
as the case may be, and 
each following car changes 
the location of the green 
light, alternately, to a position either above or below the 
white light. The signal is self-adjusting. Should two 
cars attempt to enter a block from opposite ends, only one 
car will have the right to proceed. Cars may also back out 
on either side of the turn-out and restore signals to their 
previous condition. A car may also leave the block as the 
following car enters and not disarrange the system. When 
the signal is set at danger the overhead contact directly in 
front of the danger signal is cut out of service. 

The most important feature of the system is that it is im- 
possible for a car to get an entering or a go-ahead signal 
without setting and locking the danger signal at the oppo- 
site end. The signal box contains little besides the lamps, 
the counting mechanism being mounted separately on the 
back of the pole. The system is constructed on the unit 
principle so that individual parts may quickly be replaced 
or an entirely new mechanism inserted without disturbing 
(he wiring. 

Signal on Post 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 


The exhibits of railway equipment and supplies at the 
annual convention of the Master Car Builders' and Ameri- 
can Railway Master Mechanics' Associations, held this 
week at Atlantic City, N. J., are more numerous and varied 
than ever before. They are grouped on the new Million 
Dollar Pier and are entirely under cover. About 210 com- 
panies are represented. The decorative scheme is the same 
as last year, white and green. A feature of the display is 
the grouping of all of the heavy machine tools, trucks and 
other exhibits in one large room south of the ball room, 
called for this occasion Machinery Hall. The makers of 
machine tools are especially well represented. Below is 
given a partial list of the exhibits of particular interest to 
electric railway mechanical officers : 

Adams & Westlake Company, Chicago, 111., has an 
attractive booth in which are shown the Newbold axle light 
system, Adlake acetylene generator for car lighting, light- 
ing fixtures, samples of car hardware and switch and signal 
lamps and lanterns. It is represented by Messrs. Lang- 
worthy, Newbold, Anderson, Walters, Baldwin, Stearns, 
Griggs, Carse and Sidel. 

The American Blower Company, Detroit, Mich., 
shows a full line of specialties, including a No. 6, steel plate, 
dynamic fan; a No. 3 "V" blower with direct-connected 
motor, as used for forge work; a heater of sectional base 
coils complete, together with one of the new "Vento" cast- 
iron heaters in comparison ; one No. 3 type "E" exhaust 
fan for handling material under high pressure; a twelve- 
blade, disk-ventilating fan; and a complete model showing 
the design and operation of the "ABC" moist air dry kiln. 
There is also exhibited a type "A" engine, with direct- 
connected generator, showing the special gravity lubrica- 
tion and self-locking devices. The various special features 
of the engine, pump, self-locking devices, etc., are separate- 
ly shown. Two rather spectacular features complete the ex- 
hibit, one being the new Detroit trap in operation, showing 
the latest method in automatic handling of condensed water 
— the other the now famous suspended ball exhibit. The 
company is represented by Clayton W. Old, general Eastern 
representative ; R. B. Bedford and H. F. Old. 

American Brake Shoe & Foundry Company, Mah- 
wah, N. J., has quarters in sections Nos. 583 and 585, where 
it is showing samples of locomotive, coach and car brake 
shoes illustrating the latest method of reinforcing the shoe 
to insure efficiency, durability and safety. The company is 
also exhibiting a few samples of steel back brake shoes for 
heavy electric railway service. The representatives on 
hand are W. S. McGowan, Eastern salesman; Frank L. 
Gordon, Western sales manager; Charles Herron, Southern 
sales manager; F. W. Sargent, chief engineer; and repre- 
senatives H. S. Bradfield, E. L. Janes, E. J. Searles, E. B. 
Smith, J. S. Thompson, L. R. Dewey. In all probability 
Otis H. Cutler, president; J. D. Gallagher, first vice-presi- 
dent, and J. B. Terbell, second vice-president, will be in 
attendance part of the time. 

American La France Fire Engine Company, Elmira. 
N. Y., exhibits a No. 1 1 and No. 8 chemical fire engine and 
a full line of fire extinguishers, including the No. 1 Bab- 
cock, No. 2 Babcock, No. 5 Babcock, Patrol, Salvage, Alert, 
20th Century and Arctic non-freezing extinguishers. 

American Locomotive Company, New York, has a re- 
ception booth in which framed pictures of recent locomo- 
tives and trucks are hung. The company is represented by 
H. F. Ball, David Van Alstyne, Leigh Best, G. M. Basford, 
J. D. Sawyer, A. Haller. 

American Mason Safety Tread Company, Boston, 
shows samples of Mason and Empire safety step treads ; 
Karbolith car flooring. 

American Multigraph Sales Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, exhibits new model No. 4 Gammeter multigraph for 
rapid duplication of letters and forms. Also numerous 
samples of work done by these machines. It is represented 
by F. G. Harris and H. M. Horr. 

American Steam Gauge & Valve Manufacturing 
Company, Boston, Mass., is exhibiting a full line of pop 
safety valves, steam and air gages, dead weight testers, 
whistles, indicators. It is represented by R. B. Phillips, 
Charles A. Allen and E. D. Smith. 

American 'Steel Foundries, New York, has the largest 
single exhibit on the pier. Among the specialties shown are 
the Davis cast-steel wheel, coil and elliptic springs and 
cast-steel truck and body bolsters. It is represented by 

G. E. Scott, R. H. Ripley, W. W. Butler, D. W. Call, Theo. 
Cook, George Murray, Fritz Ernst, D. T. Harris, T. D. 
Kelly, J. V. Bell, G. E. Slaughter, Jas. T. Maher, H. P. 
Shaw, J. Soule Smith, W. A. Blanchard, Fred Shults and 
A. S. Crozier. 

Armstrong Brothers Tool Company, Chicago, 111., ex- 
hibits a line of patent lathe and planer tools, ratchet drills 
and other machine shop specialties. It is represented by 
John McBride. 

Asbestos Protected Metal Company, Chicago, 111., ex- 
hibits samples of asbestos protected metal for siding and 
roofing of buildings. It is represented by R. J. Mollan, 

H. H. Robertson, E. V. Donelson and J. T. Crawford. 
Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa., has no 

exhibit, but headquarters for its representatives are in 
space No. 523. 

Bardons & Oliver, Cleveland, Ohio, exhibits a motor- 
driven, 43/2-in. x 30-in. automatic chuck turret lathe in 
operation with a full line of turret lathe tools ; also a 
No. 4 friction-geared head, extra capacity, drawback at- 
tachment, turret lathe with cut-off attachment and vertical 
forming attachment. The company is represented by S. E. 
Horton, J. G. Oliver and G. C. Bardons. 

Beaudry & Company, Inc., Boston, Mass., exhibit a 
Beaudry power hammer for smith shops. 

Chas. H. Besly & Company, Chicago, 111., exhibits the 
Besly spiral disk grinder, Helmet spiral circles, Helmet 
tempered taps, Helmet babbitt metal and Helmet oils and 
ureases. The representatives are E. P. Welles and C. A. 

Bickford Drill & Tool Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, ex- 
hibits a motor-driven 5-ft. full universal radial drill. It is 
represented by H. L. Beeler and H. M. Norris. 

Bowser, S. F., & Company, Fort Wayne, Ind., exhibits 
a full line of oil storage systems and self-measuring pumps. 
The representatives are C. A. Dunkelberg and W. T. Simp- 

Brill Company, J. G., Philadelphia, Pa., has a 27E-3 
truck for passenger service on exhibition in Machinery 

Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Company, Provi- 
dence, R. I., exhibits a No. 5B heavy plain milling machine, 
No. 3 vertical spindle milling machine of the constant- 
drive type with power-driven circular milling attachment. 
No. 3A heavy universal milling machine with a complete 
line of attachments. All of these machines are motor- 
driven and in actual operation. A representative line of 
small tools and cutters is also shown. It is represented by 
R. T. Eaton, C. A. Ballou, H. MacGregor and John Parker. 

Burroughs Adding Machine Company, Detroit, Mich., 
is showing a number of models of Borroughs adding and 
listing machines. It is represented by F. A. Willard. 
Thomas M. Jones, Ira Berk, Frank Spikerman and Fred 

Calculagraph Company, New York, exhibits the Cal- 
culagraph time recording and computing" machine. It is 
represented by Philip R. Simmons. 

Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, N. Y., exhibits 
samples of carborundum wheels, sharpening stones and 
crystals. It is represented by G. R. Rayner, Chas. Nichol- 
son, W. W. Sanderson, Robert Fuller and Mr. Shoemaker. 

Carey, Philip, Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, shows a full line of asbestos lagging and insulating 
material, roofing and paints. 

Celfor Tool Company, Chicago, 111., exhibits Celfor 
high-speed twist drills, demonstrating their capacity for 
heavy work in a large motor-driven drill press. It is repre- 
sented by Russell Dale, William Brewster, W. F. Heacock 
and W. E. McCabe. 

Chase, L. C, & Company, Boston, Mass., exhibit their 
"Goat Brand" plushes used for car seats in steam and elec- 
tric work with a full line of plain colors and frieze designs. 
The samples show the process of manufacture. The repre- 
sentative is R. R. Bishop, Jr. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, of Chicago, 111., 
has a complete line of electrical drills, tool post girders, 
portable girders, magnetic old man, vacuum house and car 

June 20, 1908.] 


cleaners for residential and railway purposes driven elec- 
trically and by gasoline engines, as well as a complete line 
of air tools and appliances. 

Cincinnati Machine Tool Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
is exhibiting its latest type of drilling machine with variable 
speed motor-drive and friction-clutch back gears. 

Cincinnati Milling Machine Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, exhibits a No. 4 horizontal plain milling machine and 
a No. 4 vertical plain milling machine, both motor-driven. 
It is represented by J. L. Bishop and Chas. Gingrich. 

Cincinnati Planer Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, ex- 
hibits a 37-in. x 37-in. x 8-ft. forge planer with variable 
speed motor drive. It is represented by George Langen and 
B. B. Quillen. 

Coe Brass Manufacturing Company, Torrington, 
Conn., exhibits samples of extruded brass moldings used in 
car and locomotive construction and for other purposes. It 
is represented by E. J. Steele, W. H. Rippere and William 
W. Cotter. 

Consolidated Car Heating Company, Albany, N. Y., 
shows models of steam heating apparatus for trains. 

Crosby Steam Gage & Valve Company, Boston, Mass., 
exhibits a full line of steam and air pressure gages, safety 
valves, recording gages, globe, angle and check valves, in- 
dicator sets with reducing motion and continuous diagram 
drum, gage testing instruments. The representatives are 
E. C. Kenyon, J. J. McCormick, H. B. Forbes and C. W. 

Curtain Supply Company, Chicago, 111., is showing im- 
proved ring fixture No. 88 for steam and electric closed 
cars ; No. 89 ring fixture for closed grooves adaptable espe- 
cially to open and convertible cars ; Forsyth No. 86, Bur- 
roughs, Acme and Climax cable fixtures ; Keeler eccentric 
Curtain Supply Company's friction roller fixture. It is 
represented by W. H. Forsyth, general manager; Ross F. 
Hayes, Eastern manager ; S. W. Midgley, Western repre- 

Dearborn Drug & Chemical Company, Chicago, 111., 
shows samples of boiler compounds, oils and greases. It is 
represented by George Carr, J. D. Pursell, Grant Spear. 
D. E. Cain and H. G. McConnaughy. 

Detroit Hoist & Machine Company, Detroit, Mich., 
exhibits electric and pneumatic locomotive turntable tract- 
ors and pneumatic geared hoists. It is represented by J. C. 
Fleming and F. B. Fleming. 

Diamond Machine Company, of Providence, R. I., is 
presenting its electrically driven guide bar grinder. 

Dill T. C Machine Company, Philadelphia, Pa., ex- 
hibits a motor-driven 15-in. slotter and Dill drive counter 
shaft. It is represented by T. C. Dill and Robert Russell. 

Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., exhibits 
samples of Dixon graphite crucibles, silica graphite paint 
and graphite lubricants in an attractive booth built of steel 
and painted with various shades of Dixon's graphite paint. 
It is represented by W. A. Houston, H. A. Neally, Leo 
Snyder, J. J. Tucker and De Witt C. Smith. 

Dressel Railway Lamp Works, New York, are show- 
ing locomotive headlights both oil and electric ; full line 
of classification lamps for locomotives, including latest de- 
sign automatic color change device ; locomotive gage lamps, 
switch lamps and semaphore signal lamps. The works are 
represented by F. W. Dressel, Robert Black, H. S. Hoskin- 
son, F. W. Edmunds and W. E. Chester. 

Drouve, G., Company, Bridgeport, Conn., presents 
the anti-Pluvius skylight, Lovell window operator and the 
Cibulas car ventilating operator. Wm. V. Dee, sales mana- 
ger of the company, is in charge. 

Duff Manufacturing Company, Allegheny, Pa., in ad- 
dition to showing a fine line of its jacks, uses a "Reado- 
graph" perpetual advertising machine to explain the merits 
of its products. Geo. A. Edgin represents the company. 

Edwards, O. M., Company, Syracuse, N. Y., has an un- 
usually extensive exhibit including a complete dummy of 
the side of a car equipped with Edwards window fixtures. 
The company is represented by O. M. Edwards, G. G. 
Norris, E. F. Chaffee, C. H. Rockwell and F. M. Nicholl. 

Electric Storage Battery Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
exhibits a complete line of "Chloride" accumulators and 
"Exide" batteries for car and train lighting. 

Evans-Almirall & Company, New York, are showing 
model apparatus of hot water heating system for shops and 

buildings and photographs of shops where the system has 
been installed together with drawings and plans showing 
application of apparatus to the buildings. The company is 
represented by C. D. Allan, Benjamin Kauffman and Doug- 
las Sprague. 

Foster, W. H, Company, New York, is presenting its 
staybolt machine, bolt-turner, die grinder, staybolt drill, 
nut tapper and a bolt altering machine. This company also 
is giving out advertising literature and showed photographs 
of products of the Ingersoll Milling Machine Company, 
Rockford, 111. The company is represented by B. D. 

France Packing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., is show- 
ing a line of metallic and fibrous packings for locomotives, 
power house machinery, marine engines, etc., as well as 
lubricators and grease cups. The company is represented 
by A. W. France and G. E. Vansantz. 

Galena-Signal Oil Company, of Franklin, Pa., has ar- 
ranged for a reception booth but will make no exhibit of 
its wares. Among the representatives on hand are the 
following: J. S. Coffin, vice-president; E. V. Sedgwick, E. 
Iiillyer, Alex. Turner, E. W. Grieves and F. W. Dyer. 

Garlock Packing Company, Palmyra, N. Y., shows a 
line of locomotive and shop packings. The company is 
represented by John N. Todd, Wm. Smith, F. A. Ebert, 
H. N. Winner and H. Peterson. 

General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has a 
large exhibit in spaces 350-361. It includes one G. E. 209 
commutating pole railway motor as furnished to the De- 
troit River Tunnel Company, one G. E. 308 railway motor, 
one G. E. 69 motor, one G. E. 205 motor, 400-watt Curtis 
turbine headlight set, 20-kw Curtis turbine generating set 
for train lighting, portable air compressor set, speed lathe 
made by the American Woodworking Machinery Company 
and direct driven by a Vz-hp C. R. motor which has the 
armature shaft extended and the face plate attached di- 
rectly to it without the interposition of gears, designed to 
run at variable speed between 600 and 2400 r.p.m. ; a num- 
ber of motor-driven wood-working and machine tools, dis- 
play of tungsten lamps, tantalum lamps for car lighting 
and various types of arc lamps, Sprague I -ton electric 
shop hoist, Invincible motor-driven vacuum carpet cleaner, 
motor-driven rail drilling and grinding machine made by 
the Coates Clipper Company, panels of rail bonds and 
overhead line material. It is represented by I. G. Barry, 
F. H. Gale, W. J. Clark, C. C. Peirce and R. E. Moore. 

General Compressed Air & Vacuum Machinery Com- 
pany, St. Louis, Mo., is in space No. 322 in the pneumatic 
section. Its representatives are Reuben C. Hallet, an old 
railroad man, who has recently joined this company, and 
Frederic A. Coolidge, advertising manager. 

General Railway Supply Company, Chicago, 111., 
shows all of its devices in position on the end of a passen- 
ger coach which it built for that purpose. It has several 
articles which are particularly well adapted for electric 
railway service, namely : Schroyer friction curtain rollers 
and fixtures, National standard roofing, Ideal roller center 
bearings and flexolith composition flooring. The first two 
have been specified and are to be applied to all of the street 
cars to be built for the Chicago Railways Company, and 
the ideal roller center plates also will be used under 300 of 
these cars. 

Gisholt Machine Company, Madison, Wis., is showing 
a 24-in. motor-driven turret lathe with Gy^-'m. hole through 
spindle and a set of bar tools with same ; a motor-driven 
Gisholt universal tool grinder, and a motor-driven 52-in. 
vertical boring and turning mill. The company is repre- 
sented by Ellis F. Muther, J. E. Brandt, C. B. Carr, G. E. 
Gernon, S. C. Hanks and Chas. Spaulding. 

Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company, New York, 
has an extensive exhibit of its steam heating apparatus, 
hose couplings, etc. The company is represented by E. B. 
Wilson, E. E. Gold, J. O. Brumbaugh, R. Voges, G. Fred 
Collins, Geo. F. Ivers, W. H. Stocks, John Stayman, H. L. 
Leach, F. A. Purdy and F. T. Kitchen. 

Goldschmidt Thermit Company, New York, show ap- 
pliances for welding trolley rails in paved streets and weld- 
ing broken electric motor cases. The former appliances 
consist of patterns for the mold, mold boxes, mold clamps, 
an automatic crucible and the welding portion of thermit. 
For repairing motor cases, a larger crucible is shown and 


[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 

the process explained in detail. The company also has a 
working exhibit where steel sections are welded in the 
presence of the delegates. 

Greene, Tweed & Company, New York, exhibit a wide 
line of "Palmetto" air pump and throttle packing and the 
"Favorite" reversible ratchet wrench. The company is 
represented by F. E. Ransley, railroad representative. 

Hale & Kilburn Manufacturing Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., has an interesting exhibit of different styles of 
car seating, steel doors and sash fixtures. John Little is in 
charge of the exhibit. 

Hanlon & Wilson, Wilkinsburg, Pa., had an exhibit 
comprising several specimens of the "Vak Klean" vacuum 
cleaning machine. 

Harrington, Edwin, Son & Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
have on hand several styles of their "Peerless" geared hand 
chain hoists. 

Heywood Bros. & Wakefield Company, Wakefield, 
Mass., are exhibiting parlor car chairs and several types 
of car seats. Visitors are cared for by Bertram Berry. 

Howe Rubber Company, Trenton, N. J., offer a full line 
of N-B-O steam packings, automobile tires and a wide va- 
riety of mechanical rubber goods. The company is repre- 
sented by A. R. Foley, H. M. Royal and C. E. Stokes. 

Illinois Malleable Iron Company, Chicago, 111., 
showed various styles of insert and reinforced rod and steel 
back brake shoes. The company was represented by 
Charles L. Sullivan, sales manager of the brake shoe de- 
partment, and E. M. Marshall. 

Independent Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, 111., 
is showing a complete exhibit of its piston air drills and 
reamers, pneumatic flue rolling, tapping and wood boring 
machines, portable pneumatic grinding machines, pneu- 
matic chipping, calking, beading and riveting hammers, 
pneumatic wood saws, hose, couplings and other air appli- 
ances. The representatives are James B. Brady, W. O. 
Jacquette, J. D. Hurley and R. S. Cooper. 

Jenkins Brothers, New York, are showing a line of 
valves and packings. The representatives are A. C. Lang- 
ston. Mr. and Mrs. Williams, Frank Martin and Charles 

Johns-Manville, H. W., Company, New York, show a 
wide line, including Noark fuses, asbestos packings, pipe 
insulations, asbestos wood for panel boxes, ebony asbestos 
wood for switchboard details, asbestos wood for cars, J-M 
conduits for steam and the Phoenix roundhouse chimney. 
The representatives are J. E. Meek, J. C. Younglove, S. B. 
Keys, E. C. Sawyer, C. E. Gerhart and Mr. Smallwood. 

Justice, Philip S., & Company, Philadelphia, Pa., are 
showing "Reliance" hydraulic jacks, ball bearing screw 
jacks, justice spike pullers and weldless steel tubing. 

Landis Machine Company, Waynesboro, Pa.„ presents 
one motor-driven bolt and pipe threading machine com- 
bined, with demonstrations of the many operations possible 
on the Landis machine. This company's tools are equipped 
with the Landis die. Aside from the machine proper, the 
company shows a great number of samples of work from 
the machine and illustrates its use. 

Landis Tool Company, Waynesboro, Pa., shows its uni- 
versal motor-driven tool grinder, a No. 3 universal grinder 
in addition to samples of work turned out with these ma- 
chines. The company is represented by J. H. Hollinger. 

Lawrenceville Bronze Company, Pittsburg, Pa., is 
showing locomotive driving box brasses made of its Co- 
rinthian bronze, journal bearings, worm gears and pinions 
made from the company's K. & S. malleable bronze, the 
Robertson . blow-off valve and the McGilvray hydraulic 
valve. The representatives are Edward Kerr, president, 
and C. B. Ault, railroad salesman. 

Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, is showing in operation a 24 in. x 12 ft. patent head 
standard screw cutting engine lathe driven by a 10-hp 
variable-speed motor. There is also shown a 16 in. x 
8 ft. three-step cone, double back gear engine lathe with 
Derrer shaping attachment capable of producing eccentrics, 
triangles, ovals and squares. The company is represented 
by R. G. English. 

Lucas Machine Tool Company, Cleveland, Ohio, ex- 
hibits the Precision boring, drilling and milling machine 
and the Lucas power forcing press. Its representatives are 
Geo. A. Yost and W. L. Cheney. 

Lupton's, D., Sons Company, Philadelphia, Pa., is ex- 
hibiting metal wired glass windows, improved fire doors, 
skylights, louvers and sash operating devices. The com- 
pany is represented by John W. Watkins and Clark P. 

McConway & Torley Company, Pittsburg, Pa., is 
showing different types of couplers manufactured for steam 
railroads and also models of the Janney radial coupler, in- 
tended •especially for interurban service. The latter coupler 
was exhibited at the electric railway convention at Atlantic 
City last fall, and described on page 679 of the Street 
Railway Journal for Oct. 12, 1907. The company is rep- 
resented by S. C. Mason, W. McConway, Jr. ; E. M. Grove, 
G. W. McCandless, H. C. Buhoup and I. H. Milliken. 

Massachusetts Mohair Plush Company, Boston, 
Mass., is showing car seats upholstered in plush and sam- 
ples of plush. It is represented by J. S. Seabury. 

Modoc Soap Company, Philadelphia, Pa., presents its 
car cleaner, renovator and metal polish. The company is 
represented by J. D. Holtzinger and Henry Roever. 

Mummert, Wolf & Dixon Company, Hanover. Pa., ex- 
hibits a plurality die bolt cutter and revolving oil stone 
grinder. The company is represented by E. S. Wolf and 
Clarence Buckey. 

Murray, S. W., Milton, Pa., is showing a full-size work- 
ing model of the Murray boxcar, grain door, telescope car 
stake and the Howard solid forged brake jaw. The com- 
pany is represented by Thomas E. Twist. 

National Acme Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio, is showing a motor-driven multiple spindle automatic 
screw machine. The company is represented by W. S. 
Chase, E. C. Woolgar and J. F. Judd. 

National Analine & Chemical Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa., is showing samples of bridge and car paints. It is rep- 
resented by Chas. R. Day, W. E. Skinner and W. F. Tenney. 

National Lock Washer Company, Newark, N. J., shows 
curtains, curtain fixtures, sash locks, sash balances and 
nut locks. W. C. Dodd, president ; Daniel Hays, F. A. 
Archibald and J. B. Seymour represent the company. 

Norton Company, Worcester, Mass., exhibits a pair of 
car wheels, one ground and the other with a flat spot ; 
ground, turned and filled and rolled piston rods, to show 
the difference in finish ; samples of Alundum grinding 
wheels and oil stones. It is represented by George Mon- 
tague, Mr. Neilsen, C. O. Smith and H. N. Cudworth. 

Pantasote Company, New York, shows samples of pan- 
tasote and agosote, a new fiber board for head-lining, 
panels, etc., employed by Pullman Company and speci- 
fied for 600 new cars of Chicago Railways Company. Pan- 
tasote seat upholstery and curtain material. It is repre- 
sented by John High, Douglas Bonner and Geo. N. Boyd. 

Pittsburg Automatic Vise & Tool Company, Pittsburg, 
Pa., exhibits samples of the Pittsburg high speed vise, one 
of the vises shown being the largest ever built. It is repre- 
sented by G. P. Blackistone. 

Restein, Clement Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has an 
exhibit of steam and hydraulic packing, steam and tank 
hose. It is represented by N. B. Miller and James E. 

Ritter Folding Door Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, ex- 
hibit a model of the Ritter folding door used for shops, 
round houses and freight houses. It is represented by J. M. 
Crowe, W. Moore Wharton and C. P. Porterfield. 

Rubberset Brush Company, Newark, N. J., has on ex- 
hibit a full line of Rubberset brushes especially adapted for 
car painting and varnishing. It is represented by A. L. 

Ryerson, J. T., & Son., Chicago, 111., are exhibiting a 
Ryerson key seating machine, crank pin truing machine, 
valve seat facing machine, boring bar, bevel shear, friction 
saw, Cleveland style C punch, Ryerson flue welding machine 
and furnace, model of Scotch marine boiler with Morrison 
corrugated internal firebox, model of Ryerson flue cleaning 
machine. It is represented by E. T. Hendee and Mr. Per- 

Scully Steel & Iron Company, Chicago, 111., has on 
exhibition its cone-bearing ratchet screw jack. This is a 
journal jack and is used by electric railways as well as 
steam railroads. 

St. Louis Car Company, St. Louis, Mo., is showing car 

June 20, 1908.] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL. 133 

seats, spiral journal bearings, rattan seating. It is repre- 
sented by S. Sissons, R. G. Hutchins and C. B. Hutchins. 

Sellers, William, & Company, Philadelphia, Pa., are 
showing latest improved type of non-lifting injector; No. 1 
grinding and shaping machine; No. 2 tool grinding and 
shaping machine ; 3-in. twist drill grinder for flat and twist 
drills. It is represented by J. D. McClintock and C. T. 

Sprague Electric Company, New York, exhibits samples 
of steel armored hose, steel armored cable and flexible steel 
conduit. It is represented by A. C. Bakewell, H. H. 
Hornsby, W. L. Williams and A. E. Braddell. 

Springfield Machine Tool Company, Springfield, Ohio, 
are showing in operation a No. 3 high power, rapid reduc- 
tion lathe, motor-driven by 7>4-hp Northern Electric Com- 
pany's motor. It is represented by Paul A. Montanus and 
Edward S. Montanus. 

Standard Car Truck Company, Chicago, 111., is exhibit- 
ing a center plate which it is applying to electric railway 
cars and is to be used on 350 cars recently ordered for the 
Chicago Railways Company. Plates and rollers for street 
cars are made from drop forgings. The company also ex- 
hibits a full size lateral motion freight truck and a full size 
lateral motion tender truck with center plates for both. The 
company is represented by J. C. Barber, president ; Lee W. 
Barber, secretary, and E. W. Webb, mechanical engineer. 

Standard Paint Company, New York, has a reception 
booth in the large hall upstairs. 

Standard Steel Works Company, Philadelphia, Pa., has 
a reception booth in space 523 with the Baldwin Locomotive 
W orks. 

Stoever Foundry & Machine Company exhibits a pipe 
threader, motor-driven. It is represented by Ralph Mc- 
Carthy and Edward Euston. 

Symington Company, T. H., Baltimore, Md., is exhibit- 
ing the following appliances adapted for electric railway 
service: Symington journal boxes; Baltimore ball-bearing 
center and side bearings, miscellaneous parts of cars and 
trucks of high-grade malleable iron. The following repre- 
sentatives are in attendance : T. H. Symington, president ; 
J. F. Symington, manager Eastern sales; C. J. Symington, 
assistant manager Eastern sales; D. Symington, assistant 
manager Western sales ; T. C. deRosset, sales agent ; W. W. 
Rosser, sales agent, and A. H. Weston, mechanical engineer. 

Tindel-Morris Company, Eddystone, Pa., is exhibiting 
a No. o Paragon metal saw made by the High Duty Saw & 
Tool Company, of Eddystone, Pa., and a No. 1 saw grinder 
made by the same company. 

Underwood, H. B., & Company, Philadelphia, Pa., are 
showing a pneumatic pipe bending machine, improved cylin- 
der boring bar, new improved crank pin turning and re- 
boring machine, rotary valve seat facing machine and 
double opposed compressed air motor. The company is 
represented by A. D. Pedrick, H. A. Pedrick, M. G. Con- 
don, E. J. Rooksby, D. W. Pedrick, Jr. 

Union Spring & Manufacturing Company, Pittsburg, 
Pa., is exhibiting a general line of coal and elliptic car and 
locomotive springs, the Kensington steel journal box made 
of pressed steel, pressed steel journal box lids and spring- 
plates. It is represented by A. M. McCrea, L. G. Woods. 
C. S. Foller, T. B. Arnold, A. C. Woods, A. Pancoast and 
A. Stucki. 

Van Dorn, W. T., Company, Chicago, 111., shows a one- 
piece pressed steel freight car end. It is represented by 
W. T. Van Dorn. 

Watson-Stillman Company, New York, is exhibiting a 
full line of hydraulic jacks, rail benders, shaft straighten- 
ers, wheel presses and other hydraulic tools. It is repre- 
sented by Ed. A. Johnson and Geo. L. Gillon. 

West Disinfecting Company, New York, is exhibiting 
samples of disinfectants and disinfecting apparatus, liquid 
soap and soap containers. It is represented by E. Taussig. 

Westinghouse Companies, Pittsburg, Pa., have made a 
practice of having elaborate displays of apparatus only in 
alternate years. Last year the associated companies had 
one of the largest exhibits ever made and following the 
rule, this year's display is confined to a large reception 
booth in the upper hall, spaces 540-542. The booth is 
lighted by type "O" lamps made by the Cooper-Hewitt 
Company, of New York, which give a soft beautiful light 
at low consumption of current. A number of 12-in. West- 

inghouse fans running on alternating current at 110 volts 
provide a breeze. The American Brake Company, of St. 
Louis, exhibits in this booth models of its automatic slack 
adjuster and the Westinghouse Automatic Steam & Air 
Coupler Company, also of St. Louis, exhibits a model of its 
automatic connector. A large revolving stand contains an in- 
teresting collection of views of apparatus and installations 
recently made by the Westinghouse Companies, among 
which are a number of electric railway contracts. A full 
collection of literature descriptive of apparatus used in rail- 
way work is on hand at the booth, as are also copies of a 
book of Westinghouse views. The representatives in at- 
tendance are: For the Westinghouse Air Brake Company, 
I. F. Miller, E. A. Craig, Joseph R. Ellicott, E. L. Adrian, 
C. J. Olmstead, F. M. Nellis, W. V. Turner and Arthur 
Johnson. For the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, J. H. Klinck, Chas. Talbot, A. F. Chamberlain 
and R. F. Moon; also E. L. Adrian, president of the Ameri- 
can Brake Company, of St. Louis; N. F. Niederlander, 
president of the Westinghouse Air & Steam Coupler Com- 
pany, of St. Louis, and J. C. McQuisten, manager of the 
Westinghouse Companies' publishing department. 

Wheel Turning Brake Shoe Company, Detroit, Mich., 
is exhibiting samples of abrasive brake shoes for truing up 
wheels while in service. It is represented by J. M. Griffin. 

Willard Storage Battery Company, Cleveland, Ohio, 
is exhibiting Willard storage batteries for all kinds of car 
and train lighting. It is represented by T. A. Willard, 
Robert C. Shall, C. C. Bradford and R. Norberg. 

Wright Wrench Company, Philadelphia, Pa., is show- 
ing a line of monkey wrenches. It is represented by J. F. 
Wright and B. J. Crandby. 

Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, New York, 
is exhibiting electric triplex hoists, station hardware, 
Blount coach door checks, padlocks and coach cabinet 
locks, overhead trolleys, enlarged model of the Yale lock 
operating by a motor. It is represented by W. C. Bigelow, 
F. A. Hall and C. W. Beaver. 

The Cincinnati Car Company has shipped to the Pitts- 
burg & Butler Street Railway Company, Butler, Pa., two 
handsome combination smoking and passenger interurban 
cars for high-speed limited service. Each of the cars 
measures 51 ft. 3 in. in extreme length and 50 ft. 1 in. over 
the vestibules. The length over the body is 40 ft. 7 in. 
and the extreme width 8 ft. The side sills are of %-in. x 
24-in. steel plate, with a 6-in. channel riveted along the bot- 
tom and a 2^2-in. x 2^2-in. angle riveted along the top. 
The top angle, in addition to stiffening the plate, forms an 
excellent support for the cross seats. The 6-in. channel on 
the bottom edge forms a seat for the inside side sill filler. 
The remaining sills are of combination 6-in. I-beam and 
Georgia pine construction. The side windows are of the 
half elliptic double style, the upper portion being glazed 
with green opalescent art glass in a metal frame. The steps 
are of the steam coach type, with treads covered with rub- 
ber matting. The roof is covered with 16-oz. sheet copper 
grounded to the steel frame of the car. The interior finish 
is of Honduras mahogany with two lines of neat inlay 
marquetery in the principal panels. The ceilings are of 
the full empire style painted medium green and handsomely 
decorated. There are 15 Hale & Kilburn No. 99-E re- 
versible cross seats upholstered in green plush in the main 
passenger compartment and 4 seats upholstered in green 
leather in the smoking compartment. In addition there are 
four stationary corner seats in the main passenger compart- 
ment and four in the smoking compartment. All windows 
are furnished with four-bar hinged outside window guards. 
The upper deck lamps are concealed in large Holophane 
globes set in bronze frames, while the lamps on the sides 
are set in ornamental bronze sockets. The cars are equipped 
with Nichols-Lintern air sanders, Ohmer fare' registers. 
Dayton Manufacturing Company's tail lamps, Knutson trol- 
ley retrievers, Peter Smith hot water heater, Peacock hand 
brakes, Westinghouse air brakes, Dayton Manufacturing 
Company's No. 67 individual type bronze parcel racks and 
sockets to receive buffet lunch tables. They are mounted on 
the Standard Motor Truck Company's C-60-A high-speed 
interurban trucks, and are fitted with four 75-hp Westing- 
house motors for a.c.-d.c. operation geared for 60 m.p.h. 


News of Electric Railways 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company Seeks Permission 
to Make $5,000,000 Loan 

The Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, of Philadel- 
phia, applied to City Councils on June 12 for permission to 
make a loan of $5,000,000, not more than half of which is 
to be issued at present, and the remainder only as the com- 
pany may need it. The request was communicated in a 
letter sent to the upper and lower chambers, and a draft 
of the proposed ordinance covering the plan suggested was 
submitted. The ordinance has been referred to the finance 
committee of the Councils. The letter to Councils was 
signed by John B. Parsons, president of the company, and 
is as follows: 

"Under the provisions of the contract of July 1, 1907, 
the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company has bound itself 
not to part with or pledge any of its franchises or property 
or in any way incur any further fixed charges without the 
consent of City Councils. 

"In accordance with other provisions in the said contract 
the company has called for the last instalments of its capi- 
tal stock, and the last payments will be made in September 
of this year. This money, as you know, has been used to a 
great extent in building the subway and elevated road, and 
we are glad to announce that this road has now been prac- 
tically completed by the contractors, and that the tracks, 
third-rail and signal systems will be installed in time to 
give the public the benefit of this great improvement early 
in August. 

"The payments for this work will practically exhaust the 
capital of the company. 

"At the same time, other additions, improvements and 
betterments to the property are required for the con- 
venience of the public and the advantage of the company. 
Among these we may specify the relaying with heavier rail, 
in order to take care of heavier equipment now in use, of a 
number of lines of the company — Fifth and Sixth Streets, 
Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth, Ridge Avenue, 
etc. — the providing of additional equipment for use on the 
elevated road, the changing of present equipment into the 
'pay-as-you-enter' car, which has proved a success in other 
cities, and the purchasing of additional equipment of this 

"Other matters will also doubtless arise requiring addi- 
tional money. In fact, every growing system needs new 
capital, and it is the part of good management to finance 
well into the future. 

"For these reasons we ask your assent to the pledging 
of such franchises, leaseholds, assets and securities as may 
be required to secure a loan not to exceed $5,000,000, not 
more than half of this amount to be issued at present and 
the remainder only as the company shall from time to time 
require it. We believe that the raising of this money and 
its judicious expenditure will result in substantial benefit 
to the traveling public, and we therefore ask your favorable 
consideration of this proposition. A draft of a proposed 
ordinance is inclosed for your consideration." 

The Situation in Cleveland 

A car of the Municipal Traction Company was wrecked 
by a dynamite explosion on Euclid Heights on June 10 and 
several persons were slightly injured. 

A. B. DuPont, president of the Municipal Traction Com- 
pany, gave orders Wednesday, June 10, that conductors are 
not to make change for bills of a denomination larger than 
$2. When larger bills are offered the conductors are to re- 
tain them and instruct the passenger to go to the office of 
the company for change. Mr. DuPont gives as a reason 
for this order an organized effort on the part of the public 
to bother the conductors in their work by handing them 
large bills, with instructions to take one fare. 

The Municipal Traction Company has decided to put 
$500,000 of the stock of the Cleveland Railway Company on 
the market at once. President DuPont says that this action 
is taken at this time to test public sentiment. The stock 
will be sold through the private stock department. 

President DuPont, of the Municipal Traction Company, 
says that the company has no further concessions to 
make to the men on strike. The men are working quiet- 
ly on the referendum idea, but Mayor Johnson says that 
not enough names of qualified voters will be found on the 
petition to warrant an election. The American Federation 
of Street Car Men of Cleveland has been incorporated by 
the present employees of the Municipal Traction Company. 

Affairs in New York 

The Public Service Commission announced on June 9 that 
within a month contractors will begin the work of widen- 
ing the subway between Ninety-sixth and 105th Streets, in 
order to eliminate the cross-over of the Lenox Avenue and 
Broadway divisions. This improvement was described in the 
Street Railway Journal for Feb. 29, 1908. It will do away 
with the congestion of trains which now occurs in the proc- 
ess of switching to one line or the other, with the conse- 
quent overcrowding of the station and serious delays in 
traffic, and will increase the capacity of the subway fully 

At the instigation of Comptroller Metz, of New York, a 
property owner has obtained an injunction preventing the 
board of estimate from appropriating money to begin work 
on the Fourth Avenue (Brooklyn) Subway. 

The Hudson & Manhattan Railroad has extended its line 
under the Hudson River from Fourteenth Street, New York, 
to Twenty-third Street, New York. It is expected that 
within a few months the line will be in operation to the 
terminal of the company at Thirty-third Street and Sixth 

Significance of the Berkshire Consolidation 

A bill providing for building four new lines in Berkshire 
County, Massachusetts, a connection between the Spring- 
field Street Railway and the Berkshire Street Railway, and 
a line to the top of Mt. Greylock has been introduced in the 
Massachusetts Senate. The bill permits practically a con- 
solidation of the Berkshire Street Railway and the Benning- 
ton & North Adams Street Railway, on condition that the 
Berkshire Company spend about $2,000,000 on the new lines 
and that the extensions be built within two years in a man- 
ner satisfactory to the railroad commissioners. These new 
lines will supply Berkshire County with desired outlets and 
will bring it into communication by trolley with Springfield. 
Control of the Berkshire Street Railway was sold to the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad in 1905. The 
latter soon afterward bought control of the Hoosac Valley 
Railway, and consolidated the two under the name of the 
Berkshire Street Railway. Since the beginning of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad control there has 
been spent on the railway $275,000 for improvements in 
Massachusetts and $612,000 for the extension to Bennington. 
The projected line to the top of Mt. Greylock is estimated 
to cost $450,000, and it will bring the people of Adams, Pitts- 
field and North Adams within reach of the State reserva- 
tion on the mountain. The southerly extension from Great 
Barrington will cost about $635,000 and will give the people 
of Egremont trolley connection with all other parts of 
Berkshire County, the people of Sheffield similar facilities, 
and will also furnish a trolley connection with the north- 
easterly section of Connecticut. The most important of the 
extensions planned is the 19 miles between Lee on the 
Berkshire Street Railway and Huntington, the present ter- 
minus of the Springfield Street Railway. This will cost 
about $915,000, and will give trolley connection between all 
the towns of the Berkshire Valley and the Connecticut 

As a result of an order by the Massachusetts Senate on 
June 13 the Railroad Commission will consider the expe- 
diency of permitting the Berkshire Street Railway Company 
to purchase the franchise and property of the Bennington & 
North Adams Street Railway, and what relations if any 
should be permitted between the railroad corporations and 
street railway companies, with a view to the improvement 
and development of transportation facilities by the use of 
electricity. The board's recommendations are to be sub- 
mitted in its next annual report to the Legislature. By this 
order the merger problem recently so thoroughly discussed 
in Massachusetts is brought before the Commission for an 
expression of opinion. 

General Electric Company's Engineering Convention 

For nine days ending June 9 the engineers of the General 
Electric Company were gathered together at their annual 
meeting for discussing the past year's development in the 
art and considering plans for the future. Engineers from 
the local offices of the General Electric Company through- 
out the country and Mexico were in attendance as well as 
representatives of all branches of the engineering depart- 

June 20, 1908.] 



ments of the company. Every phase of the company's en- 
gineering work was considered in detail. The engineers of 
the various departments presented interesting papers on a 
great variety of important subjects and profitable discus- 
sions followed. 

The meeting was opened at the principal works at Sche- 
nectady, N. Y., by E. W. Rice, Jr., vice-president. After 
spending five days at Schenectady the meeting was ad- 
journed to Pittsfield, where C. C. Chesney, manager of the 
Pittsfield Works, opened the meeting and introduced the 
engineers at the factory. The meeting was continued at 
Lynn, where the engineers were welcomed by W. C. Fish, 
manager of the Lynn Works. The company's incandescent 
lamp works are located at Harrison, N. J., and when the 
convention assembled at this place G. F. Morrison, man- 
ager, outlined the remarkable development in incandescent 
lamp engineering during the last year. 

Among the engineers from the field present at this meet- 
ing were: J. Lyman, Chicago; J. L. Monges, San Fran- 
cisco; W. F. Wright, Denver; H. H. Barnes, New York; 
C. T. Mosman, Boston; W. S. Culver, Cincinnati; L. F. 
Deming, Philadelphia; H. E. Bussey, Atlanta; W. H. Hand, 
St. Louis; C. A. Chase, Mexico. 

Legislation Affecting Electric Railways 

Massachusetts. — The railroad regulation bill was killed in 
the Massachusetts House June 11 by an overwhelming vote. 
The members who advocated the amendments which were 
adopted to compel the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad to sell its holdings of stock of the Boston & 
Maine Railroad before July 1, 1910, voted against the bill. 
The defeat of the bill is said to mean that there will be no 
railroad legislation this year affecting in any way the own- 
ership by the New Haven road of the 109,497 shares of 
Boston & Maine Railroad stock, and the matter of the 
unification of the two systems can be consummated so far 
as Massachusetts is concerned, unless action is taken in 
the courts to prevent it. 

Conductors Charged with Ticket Frauds at Newark, 

Ohio. — William Melton, Oren Robinson and Walter Holler 
were arrested a few days ago on the charge of selling can- 
celed tickets and failing to cancel tickets on the lines of 
the Ohio Electric Railway Company at Newark, Ohio, on 
which they were employed as conductors. The men gave 
bond in the sum of $300 each and were released pending 
their trial. 

Court Acts Against Strikers at Chester, Pa. — Residents of 
Chester, Pa., disgusted with the attitude of former em- 
ployees of the Chester Traction Company, have invoked 
the aid of the courts against the boycott under which they 
have been suffering. Judge Broomall has said that there 
must be no discrimination between union and non-union 
men. No more goods are to be refused to people who 
ride on the cars by merchants who were threatened by the 
strikers. The board of trade hopes that this action will 
put an end to the boycott. 

Gasoline Line to Be Converted to Electricity. — The Mis- 
souri & Kansas Interurban Railway, operating between 
Kansas City, Mo., and Olathe, Kan., has under considera- 
tion a plan to change the motive power of the line from 
gasoline to electricity. The business of the company has 
increased rapidly since the opening of the line, and this is 
the principal reason for the contemplated change. It is said 
that the company will secure an entrance to Kansas City 
over the tracks of the Metropolitan Street Railway. No 
official information about the details of the reported change 
is available for publication at this time. The road is 22 
miles long and at present is operating seven Strang gaso- 
line-electric motor cars. 

Conditions of San Francisco Grant Result in Return to 
Horse Cars. — Horse cars have been put in service again in 
San Francisco, the first time they have been used since the 
fire of April, 1906. This action follows the refusal of the 
Board of Supervisors to grant a permit to the Sutter Street 
Railroad to operate electric cars over the outer tracks on 
lower Market Street. The company has a franchise to 
operate horse cars over the outer tracks on the street, but 
shortly after the fire a temporary permit was given to use 
electricity. From time to time that permit was renewed, 
but the permit expired June 1 and the Supervisors have re- 
fused to renew it except on condition that the company pay 
$1,000 a month rental for the use of the line and in addi- 
tion agree that a municipally owned road or a road yet to 
be built shall have the right to run over the same 

Financial and Corporate 

Stock and Money Markets 

New York, June 17, 1908. 

The real trouble with Wall Street at present is that the 
market has few outside participants. What Wall Street 
needs is a larger investing public. The low records that 
have been made in the volume of transactions within the 
past week reflect the fact that outsiders are not investing 
in large amounts. Otherwise Wall Street conditions are 
ideal; money is cheaper than it has been for many months, 
crop news is of the most encouraging character, there is no 
serious drain of gold to Europe, steel prices have been re- 
duced to offer encouragement to manufacturers, there are 
no violent price fluctuations to alarm the timid and many 
regular dividend paying securities offer handsome returns 
for permanent investors. The disturbing elements of presi- 
dential conventions and attendant political unrest should 
have been discounted. 

That the present dullness cannot last is the calm assur- 
ance of the houses of the Street. That plenty of money is 
held in the country ready for investment the over-subscrip- 
tion of recent bond issues indicates. Time and conserva- 
tive policies will eventually restore full confidence. 

The general trend of the market for the week was toward 
lower levels, although the declines were not extreme in 
many instances or marked by sudden violence. Prices did 
not "break," but simply sagged because buyers were scarce. 
As a rule the industrial stocks showed less weakness than 
railroad stocks, due, doubtless, to the fact that the figures 
of earnings of leading railroads showed further decreases. 
The copper shares and steel shares were steady and, while 
the listed traction stocks recorded declines, they were in no 
case of serious extent. On June 16 much more activity was 
displayed and advances were noted throughout almost the 
entire list. There was also encouragement in the fact that 
the volume of transactions was double that on many of the 
days during the previous week and the sentiment of the 
Street was altogether more hopeful. 

Money is easier at all financial centers in Europe and in 
New York can be had on call at i]A\ and 1^2 per cent, while 
90-day funds are quoted at 2*4 and 2% per cent. 

Other Markets 

Trading in traction securities in Philadelphia was not 
heavy, although prices were well sustained and Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit was fractionally advanced over last week, 
closing on June 16 at No financial statement of the 

company was made at the meeting of the directors on June 
15, although it is understood that the company has made 
arrangements to pay the interest due on July 1 and has been 
assured a market for whatever bonds it desires to sell. 

In Boston there was little trading during the week in 
traction stocks and transactions that took place were made 
at only fractional variations from previous prices. Boston 
Elevated Railway stock was a trifle lower than at the close 
.of the preceding week. 

In Chicago the market was somewhat stronger with more 
trading. Chicago City Railway bonds were firmer with 
vome demand. 

There were but few transactions in street railway securi- 
ties on the Baltimore market. United Railways was quoted 
nominally at IO^j, with the income bonds selling at 51 J/2. 

Quotations for various traction securities as compared 
with last week follow: 

June 9. June 1 6. 

American Railways Company, Philadelphia *44 l A 44V2 

Boston Elevated Railway ai34 ai3i 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 48M 47% 

Chicago City Railway — - ai<jo 

Cleveland Electric Railway 50 52 

Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey 71 a~i 

Consolidated Traction Company of New Jersey, 5 per cent 

bonds ioj ! 4 3103 

Detroit United Railway 37 37 

Inlerborough-Metropolitan Company JoM 

Interborough-Metropolitan Company (preferred) 32 29 

Manhattan Railway 135 135 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (common) io l A 9 l A 

Massachusetts Electric Companies (preferred) '49 46 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chicago 

(common) — ai7^2 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chicago 

(preferred) — aso 

Metropolitan Street Railway — a3o 

North American Company 60 a6i 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (common) 39 a39 

Philadelphia Company, Pittsburg (preferred) 41 '4 41 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company I2J4 ai3'/2 

Philadelphia Traction Company "87 88 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent collateral notes.'... ag6A a.g& 

Public Service Corporation, certificates a69 a69 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis (common) 91 1 / 2 *goA 
Union Traction Company, Philadelphia t47 3 A 246$/$ 

a Asked. 
* Last sale, 
f Ex. dividend. 



[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 

Valuation to Be Made of Street Railways in New York 

The X ew York Public Service Commission, First District, 
has adopted a resolution providing for valuation of the 
property of the street railway companies in Manhattan. 
The passage of the resolution followed the admission by 
the receivers of the New York City Railway of the neces- 
sity for further abolition of transfers and of the inability 
to comply with certain orders of the commission for in- 
creased service if obligations for rentals on leased lines arc 
to be met. The resolution was as follows: 

"Whereas, The receivers of the New York City Railway 
have stated to the commission that it is impossible for them 
to provide adequate service upon the street-car lines in 
Manhattan because there would not be sufficient funds to 
pay the rentals of many leased lines if the service were made 
adequate; and 

"Whereas, The investigation made into the books of this 
company and its subsidiary companies last fall indicated in 
certain instances that the companies were greatly over- 
capitalized and that the rentals being paid were out of 
proportion to the value of the lines; and 

"Whereas, Thousands of citizens of New York will be 
seriously inconvenienced by the abolition of transfers by 
the receivers; and 

"Whereas, It has been asserted that if a fair rental were 
paid to the subsidiary companies based upon a fair value 
of their property, the company could give adequate service 
and retain a satisfactory system of transfers; and 

"Whereas, These questions raised by the action of the 
receivers cannot be definitely answered without a knowl- 
edge of the value of the property of each line as one- 
factor; therefore be it 

"Resolved, That the commission proceed to inventory 
and appraise the property, tangible and intangible, of the 
street railway companies in the borough of Manhattan, and 
that the chairman have general direction of the work." 

William R. Willcox, chairman of the commission, supple- 
mented the resolution by a statement in which he said: 

"The letters sent by the receivers to the commission seem 
to indicate that the first object of the receivers is to pay 
rentals of leased lines and other fixed charges. This idea 
is a mistaken one. The obligation resting upon those en- 
joying public franchises is primarily to give an adequate 
service, and it is to be regretted that the importance of 
serving the public is not considered at least equal with that 
of serving the stockholders. The commission has made 
orders, under the terms of the law, that adequate service 
shall be furnished under the four orders issued and to which 
reference has been made. No objection has been made by 
the receivers to the definition of adequate service which 
the commission has adopted and the only excuse that has 
been offered is that the fixed charges will not permit the 
expenditure to give an adequate service to the people and 
an implication is made that if adequate service is insisted 
upon the system will be disintegrated and transfers from 
one line to another therefore refused. 

"Section 49 of the Public Service Commissions law em- 
powers this commission to regulate rates of fares between 
companies and to provide for continuous rides by transfers 
between two or more lines. Manifestly it cannot fix rates 
of fare or take action compelling the issuance of transfers 
or arrange for a joint rate until it knows the value of the 
company's property. In order to ascertain this value we 
have by resolution directed an appraisement of all the prop- 
erty, tangible and intangible, of the surface lines in Man- 
hattan and the Bronx, and that appraisement will be made 
under the direction of the best experts in the country. 

"So far as the orders are concerned the receivers have it 
in their power to ask for a rehearing under the law and if 
such request is made a rehearing will be cheerfully ordered. 
Otherwise the directions of the commission for adequacy 
will be insisted upon, for it is time to have it thoroughly 
settled whether a mismanaged local public service corpora- 
tion can escape the obligations placed upon it by the law 
of the State when it throws itself into the hands of receiv- 
ers appointed by any court. If such action on the part of 
such corporation relieves it from the operation of the laws 
of the State and thus constitutes immunity so far as 
the operation of the statutes is concerned the sooner it is 
known the better." 

No announcement was made of the identity of the engi- 
neers who will value the properties. 

Oren Root, general manager for the receivers, issued a 
statement in which he said: 

"The action of the Public Service Commission in voting 
to inquire into the value of the street railway properties in 
the borough of Manhattan before issuing any further orders 
for increase of service commends itself to the judgment of 
the receivers. The receivers have no interest in the prop- 
erty other than its operation for the benefit of the public 
and for the creditors; they are officers of the United States 

Circuit Court; they took the property as they found it and 
are operating it in accordance with the instructions of the 

"The receivers are not 'defiant' of any State law, order or 
regulation; nor do they assume that as appointees of a fed- 
eral court they are 'immune' from the operation of laws 
enacted by the people of this State. 

"If the commission exercises this power contrary to the 
judgment of those in charge of the properties the commis- 
sion must stand responsible for the conditions which it will 
thereby create, and surely those in charge of the properties 
should not sit silent when it is their honest judgment that 
the carrying out of some particular orders will result dis- 
astrously to the property or the public. 

"From what has been said recently in the public press 
one might infer that the receivers are keenly solicitous to 
save exorbitant rentals for lessor companies. Nothing can 
be further from the truth. The receivers were instructed to 
preserve the property as a unitary system with all its de- 
tails of connection and transfer, but subordinate always to 
the controlling element. A default under a lease means the 
return of property to the lessor, but the receivers have not 
hesitated to take that course when the cost of operating 
with improved service made the continuance of such pay- 
ments a losing proposition. We have up to the present 
time defaulted on the following fixed charges: 

Metropolitan Street Railway: 

General collateral trust mortgage.. $12,500,000(3) 5 per cent. $625,000 

Four per cent refunding mortgage. . 16,604,000 @ 4 percent. 664,160 

Dividend rental on capital stock.... 52,000,000 @ 7 per cent. 3,640,000 

Third Avenue Railroad: 

F'irst mortgage $5,000,000 @ 5 per cent. $250,000 

First consolidated mortgage 37,560,000 @ 4 per cent. 1,502,400 

Dividend rental on capital stock... 15,995,800 @ 6 per cent. 959,748 

Central Crosstown Railroad: 

Dividend rental on capital stock... $600,000 @ 15 per cent. $90,000 

Fulton Street Railroad: 

First mortgage $500,000 (3 4 per cent. $20,000 

Totals $140,759,800 $7,751,308 

In addition to the above, rentals in relation to which the 

receivers have asked the court for instructions are as 


Totals from fixed charges $140,759,800 $7,751,308 

Central Park, North & East River 
Railroad : 

Dividend rental on capital stock.... $1,800,000 (ft 9 per cent. $162,000 
Twenty - eighth & Twenty • ninth 
Street Crosstown Railroad: 
First mortgage $1,500,000 (ft 5 per cent. $75,000 

Totals $3,300,000 $237,000 

Grand totals $144,059,800 $7,988,308 

"There remain no more fixed charges which can be elim- 
inated without cutting off the interest on the securities of 
the underlying companies. If the interest on such securi- 
ties is not paid those companies so affected will also imme- 
diately become divorced from the system. We have already 
under consideration the necessity of defaulting under the 
leases of the Central Park, North & East River Railroad 
Company and the Twenty-eighth & Twenty-ninth Street 
Crosstown Railroad." 

The receivers of the Metropolitan Street Railway on June 
10 asked permission from Judge Lacombe to discontinue the 
operation of the Twenty-eighth & Twenty-ninth Streets 
Crosstown Railroad and the payment of the rental to the 
Central Park North & East River Railroad of 9 per cent 
on its $1,800,000 stock. The receivers ceased operating the 
Fulton Street Railroad last week. 

Manhattan Railway Bond Issue Approved 

The Public Service Commission of the First District of 
New York has granted the Manhattan Railway Company 
permission to issue . $10,818,000 of refunding bonds and 
$894,000 of other bonds. The $10,818,000 of bonds will be 
issued to take up by exchange or otherwise a similar 
amount of 6 per cent bonds, due on July 1, under the first 
mortgage of the Manhattan Railway, made on July 10, 
1878. The other bonds are for the discharge of obligations, 
amounting to $894,000, for extensions already constructed. 

In his report Chairman Willcox said there seemed to be 
no valid objection to the issue of the $10,818,000 of 4 per 
cent refunding bonds. He inclined to the opinion that 
the commission might lawfully consent to the smaller bond 
issue for refunding purposes. He agreed with the officials 
of the company that there was little likelihood that it would 
realize par from the sale or exchange of $10,818,000 of 
bonds bearing 4 per cent interest, especially in view of the 
present condition of the money market. As the Manhattan 
Railway was leased by the Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company, it was no longer an operating company, he said, 
or in a position to utilize its earnings from operation in 
making up any discount on bonds or to create a floating 
debt to cover the same. He, therefore, believed discount 
on bonds should be carried to operating expenses. In view 

June 20, 1908.] 



of the peculiar circumstances, however, he advised that the 
additional issue ought to be allowed, but only to the 
amount actually needed to make up such discount. He 
said that the bonds should be sold publicly, and subject to 
the commission's audit. 

Report of Bondholders' Committee of Third Avenue 

Earnings of the Third Avenue Railroad of New York 
in the year ended June 30, 1907, according to a statement 
compiled for holders of the first consolidated mortgage 4 
per cent bonds, were not within $700,000 of the amount re- 
quired to pay the interest on the first consolidated mort- 
gage bonds. The circular is signed by James N. Wallace, 
president of the Central Trust Company, New York, and 
chairman of the committee, and his associate members. 
The examination of the Third Avenue Railroad and com- 
panies the stock of which, in whole or in part, is covered 
by the first consolidated 4 per cent mortgage of the Third 
Avenue road, made by Marwick, Mitchell & Company, has 
been completed. The accountants make the following re- 
port for the year ended June 30, 1007: 

Gross earnings $6,261,162 

Operating expenses 4,399,898 

Net earnings from operation 1,861,264 

Income from other sources 254,231 

Total income $2,115,495 

Taxes (exclusive of special franchise tax) 296.768 

4 • 

Net income $1,818,727 

Interest on Third Avenue Railroad first mortgage bonds . $250,000 
Interest on funded debt of companies ranking ahead of 
Third Avenue Railroad Company consolidated mort- 
gage bonds 377,000 

Estimated Jiet interest payable on floating indebtedness 
of companies to others than Third Avenue Railroad 
Company? 158,134 785,134 

Balance ofiincome (before making provision for special 

f ranchisejtax and depreciation) $1,033,593 

No provision is made in the above report for the special 
franchise tax, which is now in course of litigation, or for 

Mr. Wallace announces that the reorganization and pro- 
tective committee, which represents $34,000,000 of the 
bonds, proposes to await the results for a reasonable length 
of time of independent management of the system by the 
receiver as a basis for formulating a proper plan of read- 

Ashland Light, Power & Street Railway Company, Ash- 
land, Wis. — Stockholders of this company have voted to 
issue $450,000 in bonds for improvements. 

Chicago (111.) Consolidated Traction Co. — In view of the 
default in payment of interest due June 1 on the general 
mortgage 4^/2 per cent bonds and at the request of owners 
of a large amount of the bonds. J. M. Wallace, Hugh J. 
Grant, Henry A. Blair. Chauncey Keep and Charles G. 
Dawes have consented to act as a committee for the pro- 
tection of the interests of the bondholders who shall be- 
come parties to an agreement dated May 20 last and lodged 
with the Central Trust Company as depositary. All bonds 
must be deposited in negotiable form. F. L. Babcock. of 
New York, is secretary of the committee and Joline, Larkin 
& Rathbone and L. C. Krauthoff counsel. 

Electric Properties Company, New York. — The Electric 
Properties Company reports as follows for the fiscal year 
ended April 30, 1908: Interest, dividends, etc., $280,671; ex- 
penses, $85,630; balance, $195,041; dividends preferred stock. 
$179,344; balance, $15,697; directors' fees, $1,570; surplus, 
$14,127; previous surplus, $35,447; total surplus. $49,574. The 
balance sheet as of April 30, 1908, shows: Subsidiary com- 
pany — Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Company, capital 
stock, $7,000,000; investments, $1,299,204; total current as- 
sets, $881,084; profit and loss (surplus). $49,573; at the an- 
nual meeting of the stockholders the retiring directors were 
re-elected and Horace E. Smith was elected to fill a vacancy 
in the board. The directors organized by re-electing John 
F. Wallace, president, and the following executive commit- 
tee: Charles A. Allen, N. W. Halsey, Paul D. Cravath, F. D. 
Underwood, R. B. Van Cortlandt and John F. Wallace. 

Harris Trust & Savings Bank, of Chicago. — N. W. 

Harris & Company, of New York, and the National City 
Bank, of New York, announce that they have purchased 
from the Chicago Railways Company $3,000,000 additional 
first mortgage 5 per cent bonds, the proceeds from which 
will go toward the work of rehabilitation. Although the 
company has not expended all the proceeds of the $5,000,- 
000 bonds sold in February, this sale of an additional $3,000,- 
000 was made in order to take advantage of the lower 
prices of materials. 

Hickory (N. C.) Railway & Power Company. — This com- 
pany has reorganized and changed its name to the Hickory 
Railway Company. W. A. Thornton is president and C. 
M. Hardin is secretary. 

Hudson & Manhattan Terminal Company, New York, 

N. Y. — The Hudson & Manhattan Terminal Company ib 
said to have disposed of about $3,000,000 of 6 per cent bonds. 
Jt is stated that some of the $15,000,000 of 5 per cent bonds 
offered a few months ago are still in the company's treasury, 
but the officials are said to be of the opinion that present 
conditions of the investment market justified a 6 per cent 

Indianapolis (Ind.) Traction & Terminal Company.— At 

the annual meeting of stockholders on June 9 directors were 
re-elected as follows: Hugh J. McGowan, Hiram P. Was- 
son, Robert I. Todd and John J. Appel, of Indianapolis, and 
W. K. Schoepf, of Cincinnati. The report of the company 
showed gross earnings for 1907 of $2,680,506. The net earn- 
ings for the same period were $315,560. 

Louisville (Ky.) Railway. — It is reported that the direc- 
tors of the Louisville Railway have under consideration the 
purchase of control of the Louisville & Eastern Railroad, 
which is in operation to La Grange and has tracks laid to 
Shelbyville. The latter company owns a right of way to 
Frankfort and Newcastle. 

Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company, Milwaukee, 
Wis. — Permission has been granted by the Wisconsin Rail- 
road Commission to the Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction 
Company to issue $2,500,000 refunding and extension mort- 
gage 5 per cent gold bonds. This is the formal permission 
for carrying out the plan announced some time ago for 
financing extensions and improvements of the system as 

Missouri & Kansas Interurban Railway, Kansas City, Mo. 

— J. A. Edson has been appointed receiver for the Missouri 
& Kansas Interurban Railway. The application was not 
opposed, and the appointment of a receiver is understood 
to be preparatory to a reorganization and readjustment 
which will provide for a change of motive power from 
gasoline to electricity. 

Montreal (Que.) Street Railway.— The directors of the 
company voted on June 10 to offer to shareholders of rec- 
ord June 30 the right to subscribe at $125 per share (par 
$100) for $1,000,000 new stock to the extent of one share 
for every nine shares of their holdings. Subscriptions are 
payable in monthly installments, beginning Aug. 1. 

Nashville (Tenn.) Railway & Light Company.— This com- 
pany, it is stated, will sell about $2,000,000 of bonds for 
debt funding purposes. 

Rutland Railway & Light Company, Ruthland, Vt.— Earn- 
ings for the year ended May 31, 1908, are as follows: Gross 
receipts, $254,555; operating expenses, $142,015; net earnings, 
$112,540; interest, $75,ooo; surplus, $37,540. The comparative 
statement of earnings and expenses of the company for the 
12 months ended May 31. 1906, 1907, 1908, is as follows: 


Earnings. Expenses. Net 

'9°6 $94,899 $55,699 $39,200 

'9°7 105,806 55,735 50i07I 

'9°8 106,618 59 , I7 8 47,440 


Earnings. Expenses. Net 

; 9° 6 $28,916 $20,275 $8,641 

'907 33,025 22,628 10,337 

'90S 34.88o 22,230 12,650 

Water Power and Electric Light. 

Earnings. Expenses. Net 

1906 $60,278 $40,707 $19,571 

'9°7 88,756 53,9,7 34 , 8 , g 

'908 113,056 60,605 52,451 


Earnings. Expenses. Net 

'906 $184,093 $116,681 $67,41' 

! 9°7 227,589 132,291 95.29S 

'908 254,555 142,014 112,541 

Oneonta & Mohawk Valley Railroad, Oneonta, N. Y. — 

Justice George F. Lyon has appointed J. Choate, chief engi- 
neer and general manager of the Oneonta & Mohawk Valley 
Railroad, receiver of the property. This road extends from 
Oneonta to Mohawk, by way of Cooperstown- and Rich- 
field Springs. It has been in litigation for five years, and 
two years ago was sold under foreclosure for $960,000 to 
the present reorganized company. About $1,500,000 has 
been spent on the property, including $300,000 on the large 
dam across the Susquehanna at Colliers, recently completed. 
The Rochester Trust & Safe Deposit Company recently ob- 

1 3 8 


[Vol. XXXII. No. 3. 

tained a judgment of $300,000 against the company, under 
which the property is advertised for sale on July 27. Justice 
Lyon hopes to be able to preserve the property for the bene- 
fit of the creditors. 

Seattle, Renton & Southern Railway, Seattle, Wash. — Pea- 
body, Houghteling & Company, Chicago, offer $600,000 first- 
mortgage 5 per cent serial bonds dated May 1, 1908, and due 
in annual installments on May 1 from 1913 to 1924, as fol- 
lows: 1913, $30,000; 1914, $40,000; 1915 to 1917, $50,000 
yearly; 1918 to 1923, $60,000 yearly; 1924, $20,000; but re- 
deemable in the reverse of their numerical order on May 1, 
1913, or on interest dates thereafter, at 105 and interest. 

South Side Elevated Railroad, Chicago. — This company 
has passed the quarterly dividend on its capital stock of 
$10,323,800. Three per cent dividends were paid from 1899 
to June, 1901, when the rate was raised to 4 per cent. Last 
March the quarterly dividend was cut to % of 1 per cent. 
The earnings for the last quarter are said to have been 
at the rate of only about 2 l / 2 per cent per annum. An offi- 
cial circular to stockholders says: "In the circular to stock- 
holders, issued May 22, 1908, we expressed the hope that 
the effects of the depression in general business would soon 
disappear. In that hope we have been disappointed. There- 
fore, in order to carry out the purpose in any event to keep 
your property out of floating indebtedness, your directors 
have resolved to postpone the declaration of a dividend. 
The maintenance of your property in first-class condition in 
every respect remains a first consideration. While this 
action is a great disappointment to us, our confidence in the 
future of the property is undiminished." 

Southern Traction Company, Belleville, 111. — This com- 
pany has filed notice of increase of its capital stock from 
$2,500 to $1,500,000. The company is building an electric 
railway from East St. Louis to Belleville and proposes to 
extend the Belleville line to Cairo, 111. The project is 
being financed by English capital. H. D. Mephan, of St. 
Louis, is the promoter, and construction work is under 

Tampa (Fla.) Electric Company. — Stone & Webster, of 
Boston, general managers of the Tampa Electric Company, 
recommend for investment $600,000 of Tampa Electric Com- 
pany first mortgage 5 per cent sinking fund bonds, due June 
1, 1933. at 93J4 and interest, yielding 5^2 per cent. The 
company is earning more than four and one-half times 
the bond interest charges. The market value of the stock 
is nearly three times the face value of the issue of bonds. 
Gross earnings since 1900 have increased from $152,123 to 
$521,181 and net earnings have increased from $61,410 to 

Toledo (Ohio) Railways & Light Company. — A me- 
chanic's lien for $37,052 has been filed against the prop- 
erty of the Toledo Railways & Light Company by the John 
A. Roebling Company for material furnished. The claim, 
the company states, is evidenced in part by three notes, 
one for $10,000, due Feb. 10, 1908; another for $5,000, due 
Feb. 15, and the third for $10,000, due March 25. 

Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Traction Company, 
Findlay, Ohio. — At a joint meeting of stockholders of this 
company and the Toledo Urban & Interurban Railway a 
compromise agreement for the purchase of control of the 
latter company by the Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern 
Traction Company was reached. R. H. Weatherhead, F. C. 
Lawson, R. L. Martin, Charles E. Francis and E. E. Kel- 
logg, named as a committee, recommended the purchase 
and that a new bond issue of $600,000 be created. Of the 
total amount $400,000 is to be paid to bondholders of the 
Toledo Urban & Interurban Railway, and the remaining 
$200,000 will be retained to provide in part for the payment 
of debts. In addition to this $200,000 there are $187,500 
bonds now in the treasury of the Toledo. Bowling Green & 
Southern Traction Company which would be more than suf- 
ficient to liquidate the debts. To make the purchase on this 
basis, the committee stated that it would be necessary for 
every bondholder of the Toledo Urban & Interurban Rail- 
way to agree to the terms. The stockholders of the To